Aleppo offensive (November–December 2016)
From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia
The Aleppo offensive (November–December 2016), code named Operation Dawn of Victory by government forces, was a successful military offensive launched by the Syrian Armed Forces and allied groups against rebel-held districts in Aleppo. The offensive came after the end of the moratorium on air strikes by Russia, and the Russian Armed Forces again conducted heavy air and cruise missile strikes against rebel positions throughout northwestern Syria. The offensive resulted in government forces taking control of all rebel-controlled parts of eastern and southern Aleppo, and the evacuation of the remaining rebel forces.
Almost 1,200 people were killed during the operation, including more than 600 civilians, most of whom died in the rebel-held part of the city where the offensive took place, but at least 149 were also killed by rebel shelling of government-held parts of Aleppo and some died in rebel strikes on the enclave held by the Syrian Democratic Forces.
Russian Fleet intervention
On 15 October 2016, a Russian seven-ship Northern Fleet task force composed of the aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov, the battlecruiser Pyotr Velikyi, two Udaloy class destroyers, Severomorsk and Vice-Admiral Kulakov and a number of supply ships left Severomorsk for the Eastern Mediterranean to support Syrian government forces battling rebel troops in Aleppo. After sailing round Norway, Admiral Kuznetsov conducted live-fire exercises and flight operations off Shetland trailed by the Norwegian frigate HNoMS Fridtjof Nansen, the British frigate HMS Richmond and the destroyer HMS Duncan. The carrier group then passed through the English Channel on 21 October, shadowed by the British destroyer HMS Dragon. Due to NATO pressure, the naval force was denied refuelling at Ceuta by the Spanish government. Admiral Kuznetsov eventually refuelled off North Africa on 26 October. The task force joined other ten Russian warships already in the theatre of operations, among them the frigate Admiral Grigorovich that had departed Sevastopol on 3 November. During the last stage of their sortie, the Admiral Kuznetzov group was shadowed by a Walrus-class Dutch submarine, according to Russian sources. The submarine was "chased away" by the destroyers Severomorsk and Vice-Admiral Kulakov.
On 15 November 2016, Admiral Grigorovich launched a salvo of Kalibr cruise missiles at rebel positions in the Idlib Governorate, rebel and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and Jabhat al-Nusra targets in the Homs Governorate, and reportedly rebel-held parts of Aleppo itself, something Russia denied. The attack was supported by P-800 Oniks missiles launched from a Russian coastal battery inside Syria. At the same time, Sukhoi Su-33s from Admiral Kuznetsov conducted airstrikes throughout northwestern and western Syria. The aircraft struck "ammunition depots, groups of terrorists and their training centers, as well as facilities being used to manufacture mass destruction means that are used against civilians" according to Russian Minister of Defence, Sergey Shoigu.
The offensive on Aleppo was announced on the same day, with the start of heavy Syrian and Russian airstrikes. The Syrian Armed Forces and allied militias made "final preparations" for a large-scale assault into eastern Aleppo. while aircraft from the Syrian Air Force hit rural and suburban areas around the rebel-controlled sector. The city itself was later attacked by jets and helicopters with conventional and barrel bombs. The Syrian Command assembled a ground force composed of Syrian special troops, Hezbolla militias and allied Iraqi paramilitaries.
Initial fighting and Army approach to Hanano
On 16 November the Syrian Army, supported by Russian airstrikes, stormed the Rashidun and Aqrab districts in southwestern Aleppo, but were repelled by the rebels. Amid exchanges of shelling by both sides, clashes renewed in the Jamiat al-Zahra district of western Aleppo.
On 19 November, after heavy bombardment of eastern Aleppo, the Syrian Army attempted to advance in the Sheikh Saeed district in the southeast but were again repelled by the rebels. Meanwhile, pro-government forces advanced in the northeast. The Army seized the southern and central parts of the Bustan Al-Basha district, leaving them in control of 75 percent of the area. In addition, in the evening, after two days of Syrian and Russian airstrikes, the Tiger Forces took control of the strategic Zouhor hill which overlooks the Hanano district and most of rebel-controlled east Aleppo. At the same time, the Army advanced in the southwestern Aleppo district of Aqrab. The Tiger Forces also advanced southwest from the Zouhor hill into the old Sheikh Najjar factories, and seized most of them after intense clashes.
The next day, the Army managed to progress to the entrance of the Hanano district. In the evening, a rebel counter-attack against Zouhor hill and the factories area was launched and eventually repelled. By the end of the day, the Army managed to enter the Hanano district. On 21 November, government advanced in the old Sheikh Najjar factories, the Hanano housings and the nearby Islamic cemetery, while a second Army attack in 48 hours was launched on the southern Sheikh Saeed District. Although the rebels repelled this attack as well, they reportedly suffered heavy casualties.
Capture of Hanano
As of 22 November, the military was in control of around a third of Hanano and by the next day half of the district. According to the pro-opposition activist group the SOHR, if the Army managed to seize Hanano, they would be able to cut off the northern part of the rebel-held Aleppo from the rest of the opposition-held districts.
On 24 November, the Army pushed deep into the Hanano district, capturing more than half a dozen key buildings. The aim of the advance was to bisect the rebel-held part of Aleppo. Heavy and systematic government bombardment inflicted heavy rebel casualties. By the next day, government forces were in control of large parts of Hanano. Government forces also took control of large parts of the northeastern 'Ard Al-Hamra and southern Sheikh Lutfi districts, as well as the southern Hill 420 (Police Hill).
On 26 November, government troops were in control of Hanano, which was the first district of the city that was taken by the rebels in 2012, and represented about a quarter of the remaining rebel-held part of the city. Government forces also made attempts to advance in the Ard Al-Hamra and Jabal Badro District, south of Hanano. Following the capture of Hanano, 400–600 civilians left the rebel-held part of Aleppo.
Northeastern rebel collapse
On 27 November, government forces made major advances after a swift collapse of the rebel defenses, capturing the Jabal-Badro, Ard Al-Hamra and Ba'ibdeen districts, while also seizing parts of the Sakhour district, namely the Al-Sakhour Bridge. Soon after, the Army took control of the northern Jandoul Factories and secured the Ayn Al-Tal district, as well as large parts of the Hallak Fuqani and Hallak Tahtani districts. Due to these advances, the rebels were in a massive retreat, also abandoning the Bustan Al-Basha district and parts of Haydariyah, and withdrawing to southern Aleppo through the Sakhour district, which if captured would split the rebel-held part of the city in two. At this point, less than a kilometer was separating government troops advancing in east Aleppo from those in the center of the city.
The collapse of the rebel frontlines was attributed to the heavy volume of bombardments, the intensity of the fighting, the number of dead and wounded, and the lack of working hospitals. Hundreds of civilians attempted to capitalize on the rebel collapse, with the number of evacuated civilians increasing to nearly 10,000 during the day.
In the evening, only 500 meters were separating the military from closing off the gap between the northeastern and the southeastern parts of the city. By this point, the remaining distance had already come under Army fire control. In addition, the Army completed its control of Hallak Al-Fukani, Hallak Al-Tahtani and Bustan Al-Basha, with Kurdish support, while the northeastern Inzarat district had also been seized. At least 36 rebels surrendered to the Army during their advances, while a number of them had reportedly defected to the Kurdish-led SDF.
As of 28 November, the entire northeastern part of Aleppo had fallen. Early in the day, the Army took control of Haydariyah. Two hours later, government forces also seized Sakhour, leaving the rebel-held districts of Sheikh Kheder and Sheikh Fares surrounded. Soon after, Sheikh Khider was also taken by the Army, along with parts of Sheikh Fares. The rest of Sheikh Fares was seized by Kurdish forces, who were confirmed to be in control of parts of Hallak, Bustan Al-Basha, Ba'ibdeen and Ayn Al-Tal as well after advancing from the northern Kurdish-controlled Sheikh Maqsood district. The overall situation was described to be "the biggest defeat for the opposition in Aleppo since 2012", with a four-year stalemate in the city being broken.
On 4 December, residents started returning to Hanano.
Syrian Army push into the southeast and capture of Old Aleppo
Following the rebel collapse in the northeast, the Army made its first advance into the southeastern Tariq al-Bab (al-Helwania) district. On 28 November, they captured the Talet Barakat and Scientific Research Housing areas, south of Jabal Badro, and advanced into the Ma'saraniyah Youth housing.
On 29 November, the Army seized large parts of the southeastern al-Jazmati and al-Ma’saraniyah neighborhoods, in order to secure the Aleppo International Airport and its highway. The next day, the Army and pro-government Iraqi militias seized most of the Sheikh Saeed district in the southern part of the city. After this, they captured several building blocks in the exposed side of the Sukkari district. During these advances, the Army also cleared the Sadkop and Old Ramouseh areas, south of Sheikh Saeed. Government forces also again advanced in the Ma'saraniyah Youth housing area, and reportedly capturing it. On 1 December, the rebels were able to regain almost all of Sheikh Saeed district in a counter-attack. Government troops managed to retain control of the southern section of the district. They also recaptured some positions in the Ma'saraniyah Youth housing area.
As of 2 December, fighting continued in Sheikh Saeed, with the Army in control of 30% of the district. During the day, they once again advanced in the area. Meanwhile, the Army launched a major assault in the southeastern neighborhoods of Aleppo, capturing two districts, Tariq al-Bab and Karm al-Trab. They also took control of a large part of the al-Jazmati district. With these advances, government forces secured the airport road and were in control of 60% of the previously rebel-held part of Aleppo. Overall, the Army pushed one kilometer into rebel territory in the city. Around 01:00, during the day's clashes, a Syrian Air Force Aero L-39 Albatros was shot down by rebel fire and crashed in the central part of the city, with both pilots killed.
On 3 December, government forces completed their control of al-Jazmati and made a push into Mayssar. At this point, Russia sought a full rebel withdrawal from Aleppo. The rebels stated they would not surrender Aleppo.
The next day, the Army made advances in the Mayssar district, after capturing the al-Helwaniyah and al-Jazmati roundabouts. At this point, two kilometers were separating the advancing Army units from the government-held Citadel of Aleppo. Later in the day, government troops captured Mayssar, as well as the Dahret Awwad district. The Army then continued to converge on Aleppo's Old City, securing the al-Qaterrji and al-Tahhan districts, and advancing into Qadi Askar. They also captured the Eye Hospital and came within 500–1,000 meters of the Citadel and isolating the remaining districts northeast of it. Government troops also advanced at the al-Sha'ar district, with some rebels already withdrawing in anticipation of its fall. Subsequently, that night, the Army made more advances in Sha'ar. Meanwhile, Fatah al-Sham fighters along with their allies raided a warehouse containing weapons, food, and gas. The warehouse was guarded by Jaysh al-Islam and the guards, including a commander, were detained. This caused dissatisfaction among the civilian population in rebel-held areas amid poor living conditions and a lack of food and supplies. The Fatah al-Sham fighters also reportedly arrested 150 Jaysh al-Islam fighters under the charges they were going to surrender to the advancing government forces.
On 5 December, the Army captured the Qadi Askar district, leaving Sha'ar effectively encircled. Government forces also seized several parts of Sha'ar. According to a rebel official, they considered Sha'ar and nearby Karm al-Jabal as already fallen. Later that day, the rebels launched a large counter-attack in an attempt to recapture the territory they had lost in the previous days. Despite initial claims that they had retaken large parts of Mayssar, the counter-attack was eventually repelled. Subsequently, the Army restarted its push around the Citadel.
On 6 December, the Army was closing in on Sha'ar, after already taking control of one third of the district, and it was on the brink of falling. Later that day, they had taken full control of Sha'ar, as well as four other nearby districts. This left more than 70 percent of formerly rebel-held Aleppo under government control. A large-scale rebel withdrawal from the northern districts of their pocket was started. Concurrently, the Army captured parts of the southern Marjeh and Sheikh Lutfi districts. At Sheikh Lutfi, they seized a hill that overlooks large parts of the district. In the evening, it was reported five buses full of rebels left the rebel-held part of southeastern Aleppo, while the Army pushed into Aleppo's Old City. By the end of the day, Old Aleppo had been taken after the rebels retreated from its three neighborhoods. Sheikh Lufti was also seized. With these advances, the Army had taken control of the entire area around the Aleppo Citadel. One of the areas taken in Old Aleppo was the Umayyad Mosque, the largest and one of the oldest mosques in the city.
Rebels on the brink
On 7 December, the Army continued their large-scale offensive, securing Sheikh Lutfi, while also capturing the Marjah, Bab Al-Nayrab, Maadi and Salheen districts. The next day, the military started its last phase of the offensive, with a new assault on Sheikh Saeed, while also preparing to storm the Sukkari district. During the day, they advanced in the Sheikh Saeed area.
At the end of 8 December, the Syrian Army halted its offensive in order to evacuate some 8,000 civilians from the area. Russian officials reported 10,500 had been evacuated overall, while the United Nations (UN) stated the rebels were stopping people from leaving. Still, despite the announced humanitarian pause, the next day, there were conflicting reports, with some stating fighting was continuing, while others that the government offensive resumed after a short break. On 10 December, Russian officials reported up to 50,000 people had been evacuated over the previous two days, while they also claimed more than 1,200 rebels had surrendered. One more possible reason for the halt in the Army's advance was reported to be the concurrent ISIL offensive against Palmyra, which diverted troops away from Aleppo to defend the city.
On 11 December 2016, Syrian government forces captured all or most of three districts, while also advancing in two others. The Army's assault was accompanied by heavy shelling and air raids, with explosions at a rate of more than one a minute. Airstrikes hit the last remaining bridge that linked eastern and western Aleppo. At this point, the rebels had proposed a US-Russian negotiated deal to leave the city to Idlib or toward the border with Turkey.
On 12 December, government forces captured the southern Sheikh Saeed district, which led to a large-scale collapse of the rebel frontline at the Fardous district, which was also taken, as well as its surroundings. Sheikh Saeed contained the rebels' last remaining mill and grains warehouse. Later in the day, the rebels fully retreated to the west side of the Queiq River and started establishing a new frontline. Still, many rebels surrendered, with the Russian Defence Ministry putting the number at 728. During a lull in the shelling in the morning hours, hundreds and thousands of civilians fled across the frontlines into government-held parts of Aleppo, while the remaining rebel-held parts were becoming overcrowded with hundreds of rebel fighters and thousands of civilians who were finding sanctuary in half-destroyed buildings. Overall, the Army secured nine districts during the day, and were attempting to advance into the remaining patch of rebel territory which consisted of three neighborhoods. The rebels claimed over 180 people were executed by government forces in the areas they had seized. That night, rebels from Fatah Halab and Jaysh al-Fatah accepted the terms of surrender, under which they would be transferred to the Anadan plains, while street celebrations erupted in Aleppo after reports of the Syrian Army's declared victory. Still, fighting against remaining pockets of rebel resistance continued into the early hours of 13 December.
On 13 December, the remaining rebel-held areas east of the Queiq River were cleared, with the rebels squeezed into a small pocket of approximately 3.5 square kilometers to the west of it. The UN stated it had reliable evidence that in four areas 82 civilians were executed by pro-government forces, while the UN children's agency cited a doctor that a building housing more than 100 unaccompanied children was under heavy attack. UN humanitarian advisor Jan Egeland concluded that all the governments, such as those of Russia, Syria, and Iran, who are supplying forces, military or militia, with weaponry, are directly responsible for protecting the lives of civilians.
Reported massacre by pro-government forces
After the capture of rebel-held parts of Aleppo by the Syrian Army, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, led by Prince Zeid bin Ra'ad of Jordan, said it received "credible reports" that forces loyal to the government were "gunning down civilians" and killing residents in their homes in four different neighborhoods in Aleppo city. The UN's humanitarian adviser on Syria, Jan Egeland, named an unspecified pro-government Iraqi Shia militia as being responsible for the massacre.
Amnesty International, commenting on the UN reports, described the killings as war crimes and stated: "Amnesty International has previously highlighted the Syrian government’s widespread and systematic use of enforced disappearance to attack the civilian population in what has amounted to crimes against humanity. It is crucial that independent monitors are deployed to prevent further enforced disappearances, torture and other ill-treatment". The deputy director of research for Amnesty International in Beirut also said: "The reports that civilians, including children, are being massacred in cold blood in their homes by Syrian government forces are deeply shocking but not unexpected given their conduct to date. Such extrajudicial executions would amount to war crimes."
Syrian Brigadier General Samir Suleiman responded: "These are false claims. The Arab Syrian army can never do this and we have never done it in our army's history."
Head of the Main Operations Department of Russia’s General Staff Lieutenant-General Sergei Rudskoi commented that a "new information campaign" disseminated by "some Western politicians" that "[Aleppo's] streets are full of corpses while thousands of residents are still hiding in basements" is "a blatant lie". He stated that officers of Russia's Center for the Reconciliation of the Warring Sides in Syria and representatives of the International Committee of the Red Cross who entered together with Syrian soldiers "found no corpses there", and neither were any seen by the "unmanned aerial vehicles [that] were broadcasting in real time to the entire world". He said that the accusations were based on "information from social networks and militants’ websites".
Ceasefires and evacuation
A ceasefire agreement sponsored by Russia and Turkey was reached later on 13 December, under which the rebels were supposed to withdraw. Under the terms, a cessation of bombardment on rebel-held areas was implemented, while ground clashes were to cease in the evening, after which the first civilian evacuations would take place. All remaining rebels, along with their family members, were then to be evacuated to Aleppo's western outskirts in the early hours of 14 December, after which they would continue to the Idlib Governorate. In the evening, Vitaly Churkin, Permanent Representative of Russia to the United Nations, and Alfarouq, the leader of Ahrar al-Sham, both confirmed all military actions had ceased. Churkin reported the Syrian Army was in complete control of the city, while Alfarouq cautioned the rebels to be prepared in case of any breach.
The evacuation was however delayed for unknown reasons and none of the evacuation buses were moving into the eastern districts at the scheduled time. Some entered briefly the previous night, but returned empty. A pro-government source reported that sporadic gunfire from rebel areas prior to the scheduled departure caused many soldiers to worry that the agreement might fail and a military officer stated that the evacuation of rebels and civilians had been postponed indefinitely due to poor communication and internal disputes among the rebels. In contrast, a rebel official blamed pro-government Shi'ite militias of obstructing the evacuation. Iran reportedly wanted the simultaneous evacuation of wounded from two villages besieged by the rebels in Idlib province, which was rejected by the rebels. A pro-opposition station stated that the evacuation might be delayed till the next day. But air strikes, shelling and ground clashes soon erupted, leaving the ceasefire broken. The Russian military accused the rebels of breaking the ceasefire, stating that although the Army had observed it, the rebels fired at a convoy meant for evacuation, while Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan accused the Syrian Army of breaking it. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights stated that the presence of 250 non-Syrian rebels whom the Syrian government wanted to detain for interrogation, was also a reason behind the deal breaking down.
Subsequently, rebel territory had reportedly shrunk to only 2.5 km², after the Army crossed the river and captured at least half of the Sukkari district. During the fighting, the rebels launched an attack against pro-government forces using suicide car bombs. In the evening, a new ceasefire deal was reached, with evacuations scheduled to start early on 15 December, from both Aleppo and the villages of Foua and Kafriya besieged by the rebels. Two rebel and one pro-government official confirmed the ceasefire and the evacuation from Aleppo, but there were discrepancies in who would be evacuated from the villages, with the rebels stating it would only be the wounded, while the pro-government official stated that about 15,000 people would be transferred out. However, later, Hezbollah's media unit denied these reports, stating that negotiations were seeing big complications due to tension and operations on the front lines.
The ceasefire was revived during the early hours of 15 December, and the rebels would reportedly be taken to Khan Tuman. The Russian Ministry of Defence stated that Russian soldiers would lead the evacuation of rebels with the Syrian government guaranteeing their safety, while the International Committee of the Red Cross would assist in transporting the wounded rebels. UN's humanitarian adviser in Syria, Jan Egeland stated the sick and wounded including orphans would be evacuated first, followed by vulnerable people and then the rebels.
Soon, the evacuation had begun, and around noon, the first wave of evacuees reached rebel-held territory to the west of Aleppo. Nearly 1,000 people, including 300 children and 28 wounded people, were evacuated in the first convoy. Fighters from Jabhat Fatah al-Sham and their prisoners were reportedly the first to leave. During the evacuation, it was reported that pro-government militias had shot at the ambulances carrying the civilians as they left eastern Aleppo. According to one report, one person was killed and four injured, while another said only three people were injured. Syrian state television reported that the convoy also evacuated rebel fighters, while according to the rebels' chief negotiator, the fighters would be evacuated after the first or second convoy. Meanwhile, evacuations had also reportedly begun in Foua and Kafriya. As the withdrawal was getting underway, the rebels burned their command centers, warehouses and vehicles, while Senior Russian general Viktor Poznikhir stated that the Syrian Army had almost finished its operations in Aleppo. Later in the day, the second and third convoy had left, with the second evacuating 1,198 people. The U.N. envoy for Syria Staffan de Mistura stated that around 50,000 people were still to be evacuated, of which 40,000 civilians would go to West Aleppo, while the remaining 10,000 consisting of 1,500–5,000 rebels and their families would be taken to Idlib.
By the morning of 16 December, according to SOHR, 8,500 people overall had been evacuated, including some 3,000 fighters and 360 wounded, in nine convoys. The tenth convoy had also left. According to rebel officials, the number of evacuees was much lower, with no rebels having left. The Red Cross put the figure at 10,000. Later during the day, the evacuation was again suspended, with the Syrian government blaming the rebels for breaking the deal. According to one report, the vehicles meant for evacuation were fired upon by the rebels. Other reports said it was suspended because of the rebels refusing to allow the evacuation of the wounded from Foua and Kafriya, which prompted protesters to block the road being used for the evacuation in Aleppo, demanding the evacuation from the two villages. Another report stated it was suspended because of rebels trying to leave with captives and smuggle out weapons. The rebels denied these reports, accusing pro-government militias of blocking the road being used for evacuation and firing on the vehicles. The tenth convoy carrying civilians was turned back towards east Aleppo. In retaliation for the militia attack on the tenth convoy, two rebels attacked government positions and were killed. Later, heavy fighting had resumed, with government forces reportedly advancing in two districts. Russia's Ministry of Defence meanwhile claimed that the Syrian Army had completed the operation to capture Aleppo and were eliminating the last pockets of resistance. It later also claimed that the evacuation was complete, with all civilians and 3,400 moderate rebels who made the bulk of the rebels' fighting force being evacuated.
Another deal was reached on 18 December, which also allowed evacuation from Madaya and Al-Zabadani. The evacuation resumed later in the day. It was later suspended again due to the attack on six buses en route to Foua and Kafriya, however resumed again later with a convoy carrying civilians being allowed to leave. The United Nations Security Council voted on 19 December, to monitor the evacuation and report the condition of civilians. The Red Cross stated that 15,000 people were evacuated by the end of the day, bringing the total to 25,000. However, SOHR disputed the ICRC figure and stated that by 20 December, 16,200 had been evacuated, including several thousand rebels, while between 2,000 and 3,000 still remained. The Syrian Army warned the rebels on 20 December that it will enter the territory held by them later in the day and told them all to leave east Aleppo. The evacuation again stalled later in the day, but resumed the following day. SOHR later stated that the last batch of evacuees had left and Syrian Army had taken control of Aleppo city. A UN and a rebel official however stated that evacuations were still ongoing. Over 34,000 people including more than 4,000 rebels were evacuated by morning of 22 December according to a statement made by the Red Cross. The Syrian Army later announced that it had retaken complete control of the city after the last rebel fighters were evacuated. A rebel official also stated that the evacuation was complete. The Red Cross later confirmed that the evacuation of all civilians and rebels was complete.
In the days following the evacuation, 63 soldiers and pro-government militiamen were killed by booby traps left by the retreating rebels in the former rebel-held part of Aleppo.
Reported massacre by rebel forces
The Syrian Army accused the jihadist rebels of Fatah Halab and Jabhat Fateh al-Sham of carrying out a massacre prior to leaving the last east Aleppo neighborhoods. Over 100 Syrian Army POWs, mostly young men between the ages of 18–25, were reportedly summarily executed by the rebels prior to their departure from the Sukkari and Bustan Al-Qasr districts of east Aleppo, according to the Syrian Army. The soldiers were said to have been captured during the four-year battle for Aleppo City. However, the pro-opposition activist group the SOHR denied the Army's allegation and stated the dozens of bodies that were found belonged to soldiers who were killed during fighting in the southern outskirts of the city.
The Army's High Command demanded the release of these soldiers before the rebels departed from east Aleppo; however, the latter denied having any hostages. According to the pro-government Al-Masdar News, it was initially said that Jabhat Fateh Al-Sham (formerly Jabhat Al-Nusra) were behind the alleged massacre in east Aleppo; however, it was later said to be Ahrar Al-Sham and Harakat Nouriddeen Al-Zinki who were responsible.
This section needs expansion with: more details. You can help by adding to it. (December 2016)
- United Nations - Jens Laerke, a spokesman for the United Nations office coordinating emergency relief, called the events "a complete meltdown of humanity".
- Yemen - Yemeni Government PM in Sanaa, in a telephone conversation with Prime Minister of Syria, congratulated Aleppo freedom and expressed hope that soon the complete liberation of Iraq and Yemen would be met.
- Iran - Iran President & Defense Minister, in separate telephone conversations with their Syrian counterpart, congratulated the Syrians on the full liberation of Aleppo from jihadists.
- Russia - Russian Defense Minister declared "we did the impossible in Aleppo" and liberation of Aleppo helps peace to be settled in Syria.
- Singapore - On 15 December 2016, the Singapore Red Cross committed US$10,000 in support of displaced and affected communities in affected areas such as Aleppo.
- Algeria - Algerian Foreign Minister, Ramtane Lamamra, on the sidelines of the conference of peace and security in Africa, stated that Syrian government victories in Aleppo are "regaining supremacy and hegemony over the city and defeating terrorism".
Aftermath and assessments
This section needs expansion with: more details. You can help by adding to it. (December 2016)
President Bashar al-Assad stated that the victory in Aleppo not only belonged to the Syrian army, but was also a victory for Syria's allies, Russia and Iran. He also said that the victory was a "basic step on the road to ending terrorism in the whole of Syrian territory and creating the right circumstances for a solution to end the war".
Some commentators also remarked that whilst the victory in Aleppo was a sure sign of growing Russian influence, Iran was believed to be the greatest beneficiary of the battle's outcome. The Syrian Army's next goal was thought to possibly be the retaking of the whole Aleppo Province.
- 2016 Aleppo summer campaign
- Aleppo offensive (September–October 2016)
- Aleppo offensive (October–November 2016)
- Palmyra offensive (December 2016), simultaneous ISIL offensive
- "IRGC's Commander & Hezbollah media activist Killed in battles of #Aleppo". El-Dorar Al-Shamia. 3 December 2016. Archived from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- Chris Tomson (25 November 2016). "Syrian Army goes all in on Aleppo as more reinforcements pour into the city – Map update". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
- Amir Toumaj (9 December 2016). "Array of pro-Syrian government forces advances in Aleppo". Long War Journal. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
- مدينة حلب تشهد خروج كامل القسم الشمالي من أحياء حلب الشرقية عن سيطرة الفصائل
- "Commander of the "leadership of Aleppo" to Qassioun: New Ckellna includes all factions in the city". Qasioun. 14 November 2016.
- "Aleppo battle ends as Syria rebel deal reached". BBC News. 13 December 2016. – "[UN envoy Staffan de Mistura] said there were approximately 1,500 rebel fighters, about 30% of whom were from the jihadist group formerly known as the al-Nusra Front."
- After more than 1600 days and the death of about 21500 civilians… Bashar al-Assad’s regime forces regain control of Aleppo city with the support of its loyal parties
- "Syrian army announces victory in Aleppo in boost for Assad". Reuters. 22 December 2016.
- "Final phase of evacuations from rebel-held eastern Aleppo underway". Sky News. 21 December 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2016.
- "Syria army takes Aleppo district, battle in 'final phase'". 12 December 2016.
- Szakola, Albin (22 September 2016). "Aleppo will be secured "very soon": regime figure". NOW. Archived from the original on 23 September 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
- "Russian military adviser dies after 'opposition' shelling in Aleppo – MoD". Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- "Russian influence evident in Palestinian militia in Syria - FDD's Long War Journal". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- Chris Tomson (28 November 2016). "Senior Palestinian paramilitary commander killed by rebel forces in Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- سرکرده گروهک «ارتش حلب» در درگیریهای امروز این شهر زخمی شد
- "Aleppo factions disband and form an army uniform". Al-Jazeera. 1 December 2016.
- Fadel, Leith (23 November 2016). "Four high-ranking jihadist commanders killed in Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
- "Battle for Aleppo escalates, U.N. sees 'bleak moment'". Reuters. 18 November 2016.
- "New Prince of armed factions in Aleppo and the beginning of the resultant mishaps". Al-Hadath News. 9 December 2016. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
- Zen Adra (4 December 2016). "Rebel forces in Aleppo arrest militants willing to surrender". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- ""Fatah al-Sham" attacking the headquarters in Aleppo, arrest leader of "Legion Sham"". Enab Baladi. 4 December 2016.
- "Syrian Army advances deep inside Bustan Al-Basha District of east Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. 19 November 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- Fadel, Leith (25 November 2016). "Syrian Army advancing at several axes in east Aleppo: map". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- R&U Vid (8 December 2016). "Reports from Aleppo - December 8th 2016" – via YouTube.
- Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (23 May 2016). "The Local Defence Forces: Regime Auxiliary Forces in Aleppo". Syria Comment.
- https://www.wsj.com/articles/russian-special-forces-seen-as-key-to-aleppo-victory-1481884200 |retrieved=18 Oct 2019
- Thomas van Linge [@ThomasVLinge] (28 November 2016). "#Syria: Liwa Shamal al-Democrati (#SDF) goes on by claiming rebels of Katibat Askari Kamilah of the #FSA have alrea…" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- The Inside Source [@InsideSourceInt] (2 December 2016). "#Syria // #Aleppo // If the SAA captures east Aleppo , at least 25,000 soldiers and foreign allies would be freed" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Aleppo's Jabhat Fateh al-Sham fighters far fewer than U.N. says - sources". Reuters.
- "Russia says takeover of east Aleppo facilitates Syria peace deal". Reuters.
- مدينة حلب تشهد استمرار القصف مع تراجع وتيرة الاشتباكات بعد تقدم قوات النظام في أجزاء جديدة من المربع المتبقي تحت سيطرة الفصائل
- Continued attempts by regime forces to take full control in eastern Aleppo leading to the death of dozens
-  
- "Syrian Army Set for Victory in Aleppo". Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
Russia Defence Forum
- شهداء وجرحى في قصف متجدد على حلب الشرقية وسقوط قذائف على مناطق في حي الشيخ مقصود
- "Fighters retaliate for the tenth convoy attack the regime forces in Aleppo city, and tens of buses are preparing to start heading towards Al-Fu'ah, Kafriya and Madaya simultaneously".
- Syrian Rebellion Obs [@Syria_Rebel_Obs] (12 December 2016). "ADD.: according to #SRO contact in Darat Iza, only 600 were still inside the last pocket. Losses are cumulating to 450 since 3 weeks (1)" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Syrian general says Aleppo offensive in final stages". 12 December 2016 – via Reuters.
- "Hundreds of civilians, rebels evacuated from Aleppo".
- "Fresh airstrikes kill 31 civilians in Syria's Aleppo". Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "Syria: Russia starts large-scale offensive against jihadist militias". 15 November 2016.
- "Syria's long, brutal civil war may be reaching turning point".
- "Syria: Is the multi-sided conflict at a turning point?". 5 December 2016.
- "A domino effect in Aleppo regime victory?". 9 December 2016.
- Marcus, Jonathan (19 October 2016). "Russia's naval task force: Power play or just theatre?". BBC News. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- "Russian warships sailing through English Channel 'a smokescreen' for something else entirely". The Independent. 21 October 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- Lockie, Alex (21 October 2016). "Britain's Royal Navy is 'man-marking' Russian warships en route to Syria". Business Insider. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "The Royal Navy - quietly getting on with the job | Save the Royal Navy". www.savetheroyalnavy.org. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "Putin sends two warships from the Mediterranean to split the Royal Navy's". MogazNews. 20 October 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
- AS, TV 2. "Russerne avbrøt øvelse i Norskehavet - nå er de på vei sørover mot Syria". TV 2 (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- Reyes, Brian. "Russia drops Ceuta pit-stop amid NATO concern". Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- "Russian ships 'refuelling off Africa'". BBC News. 27 October 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
- "«Адмирал Григорович» с «Калибрами» усилит средиземноморскую группировку ВМФ". vz.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 23 March 2020.
- "Russia ships 'chase off Dutch sub' in Med". BBC News. 9 November 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
- "Новейший фрегат "Адмирал Григорович" вернулся в Севастополь". Центральный Военно-Морской Портал (in Russian). Retrieved 23 March 2020.
- "Russia uses aircraft carrier for big attack on Syrian rebels". Reuters. 15 November 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
- "Russian forces start large-scale operation against IS in Syria". www.unian.info. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
- "Syria conflict: Air strikes resume on rebel-held Aleppo". BBC. 16 November 2016.
- Graham-Harrison, Emma (15 November 2016). "Aleppo airstrikes restart as Russia announces major Syria offensive". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
- "Final preparations made for largest Syrian Army offensive in Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. 16 November 2016.
- Aboufadel, Leith (16 November 2016). "Final preparations made for largest Syrian Army offensive in Aleppo". AMN - Al-Masdar News | المصدر نيوز. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
- "Syrian Army attacks important suburb in southwest Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. 16 November 2016.
- "Regime forces shell several areas in Aleppo city and its countryside and shells target the western neighborhoods of Aleppo". Syria HR. 17 November 2016.
- The Inside Source [@InsideSourceInt] (19 November 2016). "#Syria // #Aleppo // Significant SAA advance in Bustan Al Pusha district today amidst heavy clashes" (Tweet). Retrieved 20 November 2016 – via Twitter.
- "Syrian Army captures all important hill in eastern Aleppo – Map update". Al-Masdar News. 19 November 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- Regime forces advance in areas at the outskirts of Aleppo
- "Syrian Army seizes factories near newly captured hill in eastern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. 19 November 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- 19 casualties at least in the eastern neighborhoods of Aleppo due to heavy shelling and regime forces advance to entrances of Masaken Hanano
- Adra, Zen (20 November 2016). "Aleppo Update: jihadi groups launch counteroffensive as battles intensify". Retrieved 23 November 2016.
- Fadel, Leith (21 November 2016). "Syrian Army foils Islamist counter-offensive in east Aleppo: map". Retrieved 23 November 2016.
- PCL., Post Publishing. "Bangkok Post article". Retrieved 23 November 2016.
- Clashes continue on several fronts of Aleppo
- Fadel, Leith (21 November 2016). "Syrian Army renews offensive in southern Aleppo". Retrieved 23 November 2016.
- Adra, Zen (22 November 2016). "Jihadi groups lose more fighters in southern Aleppo while foiling Army attack". Retrieved 23 November 2016.
- "Civilians fleeing east Aleppo turned back by gunfire - The National". Retrieved 23 November 2016.
- "Civilians flee as Syria regime advances in rebel Aleppo". Retrieved 23 November 2016.
- Tomson, Chris (24 November 2016). "Syrian Army makes huge gains inside rebel heartland of Aleppo city – Map update". AMN - Al-Masdar News | المصدر نيوز. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
- "Syrian forces aim to split east Aleppo in two: rebel commander". 25 November 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2016 – via Reuters.
- بعد تقدمها في مساكن هنانو ومحاور أخرى…قوات النظام تواصل محاولات تحقيق مزيد من التقدم في شرق حلب
- The Inside Source [@InsideSourceInt] (25 November 2016). "#Syria // #Aleppo // Rebels are withdrawing from their last positions inside the Hanano district" (Tweet). Retrieved 28 November 2016 – via Twitter.
- Violent clashes in Shekh Lutfi in Aleppo
- "Syrian troops capture east Aleppo neighborhood from rebels". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- Tomson, Chris (26 November 2016). "Syrian Army fully captures Hanano district in eastern Aleppo - Map update". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- Regime forces takes control on Hanano housings neighborhood
- "Syria war: Army makes rapid gains in rebel-held east Aleppo". 27 November 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2016 – via www.bbc.com.
- 50 قتيلا بحلب والنظام يتحدث عن التقدم شرقها
- Fadel, Leith (26 November 2016). "Syrian Army captures most of key east Aleppo district". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- Barrington, Lisa (27 November 2016). "Hundreds displaced in east Aleppo as Syrian army advances". Retrieved 28 November 2016 – via Christian Science Monitor.
- Tomson, Chris (26 November 2016). "600 civilians exit rebel-held Aleppo in one day". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- Yakovlev, Ivan (27 November 2016). "Breaking: Major advance of Syrian Army and allies in Aleppo city". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- "Syrian army Aleppo advance displaces thousands". Archived from the original on 28 November 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- Syria regime takes two more rebel districts in Aleppo
- After 13 days of massive bloody bombing, regime forces are about 1km from cutting the eastern neighborhoods to havles
- "Syria Daily: Pro-Assad Forces Advancing in Eastern Aleppo City - EA WorldView". 27 November 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- "Syria forces retake 6 Aleppo rebel areas, civilians flee". AFP. 28 November 2016.
- Charkatli, Izat (27 November 2016). "Map Update: Syrian Army advances as jihadists mass retreat from east Aleppo districts". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- Charkatli, Izat (27 November 2016). "Rebels in mass retreat in east Aleppo as Syrian Army captures new district". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- editor, Patrick Wintour Diplomatic (27 November 2016). "Syrian rebels' resistance 'waning' as thousands of people flee Aleppo". Retrieved 28 November 2016 – via The Guardian.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- معارك عنيفة تشهدها محاور في مدينة حلب وقوات النظام تتمكن من التقدم في عدة محاور
- "Syrian army captures part of rebel-held east Aleppo". Retrieved 27 November 2016.
- The Inside Source [@InsideSourceInt] (27 November 2016). "#Syria // #Aleppo // Hundreds of civilians are attempting to capitalise on the rebel collapse and leave Eastern Aleppo" (Tweet). Retrieved 28 November 2016 – via Twitter.
- "Nearly 10,000 civilians flee east Aleppo: monitor". 27 November 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- “”بالصوت والصورة” وصول آلاف النازحين إلى حي الشيخ مقصود وقوات النظام تقسم نارياً أحياء حلب الشرقية إلى قسمين جنوبي وشمالي
- Charkatli, Izat (27 November 2016). "Map Update: Syrian Army, Kurds continue steamrolling in east Aleppo as rebels mass retreat". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- 10 killed in the 13th day of bombardment on Aleppo
- The Inside Source [@InsideSourceInt] (28 November 2016). "#Syria // #Aleppo // At least 36 rebels surrendered to SAA units in NE Aleppo recently" (Tweet). Retrieved 28 November 2016 – via Twitter.
- Hassan Ridha [@sayed_ridha] (28 November 2016). "A number of militants have surrendered to Syrian Army & are aiding their advance into east Aleppo, others have defected to SDF like in Halek" (Tweet). Retrieved 28 November 2016 – via Twitter.
- Fadel, Leith (28 November 2016). "Syrian Army captures strategic east Aleppo neighborhood". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- Fadel, Leith (28 November 2016). "Syrian Army keeps rolling in east Aleppo as Sakour District declared under government control". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- "Syrian army seizes key Aleppo area from rebels: Observatory". 28 November 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- "ANALYSIS: The Kurdish 'frenemies' aiding Assad in Aleppo".
- Abdulrahim, Raja (28 November 2016). "Syria Seizes Parts of Aleppo From Rebels" – via Wall Street Journal.
- Tom Perry (4 December 2016). "Rebels tell U.S. they won't leave Aleppo; army sees operation over in weeks". Reuters. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- Aerial bombardment targets eastern Aleppo and continued clashes in the city
-  
- Syria Liveumap
- The Inside Source [@InsideSourceInt] (28 November 2016). "#Syria // #Aleppo // SAA are advancing into the Ma'saraniyah Youth housing. Clashes ongoing" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- The regime forces advance again in Aleppo and seek to secure Aleppo International Airport and its highway
- "Thousands flee as Syrian army pushes into east Aleppo". AP.
- Fadel, Leith (30 November 2016). "Syrian Army captures important site after resuming east Aleppo offensive".
- The regime forces advance in the southern part of the eastern neighborhoods of Aleppo and control large parts of Sheikh Saeed
-  
- "Aleppo rebels vow no surrender as bombardments by regime, allies kill scores of more civilians". 1 December 2016 – via Japan Times Online.
- The Inside Source [@InsideSourceInt] (30 November 2016). "#Syria // #Aleppo // SAA units and foreign allies have captured some building blocks in the exposed side of the Sukkari district" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Charkatli, Izat (1 December 2016). "Syrian Army, allied militias withdraw from Sheikh Sa'eed".
- اشتباكات عنيفة في مدينة حلب مع تقدم لقوات النظام في شرق أحياء المدينة الشرقية وقصف على الريف الجنوبي
- Rebels advance over regime forces in the youth housings and Shekh Saed in Aleppo
- Continued clashes in Aleppo and rebels taking control on 70% of Shekh Said
- "Russia not serious in talks with Syrian rebels: opposition official". 2 December 2016 – via Reuters.
- The Inside Source [@InsideSourceInt] (2 December 2016). "#Syria // #Aleppo // SAA has once again infiltrated rebel held Sheikh Saeed and captured several positions" (Tweet). Retrieved 4 December 2016 – via Twitter.
- "Half of rebel-held Aleppo 'falls to Syrian regime'".
- "Syria army seizes new rebel district in Aleppo — monitor". Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- Renewed airstrikes on Aleppo city and its countryside leave casualties and new advancement for the regime forces in Aleppo
- The Inside Source [@InsideSourceInt] (3 December 2016). "#Syria // #Aleppo // The SAA has captured Karam al-Tarrab in Aleppo" (Tweet). Retrieved 4 December 2016 – via Twitter.
- Charkatli, Izat (2 December 2016). "Map Update: Syrian Army strikes at the heart of east Aleppo".
- 9 casualties in Aleppo city and violent clashes continued in several areas in the central and eastern part of the city
- "Syrian and allied troops advance in besieged Aleppo". 3 December 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- Tomson, Chris (3 December 2016). "Two Syrian pilots killed as rebels shoot down jet over eastern Aleppo". Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- Fadel, Leith (3 December 2016). "Aleppo International Airport officially safe after Syrian Army advance: map". Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- Continued clashes between regime forces and rebels and advances for the regime in Aleppo
- "Russia seeks full withdrawal of Aleppo rebels". 3 December 2016 – via Reuters.
- The regime aim to divide the divided, seek to separate the middle and south of the eastern neighborhoods of Aleppo and connect its forces to a new corridor to the Citadel of Aleppo
- Hassan Ridha [@sayed_ridha] (4 December 2016). "Syrian Army capture al-Helwaniyah & al-Jazmati roundabouts and advance inside al-Miysar neighbourhood" (Tweet). Retrieved 4 December 2016 – via Twitter.
- Hassan Ridha [@sayed_ridha] (4 December 2016). "Only 2km separates Miysar neighbourhood from Aleppo Citadel" (Tweet). Retrieved 4 December 2016 – via Twitter.
- The Inside Source [@InsideSourceInt] (4 December 2016). "#Syria // #Aleppo // The SAA has seized Karam al-Myassar and Dahret Awwad in East Aleppo, marking the fall of 4 districts in 2 days" (Tweet). Retrieved 4 December 2016 – via Twitter.
- قوات النظام تجدد تقدمها في القسم الأوسط من حلب الشرقية وقصف مستمر يخلف مزيداً من الخسائر البشرية
- "Syrian army tells rebels in Aleppo to leave or die". AP.
- "Rebels defiant as Syrian army nears Aleppo's Old City". 4 December 2016 – via Reuters.
- Regime forces advance in Aleppo city and reach closer to Aleppo castle
- "Raids kill dozens in Syria's Idlib, army advances in Aleppo". AFP.
- Charkatli, Izat (4 December 2016). "Map Update: Syrian Army captures 60% of rebel-held Aleppo in the space of a week".
- The Inside Source [@InsideSourceInt] (4 December 2016). "#Syria // #Aleppo // #SAA is 1km away from linking up with the citadel's eastern side" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Tens of artillery and airstrikes target the eastern Aleppo and its countryside and violent clashes for advancement towards Shaar
- The Inside Source [@InsideSourceInt] (4 December 2016). "#Syria // #Aleppo // Small contingent of rebels were seen withdrawing from Sha'er district is anticipation of its imminent fall" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- The Inside Source [@InsideSourceInt] (5 December 2016). "#Syria // #Aleppo // Fierce clashes engulf many of the Eastern Aleppo fronts. The SAA is advancing across a wide area including shaer area" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Dissatisfaction between civilians of eastern Aleppo after an attack by Fateh al-Sham on rebel warehouses.
- Adra, Zen (4 December 2016). "Rebel forces in Aleppo arrest militants willing to surrender".
- "Syria army takes new Aleppo district: monitor". 5 December 2016. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- "Syrian government forces seize more of Aleppo from rebels". Reuters.
- Fadel, Leith (5 December 2016). "Jihadist rebels launch massive counter-offensive in east Aleppo".
- معارك عنيفة في وسط حلب وقصف مكثف وقذائف تستهدفان شرقها وغربها مع قصف جوي على ريفها
- "Syrian Opposition Seize Huge Parts Of Mayser Neighbourhood In Aleppo - Qasion News Agency".
- Fadel, Leith (5 December 2016). "Syrian Army foils jihadist counter-offensive in east Aleppo".
-  
- The Inside Source [@InsideSourceInt] (6 December 2016). "#Syria // #Aleppo // The SAA has restarted their push around the citadel. Intense clashes reported alongside consistent airstrikes" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Syria army closes in on key Aleppo district - The Peninsula Qatar". Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- "Syria army makes new gains, pins down rebels in Aleppo". 6 December 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- Antonopoulos, Paul (6 December 2016). "Syrian army keeps rolling through East Aleppo, liberating Al-Shaer". Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- The regime forces control the entire neighborhood of al-Shaar and its surroundings and by firearm control areas in the southeastern section of the city
- The Inside Source [@InsideSourceInt] (6 December 2016). "#Syria // #Aleppo // Large scale withdrawal of rebels from the northern districts of the pocket" (Tweet). Retrieved 7 December 2016 – via Twitter.
- Fadel, Leith (6 December 2016). "Syrian Army capture 65 percent of jihadist-held east Aleppo: map". Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- "Aleppo battle: Syrian army presses advance against rebels". 7 December 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- More casualties in Aleppo raise the number to 10 at least and fierce clashes continue middle and west of the city
- The Inside Source [@InsideSourceInt] (6 December 2016). "#Syria // #Aleppo // At least 5 buses full of fighters from East (Southern) Aleppo left the enclave right now" (Tweet). Retrieved 7 December 2016 – via Twitter.
- "Syrian troops enter Aleppo's Old City, poised for war's biggest victory". 7 December 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016 – via Reuters.
- The Inside Source [@InsideSourceInt] (6 December 2016). "#Syria // #Aleppo // 75% of East Alepo is under SAA control after the fall of Old Aleppo" (Tweet). Retrieved 7 December 2016 – via Twitter.
- "Aleppo battle: Syria rebels 'withdraw from old city'". 7 December 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016 – via www.bbc.com.
- Frederik Pleitgen; Jomana Karadsheh; Eyad Kourdi; Laura Smith-Spark. "Aleppo: Syrian regime forces seize most of old city". CNN. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- قوات النظام تقضم المزيد من الأحياء وتقلص سيطرة الفصائل بعد تقدمها مجدداً في أحياء بالقسم الأوسط من حلب و15 شهيداً في المدينة
- Fadel, Leith (7 December 2016). "Syrian Army officially enters surrendered east Aleppo districts". Retrieved 7 December 2016.
-  
- Fadel, Leith (7 December 2016). "Syrian Army seizes large parts of east Aleppo after militant collapse". Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- مزيد من التقدم لقوات النظام في حلب الشرقية مدعماً بغطاء من القصف المكثف والعنيف
- The Inside Source [@InsideSourceInt] (7 December 2016). "#Syria // #Aleppo // Reports of the fall of Al Margh to the SAA in Aleppo are true" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Charkatli, Izat (7 December 2016). "Map Update: Syrian Army captures 85% of east Aleppo, on verge of total military victory".
- Fadel, Leith (8 December 2016). "Syrian Army begins last stage of east Aleppo offensive".
- "Syrian government forces press attack in east Aleppo". 10 December 2016 – via Reuters.
- "Russia says Syria army halts Aleppo attacks as rebels cornered". AFP. 8 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- "Aleppo battle: UN says hundreds of men missing". BBC News. 9 December 2016. Archived from the original on 9 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- "Russia Says Aleppo Combat Has Ceased; Residents Disagree". The New York Times. 9 December 2016.
- "Aleppo battle: Shelling resumes after humanitarian pause". 9 December 2016 – via www.bbc.com.
- "Russian Reconciliation Center evacuated 50,000 civilians from E. Aleppo in past 2 days – MoD".
- "Syria conflict: Aleppo rebels 'stem army advance'". BBC. 11 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- "Exclusive: Syrian rebels get proposal to quit Aleppo, jihadists retake Palmyra". 12 December 2016 – via Reuters.
-   
- "Russia says no safe exit for Aleppo rebels proposed".
- ""Terrifying" scene as thousands penned in by Syrian army advance".
- "Aleppo operation in final stages, Syrian general says".
- The Inside Source [@InsideSourceInt] (12 December 2016). "#Syria // #Aleppo / large scale collapse of rebel lines in the Fardous district and its surroundings" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Aleppo: Massacre reported as Syrian army presses assault on last rebel holdout".
- The Inside Source [@InsideSourceInt] (12 December 2016). "#Syria // #Aleppo // SAA is advancing at an unprecedented pace in East Aleppo. Many cases of rebels surrendering today" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "The regime forces continue their attempts to take over the rest of the eastern Aleppo, and kill tens of civilians, fighters and their families in the neighborhoods they advanced to". SOHR. 13 December 2016.
- "A local activist in Aleppo shared a haunting video of the deserted streets ..." CNN. 13 December 2016.
- Fadel, Leith (12 December 2016). "Jihadists begin complete withdrawal from east Aleppo".
- "Syrian forces suppressing last pockets of militant resistance in Aleppo ― media". TASS. 13 December 2016.
- Adra, Zen (13 December 2016). "Aleppo rebels squeezed as Syrian Army retakes more territories. Map Update".
- "Aleppo battle: UN says civilians shot on the spot". 13 December 2016 – via www.bbc.com.
- "Atrocities in Aleppo as regime kills, rapes, burns bodies".
- "Aleppo battle: UN says civilians shot on the spot". BBC. 13 December 2016.
- "'It is past time for you to act' to end carnage in Aleppo, UN chief tells emergency Security Council session". UN News Center. 13 December 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- "Aleppo battle ends as Syria rebel deal reached". BBC News. 13 December 2016.
- "Syria: Reports of execution-style killings in Aleppo point to war crimes".
- The Daily Beast, 13 December 2016, Women in Aleppo Choose Suicide Over Rape, Rebels Report
- Russians call Aleppo massacre allegations as ‘blatant lies’. TASS. 16 December 2016.
- "Syrian rebels say Aleppo truce deal struck, to take effect shortly". 13 December 2016 – via Reuters.
- "Syria rebels reach evacuation deal with government".
- "Battle of Aleppo ends after years of bloodshed with rebel withdrawal". 13 December 2016 – via Reuters.
- Fadel, Leith (13 December 2016). "Militants to surrender all of east Aleppo: map".
- Shaheen, Kareem (13 December 2016). "Aleppo residents await evacuation after ceasefire deal offers hope of survival" – via The Guardian.
- "Deal reached for evacuation of civilians from Aleppo after Turkey's mediation". Daily Sabah.
- "Russia says fighting in Aleppo over as UN decries 'worst humanitarian tragedy of the 21st century'". 13 December 2016.
- "Cease-fire deal reached in Aleppo amid 'complete meltdown of humanity'".
- "Syrian Observatory: Aleppo evacuation delayed, not clear why". 14 December 2016 – via Reuters.
- "Syria rebels and civilians 'obstructed' by pro-Assad Shiite militias from leaving Aleppo".
- "Evacuation of jihadist forces delayed in east Aleppo". Al-Masdar News.
- "Aleppo hit by air strikes and shelling as evacuation stalls". Reuters.
- "Aleppo: Ceasefire broken as evacuation of civilians delayed". CNN.
- "Russia says Syrian troops retake Aleppo district". Ynetnews.
- "Aleppo battle: Raids on Syria city 'likely a war crime' UN says". BBC. 14 December 2016 – via www.bbc.com.
- "Aleppo Evacuation Effort Restarts, and Assad Calls It History in the Making". The New York Times. 15 December 2016.
- "Syrian army wards off breakthrough attempt by militants in Aleppo". GEOPOLMonitor. 14 December 2016. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
- "Syrian government forces make new advance in Aleppo: Syrian Observatory". Reuters. 14 December 2016.
- "Aleppo assault likely a war crime, says U.N. as evacuation stalls". Reuters.
- "Syrian rebels say Aleppo deal back on track, but Hezbollah unit cites 'big complications'". Reuters. 14 December 2016.
- "All set for Syria rebels, civilians to start leaving Aleppo". 15 December 2016. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- "Cease-fire once again reached in Syria's Aleppo". Anadolu Agency. 15 December 2016.
- "Guns fall silent in Aleppo with evacuation due to start". Reuters. 15 December 2016.
- "Preparations begun to take Aleppo fighters to Khan Touman: Hezbollah military media". Reuters.
- "Russian soldiers preparing to lead rebels out of Aleppo - defence ministry". Reuters.
- "Russia says Red Cross to help with Aleppo evacuation". Reuters.
- Shaheen, Kareem (15 December 2016). "Hundreds leave besieged east Aleppo on first day of evacuation" – via The Guardian.
- "Syrian official says operation begins to evacuate eastern Aleppo". Reuters.
- Weaver, Matthew (15 December 2016). "Operation to evacuate people from Aleppo begins – as it happened" – via The Guardian.
- The first group arrives from factions’ controlled square in Aleppo to the western countryside
- "Aleppo rebel evacuation under way after ceasefire deal". Reuters.
- "First Civilians Evacuated From East Aleppo". ABC News.
- "The Jabhat Fath Al-Sham were among the first to leave besieged Aleppo and the fate of those they arrested remains unknown". Aleppo 24. 17 December 2016. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- "Aleppo: First convoy carrying injured leaves rebel-held areas in city". Eagle Radio. Archived from the original on 16 December 2016.
- "Evacuation of east Aleppo under way during ceasefire". Al-Jazeera.
- "Reuters witness: evacuation begins from rebel-held Aleppo area". Reuters.
- Rebels burn their properties before leaving eastern Aleppo
- "Russia says Syrian army is wrapping up operations in Aleppo". 15 December 2016 – via Reuters.
- The third group of Aleppo’s besieged people gets out to Aleppo’s countryside within the Turkish – Russian agreement framework
- "U.N. Syria envoy says rebel city Idlib risks Aleppo fate if no peace talks". 16 December 2016 – via Reuters.
- 8500 including 3000 rebels leave eastern Aleppo in less than 24 hours
- "Syria government, rebels working to secure Aleppo evacuation deal". Reuters.
- "ICRC says total of 25,000 evacuated from Aleppo". Reuters. 20 December 2016.
- "The Latest: Russia claims Aleppo evacuations are 'completed'". 16 December 2016. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
- "Syria suspends Aleppo evacuations, blaming rebels". 16 December 2016 – via www.bbc.com.
- Shaheen, Kareem (16 December 2016). "Aleppo evacuation suspended as al-Qaida-linked rebels obstruct deal" – via The Guardian.
- "Hezbollah-run media outlet: protesters block road used for Aleppo evacuations". 16 December 2016 – via Reuters.
- The Inside Source [@InsideSourceInt] (16 December 2016). "#Syria // #Aleppo // Protesters on the streets in Ramousah demanding the evacuation of Foua'a and Kefraya, causing the road to be closed" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Aleppo evacuation suspended amid dispute over villages". 16 December 2016 – via Reuters.
- "Aleppo rebels on alert as govt forces block road: rebels".
- "Buses turned back towards eastern Aleppo: Reuters witness".
-  
- Hassan Ridha [@sayed_ridha] (16 December 2016). "Syrian Army & allies advance inside al-Sukkari & al-Ansari neighbourhoods" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Assad forces have completed Aleppo 'liberation', Russia claims". Sky News.
- "Aleppo evacuation resumes after Syrian rebels, pro-government forces reach deal". Times of Oman. 18 December 2016.
- "Syrian Observatory: Villages, Aleppo evacuations postponed until further notice". Reuters. 18 December 2016.
- "Gunmen burn buses, Aleppo convoy goes through". Reuters. 18 December 2016.
- "Aleppo evacuations resume after buses attacked and burned". The Guardian. 19 December 2016.
- "U.N. Will Send Monitors to Aleppo, as Evacuations Resume". New York Times. 19 December 2016.
- Tens of buses enter the factions’ square to transfer hundreds of fighters; the displacement operation of Aleppo city is almost finished
- "Aleppo evacuation: Syrian army warns rebels to leave". BBC. 20 December 2016.
- "Aleppo: 3,000 to leave destroyed Syrian city after evacuations stalled for a day". The Independent. 21 December 2016.
- "Aleppo evacuation resumes after day-long hold-up". Reuters. 21 December 2016.
- "Observatory says Assad controls Aleppo, U.N. official says evacuations ongoing". Reuters. 21 December 2016.
- "4,000 fighters have left Aleppo in latest stage, thousands await evacuation: Red Cross". Reuters. 22 December 2016.
- "Aleppo evacuation is complete, Red Cross says". Reuters. 22 December 2016.
- Ltd, Australian News Channel Pty. "Mass graves found by Russians in Syria".
- Fadel, Leith (23 December 2016). "(Graphic 18+) Rebels massacre over 100 hostages before leaving east Aleppo".
- "Rebels Massacre Over 100 Hostages before Leaving East Aleppo".
- Fadel, Leith (24 December 2016). "Former US-backed rebel group behind east Aleppo massacre".
- The regime forces find bodies of tens of its members, and so far it is not true that they were executed by the factions
- Syria conflict: 'Israeli jets' strike outside Damascus, BBC.
- "Former US-backed rebel group behind east Aleppo massacre". Al-Masdar. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
- New York Times, 13 December 2016, ‘A Complete Meltdown of Humanity’: Aleppo Civilians Reported Killed as They Flee
- tnews.ir. "نخست وزیر یمن، آزادی حلب را تبریک گفت". جستجوگر اخبار تی نیوز tnews.ir (in Persian). Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- خطير, حسن قلي پور. "نخست وزیر یمن، آزادی حلب را به سوریه تبریک گفت". موتور جستجوی قطره. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- "Tasnim News Agency - Iranian DM Congratulates Syria on Liberation of Aleppo from Terrorists". Tasnim News Agency. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- جهان, خبرگزاری باشگاه خبرنگاران | آخرین اخبار ایران و. "المیادین: رئیس جمهور ایران آزادی حلب را به بشار اسد تبریک گفت". خبرگزاری باشگاه خبرنگاران | آخرین اخبار ایران و جهان (in Persian). Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- "Russian defense ministry: We did the impossible in Aleppo - Russia News Now". Russia News Now. 17 December 2016. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- "Singapore Red Cross commits US$10,000 to support displaced and affected communities in Syria". www.redcross.sg. Singapore Red Cross. 15 December 2016. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
- الجزایر: دولت سوریه در حلب بر تروریسم پیروز شد
- "Syria's Assad says Aleppo's capture also 'victory' for Iran, Russia". 23 December 2016.
- Chulov, Martin (17 December 2016). "Russia's influence has risen but Iran is the real winner in Aleppo" – via The Guardian.
- "What comes next in Aleppo?". Al-Masdar News. 18 December 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2016.