Collaboration with ISILWikipedia open wikipedia design.
Collaboration with ISIL refers to the cooperation and assistance given by governments, non-state actors, and private individuals to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL or ISIS) during the Syrian Civil War, Iraqi Civil War, and Libyan Civil War.
- 1 Allegations of state support
- 2 Foreign nationals
- 3 Groups expressing support for ISIL
- 4 In Islamic State territory
- 5 See also
- 6 References
Allegations of state support
During the ongoing Syrian Civil War, President Bashar al-Assad, the Syrian Government, and the Syrian Alawite community have been accused by many opposition and anti-Assad parties of collusion with ISIL, despite massacres of Alawite civilians and executions of captured Syrian Army soldiers of Alawite descent.
Several Islamist prisoners were released from Syrian prisons at the beginning of the Syrian Civil War in 2011, which many sources have suggested indicated a strategic attempt to strengthen jihadi factions over other rebels, which contributed to forging ISIL.
The Syrian government bought oil directly from ISIL, and the Syrian government and ISIL jointly ran a HESCO gas plant in Tabqah. The facility supplied electricity to government-held areas and government-run power plants supplied ISIL-held areas. A report on 25 June 2015 said that ISIL kept gas flowing to Assad regime-controlled power stations. Furthermore, ISIL allowed grain to pass from the Kurdish-held north-east to government-controlled areas at the cost of a 25% levy.
Several sources have said that the Syrian government has tactically avoided ISIL forces in order to weaken opposition such as the Free Syrian Army (FSA), and according to United States Secretary of State John Kerry the Syrian government purposely ceded territory to ISIL. An IHS Jane's Terrorism and Insurgency Center database analysis showed that only 6% of Syrian government forces attacks were targeted at ISIL from January to November 2014, while in the same period only 13% of all ISIL attacks targeted government forces.
The National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces has stated that the Syrian government has operatives inside ISIL, as has the leadership of Ahrar ash-Sham.
On 1 June 2015, the United States embassy in Syria stated that the Syrian government was "making air-strikes in support" of an ISIL advance on Syrian opposition positions north of Aleppo. The president of the Syrian National Coalition, Khaled Koja, accused Assad of acting "as an air force for [ISIL]", with the Defence Minister of the SNC Salim Idris stating that approximately 180 Syrian government officers were serving in ISIL and coordinating the group's attacks with the Syrian Army.
According to The American Conservative, an April 2017 report by UK security and defense information provider IHS Markit, stated that the Islamic State fought Syrian government forces more than any other opponent between 1 April 2016 and 31 March 2017. According to the report "43 percent of all Islamic State fighting in Syria was directed against President Assad's forces, 17 against the U.S.-backed Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) and the remaining 40 percent involved fighting rival Sunni opposition groups".
The Turkish government has been criticised for allowing ISIL to use Turkish territory for logistics and channelling recruits. It has also been accused of selling arms and intelligence to ISIL, as part of its campaign against the People's Protection Units (YPG). Turkey denies the allegations of assisting ISIL, pointing to multiple terrorist attacks ISIL has committed against civilians in Turkey, as well as multiple military confrontations between ISIL and the Turkish government. The Kurdistan Democratic Party in Iraq similarly deny the claim that Turkey is providing aid to ISIL. According to an intelligence adviser quoted by Seymour Hersh, a "highly classified assessment" carried out by the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) and the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 2013 concluded that Turkey had effectively transformed the secret U.S. arms program in support of moderate rebels, who no longer existed, into an indiscriminate program to provide technical and logistical support for al-Nusra Front and ISIL.
Although Saudi Arabia's government rejected the claims, former Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki accused Saudi Arabia of funding ISIL. Some media outlets, such as NBC, the BBC and The New York Times, and the US-based think tank Washington Institute for Near East Policy have written about individual Saudi donations to the group and the Saudi state's decade-long sponsorship of Wahhabism around the world, but have concluded that there is no evidence of direct Saudi state support for ISIL.
Richard Dearlove, former head of Britain's Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), said that the Saudis were "deeply attracted to any militancy that can effectively challenge Shia-dom [Shia version of Islam]." Dearlove stated that, "For ISIS to be able to surge into the Sunni areas of Iraq in the way that it has done recently has to be the consequence of substantial and sustained funding."
In an August 2014 email, leaked by WikiLeaks, apparently from former US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton to then counselor John Podesta, a memo states that both Saudi Arabia and Qatar "are providing clandestine financial and logistic support to ISIL and other radical Sunni groups in the region."
Qatar has long been accused of acting as a conduit for the flow of funds to ISIL. While there is no proof that the Qatari government is behind the movement of funds to ISIL, it has been criticised for not doing enough to stem monies sent by private donors in the country. According to some reports, US officials believe that the largest portion of private donations supporting ISIS and al Qaeda-linked groups now comes from Qatar rather than Saudi Arabia.
In August 2014, German minister Gerd Müller accused Qatar of having links to ISIL, stating: "You have to ask who is arming, who is financing ISIS troops. The keyword there is Qatar." Qatari Foreign Minister Khalid bin Mohammad Al Attiyah rejected this statement, saying: "Qatar does not support extremist groups, including [ISIL], in any way. We are repelled by their views, their violent methods and their ambitions."
Rand Paul, junior U.S. Senator from Kentucky, has accused the U.S. government of indirectly supporting ISIL in the Syrian Civil War, by arming their allies and fighting their enemies in that country. The US assisted the moderate Syrian opposition from 2013 to 2017 (see CIA-led Timber Sycamore program) and according to some authors some of its "allies" played a role in it, or paving the way for it.
A United Nations report from May 2015[update] showed that 25,000 "foreign terrorist fighters" from 100 countries had joined "Islamist" groups, many of them working for ISIL or al-Qaeda. The US-trained commander of Tajikistan's Interior Ministry OMON police special forces, Gulmurod Khalimov, has been raised to the rank of "Minister of War" within the Islamic State.
One of the most prominent commanders of ISIL in Syria, Abu Omar al-Shishani, served previously as a sergeant in the Georgian Army before being medically discharged, later imprisoned, becoming radicalized, then fleeing the country.
A 2015 report by the Program on Extremism at George Washington University found 71 individuals charged in the United States with supporting ISIL, 250 travelling or attempting to travel to Syria or Iraq from the United States to join ISIL, and about 900 active domestic ISIL-related investigations.
An October 2016 World Bank study found that "ISIL's foreign fighters are surprisingly well-educated." Using the fighters' self-reported educational levels, the study concluded that "69% of recruits reported at least a secondary-level education" of which "a large fraction have gone on to study at university" and also that "only 15% of recruits left school before high school; less than 2% are illiterate." The study also found that foreign fighters are often more educated than their countrymen where those "from Europe and in Central Asia have similar levels of education to their countrymen" while those "from the Middle East, North Africa, and South and East Asia are significantly more educated than what is typical in their home nations." The report notes that its conclusions that terrorism is not driven by poverty and low levels of education which conforms with previous research. However, the report did find a strong correlation "between a country's male unemployment rate and the propensity of the country to supply foreign fighters". Many European country's have allowed their citizens that joined ISIL to be prosecuted by Iraq.
Foreign nationals by country
In August 2018, Australia stripped the Australian citizenship from five terrorists who had travelled to fight with the Islamic State and barred them from entering Australia again. This was only possible because they had double citizenships because international law stops the measure from being used on individuals with only one citizenship. The five brought the total to six.
Up to 2018, an estimated 450 individuals had travelled from Belgium to join the civil war in Syria and Iraq. Of those, 75 were linked to the Sharia4Belgium network. In July 2018, courts announced that Belgium had no obligation to bring children of Islamic State members to Belgium.
Up to 2018, an estimated 1700 individuals had travelled from France to join the civil war in Syria and Iraq.
Up to 2018, an estimated 940 individuals had travelled from Germany to join the civil war in Syria and Iraq.
The Parliament of Netherlands voted in 2016 for legislation to strip Dutch citizens who join ISIL or al Qaeda abroad of their citizenship, also if they have not been convicted of any crime. The law can only be applied to individuals with double citizenship. Justice Minister Ard Van der Steur stated the legal changes were necessary to stop jihadists from returning to the Netherlands. In September 2017, four jihadists were stripped of their citizenship.
In the 2012 to November 2018 period, above 310 individuals had travelled from the Netherlands to the conflict in Syria and Iraq. Of those 85 had been killed and 55 returned to the Netherlands. Of the surviving Dutch foreign fighters in the region, 135 are fighters in the conflict zone and three quarters are members of ISIL. The remaining quarter have joined Al-Qaeda affiliated groups such as Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham or Tanzim Hurras al-Deen.
Up to 2018, an estimated 300 individuals had travelled from Sweden to join the civil war in Syria. In March 2018 Kurdish authorities reported they had captured 41 IS supporters with either Swedish citizenship or residence permit in Sweden, of which 5 had key positions in the organisation and one was the head of the ISIL propaganda efforts.
Cabinet minister William Hague stated in 2014 that up to 400 UK citizens had joined ISIL. The government instituted a practice where if those who had joined had double citizenships were stripped of their UK citizenship to prevent them from arriving back in the UK. By 2017, 150 individuals had been stripped of citizenship and were thus unable to enter the United Kingdom again.
Groups expressing support for ISIL
The Terrorism Research and Analysis Consortium (TRAC) has identified 60 jihadist groups in 30 countries that have pledged allegiance to or support for ISIL as of mid-November 2014. That many of these groups were previously affiliated with al-Qaeda suggests a shift in global jihadist leadership towards ISIL.
Members of the following groups have declared support for ISIL, either fully or in part:
- Boko Haram
- Ansar al-Sharia (Tunisia)
- Jund al-Khilafah
- Mujahideen Shura Council in the Environs of Jerusalem
- Jamaah Ansharut Tauhid – (pledged support to ISIL; the majority of the group split off after its leader pledged allegiance to ISIL)
- Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
- Jundallah (Pakistan)
- Caucasus Emirate (multiple Caucasus Emirate commanders switched allegiance to ISIL)
- Sheikh Omar Hadid Brigade
- Khalifa Islamiyah Mindanao
In Islamic State territory
In response to the effort to take Raqqa by the Syrian Democratic Forces, whose main component is the Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG), some Syrian Arabs in Raqqa sided with the Islamic State.
Suleiman al-Afari, Iraqi scientist who helped ISIL in producing chemical weapons (sentenced to death at the time of the interview)
Sunni Arabs in Iraq have been accused of collaborating with ISIL against Assyrians, and Yazidis, and Shias. ISIL marked Christian homes with the letter nūn for Naṣārā and Shia homes with the letter rāʾ for Rāfiḍa, derogatory terms used to describe Christians and Shias by Sunni Muslims. Properties were confiscated and given to local ISIL supporters or foreign fighters. Local Sunnis were reported to have betrayed Yazidis once ISIL arrived, or colluded in advance to lure them into staying put until the ISIL invaded.
- Collaboration with the Axis Powers
- Syrian Civil War
- Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017)
- Libyan Civil War (2014–present)
- Narwani, Sharmine (28 June 2017). "Dispatch From the Middle East: U.S. Buildup All About Iran". The American Conservative.
- "ISIS reportedly massacres dozens in Syrian village". CBS News. Associated Press. 31 March 2015.
- "Turkey's Arab Alawites stand at a crossroads". The National. 6 December 2014.
- Sherlock, Ruth (11 August 2013). "Syrian rebels accused of sectarian murders". The Daily Telegraph. London.
Hundreds of Alawite civilians have been killed, kidnapped or have disappeared during a rebel offensive on President Bashar al-Assad's heartland province of Latakia, local residents have reported.
- Sly, Liz (9 September 2014). "Syria's Assad thinks he is winning. He could be wrong". The Washington Post.
- Laub, Zachary; Masters, Jonathan (16 November 2015). "CFR Backgrounders – The Islamic State". Council on Foreign Relations.
Some analysts have even described a tacit nonaggression pact between Islamic State militants and Bashar al-Assad regime, with each focused on fighting the main antigovernment opposition forces for territorial control.
- Baker, Aryn (27 January 2014). "Is the Assad Regime in League with al-Qaeda?". Time. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
- Cordall, Simon Speakwell (21 June 2014). "How Syria's Assad Helped Forge ISIS". Newsweek. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- "LRB · Peter Neumann · Suspects into Collaborators: Assad and the Jihadists". London Review of Books. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
- Spencer, Richard (9 May 2016). "Four jihadists, one prison: all released by Assad and all now dead". s.telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
- Online, Spiegel (10 October 2013). "From Jail to Jihad: Former Prisoners Fight in Syrian Insurgency – International". SPIEGEL ONLINE. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
- "Assad regime abetted extremists to subvert peaceful uprising, says former intelligence official". The National. 29 October 2018. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
- "Assad Henchman: Heres How We Built ISIS". The Daily Beast. 1 December 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
- Kelley, Michael B. (21 January 2014). "It's Becoming Clear That Assad Fueled The Al-Qaeda Surge That Has Kept Him in Power". Business Insider. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- Blair, David (7 March 2015). "Oil middleman between Syria and Isil is new target for EU sanctions". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- Philps, Alan (25 June 2015). "Rebels are close to Raqqa – but what happens next?". The National. Abu Dhabi, UAE. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- "Kerry: There Is Evidence That Assad Has Played "Footsie" With ISIL". RealClearPolitics. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
JOHN KERRY: Regrettably Congressman, no we're not going to be undercut, because. If Assad's forces indeed do decide to focus on ISIL significantly, which they haven't been doing throughout this period, one of our judgements is there is evidence that Assad has played footsie with them, and he has used them as a tool of weakening the opposition. He never took on their headquarters, which were there and obvious, and other assets that they have. So we have no confidence that Assad is either capable of or willing to take on ISIL."
- Vinograd, Cassandra; Omar, Ammar Cheikh (11 December 2014). "Syria, ISIS Have Been 'Ignoring' Each Other on Battlefield, Data Suggests". NBC. Retrieved 9 March 2015.[undue weight? ]
- "Has Assad infiltrated rebel forces inside Syria?". Channel Four News. 24 April 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- Ridley, Yyonne (22 September 2014). "EXCLUSIVE: Shaikh Hassan Abboud's final interview". Middle East Monitor. Archived from the original on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- U.S. Embassy Syria [@USEmbassySyria] (1 June 2015). "Reports indicate that the regime is making air-strikes in support of #ISIL's advance on #Aleppo, aiding extremists against Syrian population" (Tweet). Retrieved 2 June 2015 – via Twitter.
- Barnard, Anne (2 June 2015). "Assad's Forces May Be Aiding New ISIS Surge". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- Bar'el, Zvi (3 June 2015). "Assad's cooperation with ISIS could push U.S. into Syria conflict". Haaretz. Tel Aviv, Israel. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
Salim Idris, defense minister in the rebels' provisional government, said approximately 180 Syrian Army officers are currently serving with ISIS and coordinating the group's military operations with the army.
- Phillips, David L. (11 September 2014). "Research Paper: ISIS-Turkey Links". Huffington Post. Verizon Media. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
- Bodette, Meghan (9 September 2018). "ISIS intelligence figure captured by YPG: "things were facilitated by Turkish intelligence"". The Region. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
- Graeber, David (18 November 2015). "Turkey could cut off Islamic State's supply lines. So why doesn't it?". The Guardian. Guardian News & Media Limited. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
- Zaman, Amberin (10 June 2014). "Syrian Kurds continue to blame Turkey for backing ISIS militants". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Wilgenburg, Wladimir van (6 August 2014). "Kurdish security chief: Turkey must end support for jihadists". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Cockburn, Patrick (6 November 2014). "Whose side is Turkey on?". London Review of Books. 36 (21): 8–10. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
- Norton, Ben (30 June 2016). "Turkey's "double game" on ISIS and support for extremist groups highlighted after horrific Istanbul attack". Salon.com. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
- Hersh, Seymour Hersh (7 January 2016). "Military to Military". London Review of Books. 38 (1): 11–14. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Black, Ian (19 June 2014). "Saudi Arabia rejects Iraqi accusations of Isis support". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
- Parker, Ned; Ireland, Louise (9 March 2014). "Iraqi PM Maliki says Saudi, Qatar openly funding violence in Anbar". Reuters.
- Husain, Ed (22 August 2014). "ISIS Atrocities Started With Saudi Support For Salafi Hate". The New York Times.
- Boghardt, Lori Plotkin (23 June 2014). "Saudi Funding of ISIS". Washington Institute.
- "Iraq crisis: How Saudi Arabia helped Isis take over the north of the country," Independent, 13 July 2014.
- Goodenough, Patrick (9 July 2014). "Saudis Deny Supporting ISIS After Former MI6 Head Speaks of 'Substantial and Sustained Funding'". CNSNews.com.
- Schwartz, Mattathias (13 October 2016). "Hillary Clinton acknowledges Saudi terror financing in hacked email, hinting at tougher approach". The Intercept.
- McKernan, Bethan (11 October 2016). "Hillary Clinton 'thinks Saudi Arabia funds Isis', leaked document claims". The Independent. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
- "Boris Johnson's Saudi Arabia comments slapped down by PM but Hillary Clinton, German intelligence and the UN expressed similar views". BelfastTelegraph.co.uk. 8 December 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
- "Qatar and ISIS Funding: The U.S. Approach". The Washington Institute. August 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- "Islamic State: Where does jihadist group get its support?". BBC. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- "Qatar Is a U.S. Ally. They Also Knowingly Abet Terrorism. What's Going On?". New Republic. 6 October 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- "German minister accuses Qatar of funding Islamic State fighters". Reuters. 20 August 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- "Qatar allows money to flow to Islamic State, other terrorists: report". The Washington Times. 10 December 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- "Who funds ISIS? Qatar and state-sponsoring allegations". Security Observer. 23 December 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- "Qatar denies backing Islamic State group". Al Jazeera. 24 August 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- Shabad, Rebeca (22 June 2014). "Paul: ISIS emboldened after US armed its allies in Syria". The Hill.
- Now the truth emerges: how the US fuelled the rise of Isis in Syria and Iraq
- 'CIA created ISIS', says Julian Assange as Wikileaks releases 500k US cables
- Burke, Jason (26 May 2015). "Islamist fighters drawn from half the world's countries, says UN". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 26 May 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "Isis: US-trained Tajik special forces chief Gulmurod Khalimov becomes Isis 'war minister'". International Business Times. 6 September 2016.
- Solovyov, Dmitry (28 May 2015). "Commander of elite Tajik police force defects to Islamic State". Reuters.
- Mroue, Bassem (2 July 2014). "Chechen in Syria a rising star in extremist group". Washington Examiner. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014.
- "ISIS in America". Center for Cyber & Homeland Security. George Washington University. Archived from the original on 2015-12-27. Retrieved 2019-08-29.
- Mohdin, Aamna (6 October 2016). "ISIL's foreign fighters are surprisingly well-educated, according to the World Bank". Quartz. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- Economic and Social Inclusion to Prevent Violent Extremism (PDF). MENA Economic Monitor (Report). World Bank Middle East and North Africa Region. October 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2016.
- Magid, Pesha (15 June 2019). "How Europe Is Handing Off Its ISIS Militants to Iraq". Foreign Policy.
- Borys, Stephanie; Yaxley, Louise (9 August 2018). "Islamic State involvement sees five Australian terrorists stripped of citizenship". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
- "Five Islamic State terrorists stripped of Australian citizenship". The Sydney Morning Herald. 9 August 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
- Vidino, Lorenzo (2018). Lorenzo Vidino (ed.). De-Radicalization in the Mediterranean – Comparing Challenges and Approaches (PDF). Milan, Italy: ISPI. p. 14. ISBN 978-8-8670-5819-8.
- Van Ostaeyen, Pieter (16 June 2016). "Belgian Radical Networks and the Road to the Brussels Attacks". CTC Sentinel. Combating Terrorism Center at West Point. 9 (6).
- "België hoeft kinderen IS-strijders niet te repatriëren" [Belgium does not have to repatriate children IS fighters]. De Standaard (in Dutch). 19 July 2018.
- Toft, Emma (14 November 2017). "Højesteret: Danskfødt syrienkriger mister statsborgerskabet" [Supreme Court: Danish-born Syrian warrior loses citizenship]. DR (in Danish).
- "Dutch MPs vote to strip Islamic militants of dual nationality". Strait Times. Singapore Press Holdings. AFP. 25 May 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
- Sheva, Arutz. "Dutch Jihadists to be stripped of dual citizenship". Israel National News. AFP.
- "Netherlands strip four jihadists of citizenship". The New Indian Express. AFP. 13 September 2017.
- Syria's Legacy – Global jihadism remains a threat to Europe (PDF). General Intelligence and Security Service. November 2018. p. 8.
- "Kurdisk källa: 41 IS-svenskar fängslade i Syrien" [Kurdish source: 41 IS-Swedes imprisoned in Syria]. Dagens Nyheter (in Swedish). 24 March 2018.
- Wintour, Patrick; Watt, Nicholas (16 June 2014). "Up to 400 British citizens may be fighting in Syria, says William Hague". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
- "UK 'has stripped 150 jihadists and criminals of citizenship'". The Guardian. Press Association. 30 July 2017.
- Mohammed, Riyadh (16 November 2014). "ISIS Beheads Another American As 60 New Terror Groups Join". The Fiscal Times. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
- "ISIS accepts Boko Haram pledge, says would-be recruits can go to Nigeria". CBC News. Associated Press. 13 March 2015.
- Arfaoui, Jamel (8 July 2014). "Tunisia: Ansar Al-Sharia Tunisia Spokesman Backs Isis". Tunis, Tunisia: AllAfrica. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- Abdallah Suleiman Ali (3 July 2014). "Global jihadists recognize Islamic State". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 23 February 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- Chikhi, Lamine (14 September 2014). "Splinter group breaks from al Qaeda in North Africa". Reuters. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- al-Ghoul, Asmaa (27 February 2014). "Gaza Salafists pledge allegiance to ISIS". Al-Monitor. Gaza City, Gaza Strip. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- Witular, Rendi A. (13 August 2014). "Sons, top aides abandon Ba'asyir over ISIL, form new jihadist group". The Jakarta Post.
- Rottenberg, Chris (2012). "Jamaah Ansharut Tauhid, The Perpetual threat" (PDF). Osgood Center for International Studies.
- "Uzbek militants declare support for Islamic State". Dawn. Agence France-Presse. 7 October 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
'Hereby, on behalf of all members of our movement, in line with our sacred duties, I declare that we are in the same ranks with the Islamic State in this continued war between Islam and [non-Muslims],' Usman Gazi wrote in an online statement on Sept 26.
- "IMU Declares It Is Now Part Of The Islamic State". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 6 August 2015. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
- "Pakistan Taliban splinter group vows allegiance to Islamic State". Reuters. 18 November 2014.
- Vatchagaev, Mairbek (13 February 2015). "Caucasus Emirate and Islamic State Split Slows Militant Activities in North Caucasus". Eurasia Daily Monitor. Vol. 12 no. 29. The Jamestown Foundation.
- Fuller, Liz (2 January 2015). "Six North Caucasus Insurgency Commanders Transfer Allegiance To Islamic State". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- "What Caused the Demise of the Caucasus Emirate?". Jamestown Foundation. 18 June 2015.
- Levy, Rachael (9 June 2014). "ISIS: We Are Operating in Gaza". Vocative. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
- "Terror acts could occur in Australia: Abbott". The Australian. 21 August 2014. Retrieved 2019-08-30.
- Zavadski, Katie (23 November 2014). "ISIS Now Has a Network of Military Affiliates in 11 Countries Around the World". New York. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- Emasquel II, Paterno (17 September 2014). "Philippines condemns, vows to 'thwart' ISIS". Rappler. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "BIFF, Abu Sayyaf pledge allegiance to Islamic State jihadists". GMA News Online. Quezon City, Philippines: GMA Network. Agence France-Presse. 16 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- Wedeman, Ben (25 May 2016). "ISIS or Kurds? Arabs wonder which is worse". CNN. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
- Joby Warrick (21 January 2019). "Exclusive: Iraqi scientist says he helped ISIS make chemical weapons". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- "Iraqi Christians flee after Isis issue Mosul ultimatum". BBC News. August 7, 2014. Archived from the original on July 24, 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Loveluck, Louisa (August 7, 2014). "Christians flee Iraq's Mosul after Islamists tell them: convert, pay or die". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on July 30, 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "Iraq: ISIS Abducting, Killing, Expelling Minorities". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Ahmed, Azam (27 August 2014). "For Yazidis Betrayed by Arab Neighbors, 'It Will Never Be the Same'". New York Times. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "ISIS, Saddam's men or a third party who killed 1700 soldiers in camp Speicher in Iraq?" (in Arabic). CNN Arabic. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "New Secrets are revealed about the Speicher massacre in Iraq". Al Fajr (in Arabic). Retrieved 13 May 2016.