Internalized sexism

From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

Internalized sexism takes the form of sexist behaviors and attitudes enacted by women toward themselves or other women and girls.[1][2] On a larger scale, internalized sexism falls under the broad topic of internalized oppression, which "consists of oppressive practices that continue to make the rounds even when members of the oppressor group are not present".[1]

Effects[edit]

Internalized sexism has potential to lead to body issues, lack of self-confidence, competition, and a sense of powerlessness.[3] It is a major setback in resolving issues of sexism as a whole.[4] Ties to psychological distress such as anxious, depressive or somatic symptoms, have been identified as results of internalized sexism.[5] Possible effects can be depression and suicidal impulses[6]

Additionally, studies have found connections between as sexual objectification as a result of internalized sexism and body shame, sexual objectification, and disordered eating.[7] Internalized sexism also plays a role in lowered academic goals[8] and diminished job performance.[9][page needed] On a larger scale, the presence of internalized sexism in the world is believed to alienate those affected from each other and thus further promotes continued sexism as a whole.[4]

Types[edit]

Internalized misogyny[edit]

Misogyny is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against women or girls. Women who experience internalized misogyny may express it through minimizing the value of women, mistrusting women, and believing gender bias in favor of men.[5] Women, after observing societal beliefs which demean the value and skills of women repeatedly, eventually internalize those misogynistic beliefs and apply them to themselves and other women.[1] The implications of internalized misogyny include psychological disorders such as depression, eating disorders, low self-esteem, and less social support among women.[5]

Internalized heterosexism[edit]

Dawn M. Szymanski et al. write:

Heterosexism, a term developed within the LGB rights movement and modeled on political concepts, refers to an ideological system that operates on individual, institutional, and cultural levels to stigmatize, deny, and denigrate any nonheterosexual way of being.[10]

Internalized heterosexism is generally defined as the internalization of assumptions, negative attitudes and stigma regarding homosexuality by individuals whom do not identify within the heteronormative spectrum and/or are categorized as sexual minorities to varying degrees.[10] Internalized heterosexism is a manifestation of internalized sexism that primarily affects sexual minority populations (composed of people who identify lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning, or other), however, it can also affect heterosexual populations by dictating how they interact with and relate to non-heterosexual peoples. This phenomenon manifests when sexual minorities begin to adopt rigid, restrictive heteronormative values into their worldviews.

Examples of these heteronormative values are fundamentalist religious doctrines that condemn non-heterosexual orientations and activities, concepts of masculinity and manhood that emphasize restricted emotionality (scholastically referred to as RE), or restrictive affectionate behavior between men (scholastically referred to as RABBM).[6] The internalization of heteronormativity often create Gender Role Conflicts (GRCs) for people whose actions fall outside the parameters of acceptable cultural norms that promote unrealistic and constricting ideas about what it means to be a man or a woman in modern society. One of the most common consequences of internalized heterosexism is intense depression fueled by self-loathing and sexual repression.[6]

"Toxic femininity"[edit]

Brenda R. Weber uses the term toxic femininity for a code of conformity to rigid feminine gender roles, reinforced through (sometimes unconscious) beliefs such as "I'm not worthy" and imperatives to be consistently pleasant, accommodating, and compliant; according to Weber, such beliefs and expectations "[suggest] there is no a priori female self" apart from the needs and desires of men and boys. Weber associates these norms with "usually white, mostly middle-class, relentlessly heterosexual, and typically politically conservative" expectations of femininity.[11]

Roopika Risam writes that charges of toxic femininity have become an Internet meme, exemplary of tensions between feminists online over the concept of intersectionality, and directed primarily towards non-white feminists who are seen as disruptive of mainstream feminist discussions (see Misogynoir).[12] For example, the writer Michelle Goldberg has criticized online call-out culture as "toxic", likening it to feminist Jo Freeman's concept of "trashing".[12]

Modes of internalization[edit]

Early childhood inculturation[edit]

Just as misogyny can be acquired through multiple external sources, internalized misogyny can be learned from those same external forces, in a converse way. Internalized sexism may be promoted through the demeaning of men and women on the basis of their gender in relation to societal and behavioral standards. These same societal and behavioral standards are also thought to be spread through exposure in the media, which reflects the standards of the society that it serves to inform and entertain.

Television and cinema[edit]

There is a long-lasting connection between misogyny and mass media. Comedic sitcoms often portray men degrading the value of women and commenting on women's weight and size. This contributes to the internalization of gender size stereotypes, sometimes negatively affecting the mental and physical health of females.[13] One of the primary problems in mass media is the under-representation of women in widely consumed productions.[14]

The context of children's entertainment is especially pernicious because young minds are highly impressionable and cartoons have been known to play a pedagogical role in childhood development.[15] The Little Mermaid has been criticized[16] because it tells a story of a young woman (Ariel, the aforementioned mermaid of small stature) who gives up her natural identity as a mermaid in order to meet the preferences of her love interest, a human male.[14]

Advertising[edit]

Some writers argue that by constantly creating ads that represent women in positions of bondage, being sexually harassed, or as sexual objects, advertisers are constantly beaming misogynistic messages into the public consciousness.[17][better source needed]

Gender differences in language and communication[edit]

Differences in communication across genders is influenced by internalized sexism portrayed in everyday conversation. The main target of internalized sexism are predominantly women who are regarded as inferior. In everyday conversation, women are scrutinized by objectification, use of derogatory terms, or invalidated either by other women or men. The manner of communication and language use, objectifies the woman. Other forms of language use toward women include the use of derogatory terms such as; “bitch” slut” “hoe” etc. as forms of invalidation. These terms are used as a form of gender role policing, for women who defy gender norms or hold more assertive and vocal qualities. These conversational practices objectify, invalidate and perpetuate internalized sexism.

There are significant differences in language use between genders. Language can also act as a moderator of the maintenance of power imbalance between groups. Derogation and criticism perpetuate social stigma which then become internalized by those affected who become critical of themselves and members of their own gender or diminish their own voices. This is known as horizontal oppression influenced by systematic invalidation and internal dynamics of internalized sexism.[9][page needed]

Combating internalized sexism[edit]

While a lot of research has been done on internalized sexism many in the field believe substantially more is needed.[18] Research is aimed at bring to light cultural practices that result in internalized sexism, helping people to understand how to bring about positive change. For example, observations of conversation have been made and published, raising awareness of conversational practices deemed to promote internalized sexism. These include qualitative studies of interpersonal conversations between women, followed by collaborative coding of instances of internalized sexism within parameters agreed by the researchers, followed by raising awareness of the findings regarding these conversations, and any broader systems of sexisms they may be considered a subset of.[1] Other methods include encouraging people to be intentional and decline to participate in derogation, invalidation and objectification of members of the same gender. Empowerment, support, and collaboration are all effective ways to combat internalized sexism.[19] Combating the effects of internalized sexism are promotes collaboration and support between individuals of the same gender, and empowers women and men to accept their bodies.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Bearman, Steve; Korobov, Neill; Thorne, Avril (2009). "The Fabric of Internalized Sexism" (PDF). Journal of Integrated Social Sciences. 1 (1): 10–47. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.684.5532. Internalized sexism [...] occurs when women enact learned sexist behaviors upon themselves and other women
  2. ^ Bearman, Steve; Amrhein, Marielle (2014). "Girls, Women, and Internalized Sexism". In David, E.J.R. (ed.). Internalized Oppression: The Psychology of Marginalized Groups. Springer Publishing Company. p. 192. doi:10.1891/9780826199263.0008. ISBN 978-0-8261-9925-6. [I]nternalized sexism [...] is acted out within or between women, even when no men are present. A woman believing herself to be inferior, and undeserving of equal rights, or women treating other women and girls as if their worth is based on their sexual attractiveness, are examples of internalized sexism.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  3. ^ Bearman & Amrhein (2014), p. 199.
  4. ^ a b Paludi, M. A. The Psychology of Teen Violence and Victimization, Volume 1. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2011.
  5. ^ a b c Szymanski, Gupta, and Carr. 2009. "Internalized Misogyny as a Moderator of the Link between Sexist Events and Women’s Psychological Distress." Sex Roles 16, no. 1-2: 101-109.
  6. ^ a b c Szymanski, Dawn M., and Ayse S. Ikizler. 2013. "Internalized heterosexism as a mediator in the relationship between gender role conflict, heterosexist discrimination, and depression among sexual minority men." Psychology of Men and Masculinity 14, no. 2: 211-219. doi:10.1037/a0027787
  7. ^ Moradi, Dirks, and Matteson. 2005. “Roles of Sexual Objectification Experiences and Internalization of Standards of Beauty in Eating Disorder Symptomatology: A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory.” Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(3): 420-428.
  8. ^ Montanes, de Lemus, Bohner, Megias, Moya, and Garcia-Retamero. 2012. “Intergenerational Transmission of Benevolent Sexism from Mothers to Daughter and its Relation to Daughter’ Academic Performance and Goals.” Sex Roles 66 (7-8): 468-478.
  9. ^ a b Bearman & Amrhein (2014).
  10. ^ a b Szymanski, Dawn M.; Kashubeck-West, Susan; Meyer, Jill (July 2008). "Internalized Heterosexism". The Counseling Psychologist. 36 (4): 510–524. doi:10.1177/0011000007309488. ISSN 0011-0000. S2CID 145071914.
  11. ^ Weber, Brenda R. (2019). Latter-day Screens: Gender, Sexuality, and Mediated Mormonism. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press. pp. 202, 206–7. ISBN 978-1-4780-0529-2.
  12. ^ a b Risam, Roopika (2015). "Toxic Femininity 4.0". First Monday. English Faculty Publications. 2. Salem State University. 20 (4). doi:10.5210/fm.v20i4.5896.
  13. ^ Fouts, Gregory, and Kimberley Burggraf. 2000. "Television Situation Comedies: Female Weight, Male Negative Comments, and Audience Reactions." Sex Roles 42, no. 9-10: 925-932.
  14. ^ a b Wood, Julia T. Gendered Lives: Communication, Gender, and Culture. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, 1994.
  15. ^ Wojik-Andrews, Ian. Children's FIlms: History, Ideology, Pedagogy, Theory. New York City, NY: Garland Publishing. 2000.
  16. ^ Maio, Kathi (December 1998). "Disney's Dolls". New Internationalist.
  17. ^ Leo, Alex. “Five Sexist Trends the Advertising World Just Can't Shake,” Huffington Post, July 10, 2010, accessed November 7, 2014.
  18. ^ Becker, Julia C.; Zawadzki, Matthew J.; Shields, Stephanie A. (2014). "Confronting and Reducing Sexism: A Call for Research on Intervention". Journal of Social Issues. 70 (4): 603–614. doi:10.1111/josi.12081. ISSN 0022-4537.
  19. ^ Becker, Julia C.; Zawadzki, Matthew J.; Shields, Stephanie A. (2014-12-01). "Confronting and Reducing Sexism: A Call for Research on Intervention". Journal of Social Issues. 70 (4): 603–614. doi:10.1111/josi.12081. ISSN 1540-4560.