AS Roma

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Roma
Full nameAssociazione Sportiva Roma S.p.A.
Nickname(s)I Giallorossi (The Yellow and Reds)
La Lupa (The She-Wolf)
La Magica (The Magic One)
Capitolini (Capitoline)
Lupetti (Little Cubs)
Lupi (Wolves)
Founded7 June 1927; 96 years ago (1927-06-07)
(by Italo Foschi)
GroundStadio Olimpico
Capacity70,634[1]
OwnerThe Friedkin Group (95.97%)
PresidentDan Friedkin
Head coachDaniele De Rossi
LeagueSerie A
2022–23Serie A, 6th of 20
WebsiteClub website
Current season

Associazione Sportiva Roma (Rome Sport Association), commonly referred to as Roma (Italian pronunciation: [ˈroːma]), is a professional football club based in Rome, Italy. Established through a merger in 1927, Roma has maintained a consistent presence in the top tier of Italian football throughout its history, barring the 1951–52 season. Roma has won Serie A three times, in 1941–42, 1982–83 and 2000–01, as well as nine Coppa Italia titles and two Supercoppa Italiana titles. In European competitions, Roma won the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup in 1960–61 and the UEFA Europa Conference League in 2021–22, while they finished runners-up in the 1983–84 European Cup, the 1990–91 UEFA Cup and the 2022–23 UEFA Europa League.

Noteworthy players who have represented Roma include sixteen FIFA World Cup winners: Attilio Ferraris and Enrique Guaita (1934); Guido Masetti and Eraldo Monzeglio (1934 and 1938); Aldo Donati and Pietro Serantoni (1938); Bruno Conti (1982); Rudi Völler and Thomas Berthold (1990); Aldair (1994); Vincent Candela (1998); Cafu (2002); Daniele De Rossi, Simone Perrotta; Francesco Totti (2006) and Paulo Dybala (2022).

Since 1953, Roma has called the Stadio Olimpico home, sharing the venue with city rivals Lazio. With a seating capacity exceeding 72,000, the stadium ranks as the second-largest in Italy, surpassed only by the San Siro. Although plans for a new stadium are in place, construction has yet to commence. Known for their intense local rivalry, Roma and Lazio engage in the Derby della Capitale.

The club's home colours are carmine red and golden yellow, which gives Roma its nickname "I Giallorossi" ("The Yellow and Reds"). These colours have often been combined with white shorts. The club badge features a she-wolf, an allusion to the founding myth of Rome.

History

Foundation

Attilio Ferraris, Roma captain during their formative years

AS Roma was founded in the spring of 1927 when Italo Foschi[2] initiated the merger of three older Italian Football Championship clubs from the city of Rome: Roman FC, SS Alba-Audace and Fortitudo-Pro Roma SGS.[2] Foschi was an important Roman representative of the ruling National Fascist Party.[3][4]

The purpose of the merger was to give the Italian capital a strong club to rival that of the more dominant Northern Italian clubs of the time.[2] The only major Roman club to resist the merger was Lazio because of the intervention of the army General Vaccaro, a member of the club and executive of Italian Football Federation (FIGC). All three founding clubs were relegated, but the fascist-aligned FIGC bet over the capacity of the new team to give a stronger representation to the capital of Italy, and they were awarded a wild card for the Divisione Nazionale, the Serie A forerunner. The club played its earliest seasons at the Motovelodromo Appio stadium,[5] before settling in the working-class streets of Testaccio, where it built an all-wooden ground Campo Testaccio; this was opened in November 1929.[6] An early season in which Roma made a large mark was the 1930–31 championship, where the club finished as runners-up behind Juventus.[7] Captain Attilio Ferraris, along with Guido Masetti, Fulvio Bernardini and Rodolfo Volk, were highly important players during this period.[8]

First title victory and decline

The Roma of the first scudetto in 1942

After a slump[tone] in league form and the departure of high key players,[clarification needed] Roma eventually rebuilt their squad, adding goalscorers such as the Argentine Enrique Guaita.[9] Under the management of Luigi Barbesino, the Roman club came close to their first title in 1935–36, finishing just one point behind champions Bologna.[10]

Roma returned to form after being inconsistent for much of the late 1930s. Roma recorded an unexpected title triumph[tone] in the 1941–42 season by winning their first scudetto title.[11] The 18 goals scored by local player Amedeo Amadei were essential to the Alfréd Schaffer-coached Roma side winning the title. At the time, Italy was involved in the Second World War, and Roma were playing at the Stadio Nazionale PNF.[12]

In the years just after the war, Roma were unable to recapture their league stature from the early 1940s. Roma finished in the lower half of Serie A for five seasons in a row, before eventually succumbing[tone] to their only ever relegation to Serie B at the end of the 1950–51 season,[7][13] around a decade after their championship victory. Under future Italy national team manager Giuseppe Viani, promotion straight back up was achieved.[14]

After returning to the Serie A, Roma managed to stabilise themselves as a top-half club again with players such as Egisto Pandolfini, Dino da Costa and Dane Helge Bronée.[7] Their best finish of this period was under the management of Englishman Jesse Carver, when in 1954–55, they finished as runners-up after Udinese, who originally finished second, were relegated for corruption.[7] Although Roma were unable to break into the top four during the following decade, they did achieve some measure of cup success. Their first honour outside of Italy was recorded in 1960–61 when Roma won the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup by defeating Birmingham City 4–2 in the finals.[15] A few years later, Roma won their first Coppa Italia trophy in 1963–64, after defeating Torino 1–0.[16]

Their lowest point came during the 1964–65 season, when manager Juan Carlos Lorenzo announced the club could not pay its players and was unlikely to be able to afford to travel to Vicenza to fulfil its next fixture.[citation needed] Supporters kept the club going with a fundraiser at the Sistine Theatre and bankruptcy was avoided with the election of a new club president Franco Evangelisti.[citation needed]

Their second Coppa Italia trophy was won in 1968–69, when it competed in a small, league-like system.[16] Giacomo Losi set a Roma appearance record in 1969 with 450 appearances in all competitions, a record that would last 38 years.[17]

Time of mixed fortunes from the 1970s to the 1990s

Club captain Giacomo Losi with the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup in 1960–61

Roma were able to add another cup to their collection in 1972, with a 3–1 victory over Blackpool in the Anglo-Italian Cup.[18] During much of the 1970s, Roma's appearance in the top half of Serie A was sporadic. The best place the club were able to achieve during the decade was third in 1974–75.[7] Notable players who turned out for the club during this period included midfielders Giancarlo De Sisti and Francesco Rocca.[clarification needed]

The dawning of a newly successful era in Roma's footballing history was brought in with another Coppa Italia victory; they defeated Torino on penalties to win the 1979–80 edition.[16] Roma would reach heights in the league which they had not touched[vague][tone] since the 1940s by narrowly and controversially finishing as runners-up to Juventus in 1980–81.[19] Former Milan player Nils Liedholm was the manager at the time, with players such as Bruno Conti, Agostino Di Bartolomei, Roberto Pruzzo and Falcão.[20]

The second scudetto did not elude Roma for much longer. In 1982–83, the Roman club won the title for the first time in 41 years, amidst celebrations in the capital.[21] The following season, Roma finished as runners-up in Italy[7] and collected a Coppa Italia title;[16] they also finished as runners-up in the European Cup final of 1984.[22] The European Cup final with Liverpool ended in a 1–1 draw with a goal from Pruzzo, but Roma eventually lost in the penalty shoot-out.[22] Roma's successful run in the 1980s would finish with a runners-up spot in 1985–86[7] and a Coppa Italia victory, beating out Sampdoria 3–2.[16]

Afterwards, a comparative decline began in the league, one of the few league highs from the following period being a third-place finish in 1987–88.[7] At the start of the 1990s, the club was involved in an all-Italian UEFA Cup final, which they lost 2–1 to Internazionale in 1991.[23] The same season, the club won its seventh Coppa Italia[16] and ended runners-up to Sampdoria in the Supercoppa Italiana. Aside from finishing runners-up to Torino in a Coppa Italia final,[16] the rest of the decade was largely sub-par in the history of Roma, particularly in the league, where the highest they could manage was fourth in 1997–98.[7] The early 1990s also saw the emergence of homegrown striker Francesco Totti, who would go on to be an important member of the team and the club's iconic captain.

Third scudetto in the Sensi era

17 June 2001 – Roma-Parma 3–1: Roma won their third Italian championship in its history. Fans of the Curva Sud are overjoyed.

Roma won their third Serie A title in 2000–01. The Scudetto was won on the last day of the season after defeating Parma 3–1, edging Juventus by two points.[7] The club's captain, Francesco Totti, was a large reason for the title victory and he would become one of the main heroes in the club's history,[20] going on to break several club records.[20] Other important players during this period included: Aldair, Cafu, Gabriel Batistuta and Vincenzo Montella.[24]

In the 2001–02 Serie A, Roma ended as runners-up to Juventus by one point.[7] This would be the start of Roma finishing as runners-up several times in both Serie A and Coppa Italia during the 2000s – they lost out 4–2 to Milan in the Coppa Italia final of 2003,[16] and lost to Milan again by finishing second in Serie A for the 2003–04 season.[7] The club also re-capitalized several[quantify] time[vague][clarification needed] in 2003–04 season. In November 2003, €37.5 million was injected by "Roma 2000" to cover the half-year loss and loss carried from the previous year,[25] and again on 30 June for €44.57 million.[26] Through stock market,[vague][clarification needed] a further €19.850 million of new shares issued,[vague][by whom?][clarification needed] and at the year end, the share capital was €19.878 million,[27] which was unchanged as of 2011. The following season also saw the departure of Walter Samuel for €25 million and Emerson for €28 million, which decreased the strength of the squad.[citation needed] The Giallorossi finished in eighth place, one of the worst of recent seasons.

Francesco Totti, with the 2007–08 Coppa Italia

On 9 July 2006, Roma's Francesco Totti, Daniele De Rossi and Simone Perrotta were part of the Italy national team which defeated France in the 2006 FIFA World Cup final.[28] In the Calciopoli scandal of 2006, Roma were not one of the teams involved. After punishments were issued, Roma was re-classified as runners-up for 2005–06,[29] the same season they finished second in the Coppa Italia losing to Internazionale.[16] In the two following seasons, 2006–07 and 2007–08, Roma finished as Serie A runners-up, meaning that in the 2000s, Roma finished in the top two positions more than any other decade in their history.[30] Meanwhile, in the UEFA Champions League during both of these seasons, they reached the quarter-finals before going out to Manchester United.[citation needed] In the 2008–09 Champions League, Roma reached the knockout stage ahead of Chelsea in their group, thus finishing for the first time in their history as winners of the group stage.[citation needed] However, they lost to Arsenal in the knockout stage on penalty kicks.

After a disappointing start to the 2009–10 season, Claudio Ranieri replaced Luciano Spalletti as head coach.[citation needed] At the time of the switch, Roma lay bottom of the Serie A table after losses to Juventus and Genoa.[citation needed] Despite this setback, Roma went on unbeaten streak of 24 matches in the league – with the last of the 24 being a 2–1 win over rivals Lazio, whereby they came from 1–0 down at half-time to defeat their city rivals after Ranieri substituted both Totti and De Rossi at the interval.[31] The Giallorossi were on top of the table at one point,[vague][when?][clarification needed] before a loss to Sampdoria later in the season.[citation needed] Roma would finish runners-up to Internazionale yet again in both Serie A and the Coppa Italia.[citation needed] During the 2000s, Roma had finally recaptured the Scudetto, two Coppa Italia trophies, and their first two Supercoppa Italiana titles.[citation needed] Other notable contributions to the club's history included a return to the Champions League quarter-finals (in the 2006–07 and 2007–08 editions) since 1984,[vague][clarification needed] six runners up positions in the league, four Coppa Italia finals and three Supercoppa finals – marking Roma's greatest ever decade.

American ownership and Pallotta era

In the summer of 2010, the Sensi family agreed to relinquish their control of Roma as part of a debt-settlement agreement, ending their reign that had begun in 1993.[citation needed] Until a new owner was appointed, Rosella Sensi continued her directorial role of the club.[citation needed] Following a series of poor results that saw Roma engage in a winless streak of five consecutive matches, Claudio Ranieri resigned as head coach in February 2011, and former striker Vincenzo Montella was appointed as caretaker manager until the end of the season.[citation needed] It was also during this season that Roma icon[tone] Francesco Totti scored his 200th Serie A goal against Fiorentina in March 2011, becoming only[tone] the sixth player to achieve such a feat.

Francesco Totti, the top goalscorer and the player with the most appearances player in Roma's history

On 16 April 2011, the takeover contract was closed with an American investment group led by Thomas R. DiBenedetto, with James Pallotta, Michael Ruane and Richard D'Amore as partners.[citation needed] DiBenedetto became the 22nd president of the club, serving from 27 September 2011 to 27 August 2012, and was succeeded by Pallotta.[32] The new intermediate holding company, NEEP Roma Holding, was 60% owned by American's "AS Roma SPV, LLC" and the rest (40%) was retained by the creditor of Sensi, UniCredit.[citation needed] In turn, NEEP owned all shares held previously by Sensi (about 67%) with the rest free float in the stock market.[citation needed] UniCredit later disinvested NEEP Roma Holding to sell to "AS Roma SPV, LLC" and Pallotta.

The new ownership hired Walter Sabatini as director of football and former Spanish international and Barcelona B coach Luis Enrique as manager.[citation needed] Signings included attacking midfielder Erik Lamela from River Plate and forward Bojan from Barcelona, as well as Dani Osvaldo and Miralem Pjanić.[33] On the pitch, the team were eliminated from 2011–12 UEFA Europa League play-off round by Slovan Bratislava.[citation needed] In 2012, Pallotta became the new president.[citation needed] The 2012–13 pre-season started with the hiring of former manager Zdeněk Zeman.[citation needed] He was sacked on 2 February 2013,[34] while the team ended up in sixth place in Serie A, and lost 1–0 to rivals Lazio in the Coppa Italia final.[citation needed] It was the first time that Lazio and Roma clashed[tone] in the Coppa Italia final.[citation needed] As a result, Roma missed out on European competition for the second-straight season.[35]

Rudi Garcia coaching Roma in 2014

On 12 June 2013, Rudi Garcia was appointed the new manager of Roma.[36] He won his first ten matches (an all-time Serie A record) including a 2–0 derby win against Lazio, a 3–0 victory away to Internazionale and a 2–0 home win over title rivals Napoli.[37] During this run, Roma scored 24 times while conceding just once, away to Parma.[citation needed] The club earned 85 points and finished second to Juventus, who won the league with a record-breaking 102 points.[citation needed] In 2014–15, Roma finished second behind Juventus for the second consecutive season after a poor run of form in 2015.[citation needed] At the end of season, the club was sanctioned for loss making and breaking UEFA Financial Fair Play Regulations, being punished with a fine of up to €6 million and a limited squad for UEFA competitions.[38]

Ahead of the 2015–16 season, Roma acquired Bosnia international, Edin Džeko, from Manchester City on a €4 million loan with an €11 million option to buy clause,[39][40] which was activated.[41] On 13 January 2016, Garcia was sacked after a run of one win in seven Serie A matches.[42] Luciano Spalletti was subsequently appointed manager of Roma for his second spell.[43] On 21 February, Totti publicly criticised Spalletti due to his own lack of playing-time since returning from injury.[citation needed] Consequently, Totti was subsequently dropped by Spalletti for Roma's 5–0 win over Palermo, with the decision causing an uproar[tone] among the fans and in the media.[44] After their initial disagreements, Spalletti began to use Totti as an immediate impact substitute, and he contributed with four goals and one assist after coming off the bench in five consecutive Serie A matches.[45][46] Spalletti was able to lead Roma from a mid-table spot to a third-place finish in Serie A, clinching the UEFA Champions League play-off spot.[47]

During the summer of 2016, Roma lost midfielder Miralem Pjanić to rivals Juventus to improve its financial position.[48] On 27 April 2017, Roma appointed sporting director Monchi, formerly of Sevilla FC.[49] On 28 May that year, on the last day of the 2016–17 season, Totti made his 786th and final appearance for Roma before retiring in a 3–2 home win against Genoa, coming on as a substitute for Mohamed Salah in the 54th minute and received a standing ovation from the fans.[50] The win saw Roma finish second in Serie A behind Juventus.[citation needed] Daniele De Rossi succeeded Totti as club captain and signed a new two-year contract.[51]

The 2017–18 Roma side before a UEFA Champions League Round of 16 match against Shakhtar Donetsk

On 13 June 2017, former Roma player Eusebio Di Francesco was appointed as the club's new manager, replacing Spalletti, who had left for Internazionale.[52] Roma again lost a key player during the summer transfer window, with Mohamed Salah joining Liverpool F.C. for a fee of €39 million (£34m).[53] Several new players joined the club, including a club-record deal of up to €40 million for Sampdoria striker Patrik Schick.[54] In the 2017–18 UEFA Champions League Roma were drawn against FC Barcelona in the quarter-finals, being defeated 4–1 away in the first leg[55] but winning 3–0 in the second to advance on away goals to the semi-finals for the first time since 1984.[56] Roma then lost to Liverpool, the team that had defeated them in the 1984 European Cup Final 7–6 on aggregate.[57] Roma ended the 2017–18 season in 3rd place on 77 points, qualifying for the following season's Champions League.

In the summer of 2018, Roma were busy in the transfer market, in large parts thanks to the €83 million they received from reaching the Champions League semi-finals, as well as selling goalkeeper Alisson for a world record €72 million including bonuses to Liverpool.[58] Roma spent €150 million to sign the likes of Shick, Nzonzi, Pastore, Kluivert, Defrel and more, while selling their two starting midfielders from the previous season, Nainggolan and Strootman.[citation needed] The 2018-19 season saw the club eliminated against Porto 4–3 on aggregate in the Champions League round of 16; Di Francesco was sacked and replaced by Claudio Ranieri who served as caretaker manager.[59] The following day, sporting director Monchi stepped down due to disagreements with Pallotta;[60] the club president disputed his account[61] In Monchi's two years at the club, he spent £208 million on 21 signings, while when he left, 12 of his signings remained at the club.[62] Under Ranieri, Roma failed to qualify for the Champions League, finishing 6th.

Friedkin era and European success

In December 2019, AS Roma SPV LLC was in final negotiations to sell the team for $872 million, to American businessman Dan Friedkin, however negotiations stalled during the COVID-19 pandemic.[63][64] On 6 August 2020, Friedkin signed the preliminary contract to agree to pay $591 million to Pallotta, the main shareholder of Roma.[65]

Paulo Fonseca, who was hired as manager in 2019, left two years later and was replaced by fellow Portuguese José Mourinho.[66] On 25 May 2022, he led Roma to win the inaugural edition of UEFA Europa Conference League, defeating Feyenoord in the final.[67]

Club identity

Roma's colours of carmine red with a golden yellow trim represents the traditional colours of Rome, the official seal of the Comune di Roma features the same colours.[68] The gold and the purple-red represent Roman imperial dignity.[69] White shorts and black socks are usually worn with the red shirt.[citation needed] However, in particularly high key matches,[vague][clarification needed] the shorts and socks are the same colour as the home shirt.[70]

The kit itself was originally worn by Roman Football Club; one of the three clubs who merged to form the current incarnation in 1927.[71] Because of the colours they wear, Roma are often nicknamed i giallorossi meaning the yellow-reds.[72] Roma's away kit is traditionally white, with a third kit changing colour from time to time.[73]

A popular nickname for the club is "i lupi" ("the wolves") – the animal has always featured on the club's badge in different forms throughout their history.[citation needed] The emblem of the team is currently the one which was used when the club was first founded.[citation needed] It portrays the female wolf with the two infant brothers Romulus and Remus, illustrating the myth of the founding of Rome,[74] superimposed on a bipartite golden yellow over a maroon red shield.[75] In the myth from which the club takes their nickname and logo, the twins (sons of Mars and Rhea Silvia) are thrown into the river Tiber by their uncle Amulius.[citation needed] A she-wolf then saved the twins and looked after them.[74] Eventually, the two twins took revenge on Amulius before falling out themselves – Romulus killed Remus and was thus made king of a new city named in his honour, Rome.[74]

Kit suppliers and shirt sponsors

Period Kit manufacturer Shirt sponsor
1970–71 Lacoste[citation needed] None[citation needed]
1972–76 None[citation needed]
1977–79 Adidas[citation needed]
1979–80 Pouchain[citation needed]
1980–81 Playground[citation needed]
1981–82 Barilla (pasta)[citation needed]
1982–83 Patrick[citation needed]
1983–86 Kappa[citation needed]
1986–91 NR[citation needed]
1991–94 Adidas[citation needed]
1994–95 ASICS[citation needed] Nuova Tirrena (insurance)[citation needed]
1995–97 INA Assitalia (insurance)[citation needed]
1997–00 Diadora[citation needed]
2000–02 Kappa[citation needed]
2002–03 Mazda (automobile)[citation needed]
2003–05 Diadora[citation needed]
2005–06 Banca Italease (banking group)[citation needed]
2006–07 None[citation needed]
2007–13 Kappa[citation needed] WIND (telecommunication)[citation needed]
2013–14 In-house production[citation needed] Roma Cares (charitable organisation)[76]
2014–18 Nike[77] None[citation needed]
2018–21 Qatar Airways (airline)[78]
2021–23 New Balance[79] DigitalBits (blockchain network) [80]
2023– Adidas[81] Riyadh Season[82]

Facilities

Stadiums

Stadio Olimpico
Olimpico
LocationViale dello Stadio Olimpico, Foro Italico, Rome, Italy
OwnerItalian National Olympic Committee
OperatorAS Roma and SS Lazio
Capacity70,643 seated
Construction
Broke ground1927
Opened1953
Renovated1990
ArchitectAnnibale Vitellozzi
Tenants
AS Roma (1953–present),
SS Lazio (1953–present)

The first sport facility Roma used was the Motovelodromo Appio, previously used by Alba-Audace.[citation needed] Roma only played the 1927–28 season there until they moved to Campo Testaccio the very[why?] next season.[citation needed] Campo Testaccio was used through 1929 to 1940.[citation needed] The team moved later to the Stadio Nazionale del PNF, where they spent 13 years before moving once again.

In the 1953–54 season, Roma moved to the Olympic arena, Stadio Olimpico, which it shares with Lazio.[citation needed] The arena has undergone several changes over the years[vague][quantify][citation needed] The most significant change took place in the nineties[vague][clarification needed] when Stadio Olimpico was demolished and then reconstructed for the 1990 FIFA World Cup, held in Italy.[vague][clarification needed][citation needed] Roma have played almost every season since 1953–54, with the exception of the 1989–90 seasons, due to the reconstruction of Stadio Olimpico.[vague][clarification needed][citation needed] That year, Roma played its home matches at Stadio Flaminio.[vague][clarification needed]

On 30 December 2012, Roma club president James Pallotta announced the construction of a new stadium in the Tor di Valle area of Rome.[citation needed] The new stadium, Stadio della Roma, would have a capacity of 52,500 spectators.[83] On 2 February 2017, the Region of Lazio and the mayor of Rome rejected the proposal to build a new stadium.[84] However, it was later approved on 24 February after final review of the stadium's design adjustments.[85] In August 2017, the stadium suffered[tone] another delay,[86] forcing Roma to renew their lease with the Stadio Olimpico until 2020.[87] It is presently uncertain when the stadium will open.[88] On 5 December 2017, the Stadio della Roma project, after experiencing five years worth of delays due to conflicting interests from various parties in the Roman city government, was given the go-ahead[by whom?][tone] to begin construction, with the stadium expected to be ready to open for the 2020–21 season.[89] On 26 February 2021, it was announced that the stadium project had been halted.[90]

List of stadiums used by the club

Trigoria

A sports centre located in Trigoria [it] at kilometre 3600 in south-east of Rome was purchased on 22 July 1977 by then club president Gaetano Anzalone. It was opened on 23 July 1979 as Anzalone's final act as president.[91] The complex had its first expansion in 1984 when the club was handled[vague][clarification needed] by Dino Viola and another in 1998 under the chairmanship of Franco Sensi.[92] The centre's official name is the Fulvio Bernardini di Trigoria, named after club icon[tone] Fulvio Bernardini.

On 4 September 2019, the Trigoria training ground began to serve also as a private school named 'Liceo Scientifico Sportivo A.S. Roma', exclusively educating only the team's youth players in a renovated building on the training ground premises.[93] 80 students are currently[when?] enrolled in the school, which features its own cafeteria and gym.

The centre is also known for hosting the Argentina national team during the 1990 FIFA World Cup, held in Italy.

Supporters

Roma fans at the Stadio Olimpico

Roma is the fifth-most supported football club in Italy – behind Juventus, Internazionale, AC Milan and Napoli – with approximately 7% of Italian football fans supporting the club, according to the Doxa Institute-L'Espresso's research of April 2006.[94] Historically, the largest section of Roma supporters in the city of Rome have come from the inner-city, especially Testaccio.[6]

The traditional ultras group of the club was Commando Ultrà Curva Sud[95] commonly abbreviated as CUCS.[citation needed] This group was founded by the merger of many smaller groups and was considered one of the most historic in the history of European football.[95] However, by the mid-1990s, CUCS had been usurped by rival factions and ultimately broke up.[citation needed] Since that time, the Curva Sud of the Stadio Olimpico has been controlled by more right-wing groups,[95] including A.S. Roma Ultras, Boys and Giovinezza, among others. However, the oldest group, Fedayn, is apolitical, and politics is not the main identity of Roma, just a part of their overall identity.[citation needed] Besides ultras groups, it is believed[by whom?] Roma fans support the left as opposed to Lazio supporters, which are notoriously proud of their right-wing affiliation.[96]

In November 2015, Roma's ultras and their Lazio counterparts boycotted Roma's 1–0 victory in the Derby della Capitale in protest at new safety measures imposed at the Stadio Olimpico.[citation needed] The measures – imposed by Rome's prefect, Franco Gabrielli – had involved plastic glass dividing walls being installed in both the Curva Sud and Curva Nord, splitting the sections behind each goal in two.[97] Both sets of ultras continued their protests for the rest of the season, including during Roma's 4–1 victory in the return fixture.[citation needed] Lazio's ultras returned to the Curva Nord for Roma's 1–4 victory in December 2016, but the Roma ultras continue to boycott matches.[98]

Stadio Olimpico during a Roma match

The most known club anthem is "Roma (non-si discute, si ama)", also known as "Roma Roma",[99][100] by singer Antonello Venditti.[citation needed] The title roughly means, "Roma is not to be questioned, it is to be loved," and it is sung before each match.[citation needed] The song "Grazie Roma", by the same singer, is played at the end of victorious home matches.[citation needed] Recently,[when?] the main riff of The White Stripes' song "Seven Nation Army" has also become widely popular at matches.[101]

Rivalries

In Italian football, Roma is a club with many rivalries; first and foremost[tone] is their rivalry with Lazio, the club with whom they share the Stadio Olimpico. The derby between the two is called the Derby della Capitale, it is amongst the most heated and emotional footballing rivalries in the world.[citation needed] The fixture has seen some occasional instances of violence in the past, including the death of Lazio fan Vincenzo Paparelli in 1979–80 as a result of an emergency flare fired from the Curva Sud,[102] and the abandonment of a match in March 2004 following unfounded rumours of a fatality which led to violence outside the stadium.[103]

Against Napoli, Roma also compete in the Derby del Sole, meaning the "Derby of the Sun".[104] Nowadays, fans also consider other[clarification needed] Juventus (a rivalry born especially in the 1980s), Milan, Atalanta (since 1984, when friendly relations between the two clubs' ultras deteriorated),[105] and Internazionale (increased in recent years) among their rivals, as they are often competitors for the top four spots in the league table and qualification for the UEFA Champions League.[95]

Hooliganism

Rivalries with other teams have escalated into serious violence. A group of ultras who label themselves the Fedayn — 'the devotees' — after a group of long-forgotten Iranian guerrilla fighters are regarded to be responsible for the organised hooliganism.[106][107][108] In 2014 Daniele De Santis, a Roma ultra, was convicted of shooting Ciro Esposito and two others during clashes with Napoli fans who were in Rome for their club's Coppa Italia final against Fiorentina. Esposito died of his wounds. De Santis was sentenced to 26 years in prison, later reduced to 16 years on appeal. Roma ultras have displayed banners celebrating De Santis.[109]

There have been multiple instances of Roma ultras attacking supporters of foreign clubs when playing in Rome. These attacks have regularly featured the Roma ultras using knives, poles, flares, bottles and stones on unarmed foreign supporters, resulting in multiple hospitalisations. Home games against Liverpool in 1984 and 2001,[110][111] Middlesbrough in 2006,[112] Manchester United in 2007,[113][114] Arsenal in 2009,[111][115] Tottenham Hotspur in 2012,[116][117] and Chelsea in 2017[118] have all resulted in multiple stabbings and other injuries to foreign supporters. In 2018, Roma ultras travelling to an away game at Liverpool attacked home supporters, resulting in a home supporter getting critically injured.[119][120]

Players

Current squad

As of 22 February 2024.[121]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
1 GK Portugal POR Rui Patrício
2 DF Netherlands NED Rick Karsdorp
3 DF Spain ESP Dean Huijsen (on loan from Juventus)
4 MF Italy ITA Bryan Cristante (3rd captain)
5 DF Ivory Coast CIV Evan Ndicka
6 DF England ENG Chris Smalling
7 MF Italy ITA Lorenzo Pellegrini (captain)
9 FW England ENG Tammy Abraham
14 DF Spain ESP Diego Llorente (on loan from Leeds United)
16 MF Argentina ARG Leandro Paredes
17 FW Iran IRN Sardar Azmoun (on loan from Bayer Leverkusen)
19 DF Turkey TUR Zeki Çelik
20 MF Portugal POR Renato Sanches (on loan from Paris Saint-Germain)
No. Pos. Nation Player
21 FW Argentina ARG Paulo Dybala
22 MF Algeria ALG Houssem Aouar
23 DF Italy ITA Gianluca Mancini (vice-captain)
35 MF Italy ITA Tommaso Baldanzi
37 DF Italy ITA Leonardo Spinazzola
43 DF Denmark DEN Rasmus Kristensen (on loan from Leeds United)
52 MF Italy ITA Edoardo Bove
59 MF Poland POL Nicola Zalewski
63 GK Italy ITA Pietro Boer
69 DF Spain ESP Angeliño (on loan from RB Leipzig)
90 FW Belgium BEL Romelu Lukaku (on loan from Chelsea)
92 FW Italy ITA Stephan El Shaarawy
99 GK Serbia SRB Mile Svilar

Primavera squad

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
60 MF Italy ITA Riccardo Pagano
61 MF Italy ITA Niccolò Pisilli
62 FW Italy ITA Filippo Alessio (on loan from Vicenza)
64 FW Italy ITA Luigi Cherubini
65 MF Estonia EST Martin Vetkal
66 MF Italy ITA Mattia Mannini
No. Pos. Nation Player
67 FW Portugal POR João Costa
68 MF Italy ITA Francesco D'Alessio
70 DF Italy ITA Matteo Plaia
72 DF Slovenia SVN Lovro Golič
73 GK Italy ITA Renato Marin
74 DF Spain ESP Jan Oliveras

Out on loan

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
GK Italy ITA Davide Mastrantonio (at Pro Vercelli until 30 June 2024)
DF Albania ALB Marash Kumbulla (at Sassuolo until 30 June 2024)
DF Italy ITA Matteo Pellegrini (at Matera until 30 June 2024)
MF The Gambia GAM Ebrima Darboe (at Sampdoria until 30 June 2024)
No. Pos. Nation Player
FW Italy ITA Andrea Belotti (at Fiorentina until 30 June 2024)
FW Uzbekistan UZB Eldor Shomurodov (at Cagliari until 30 June 2024)
FW Norway NOR Ola Solbakken (at Urawa Red Diamonds until 30 June 2024)

Women team

Notable players

Retired numbers

Since 2017, Roma had not issued the squad number 10 to commemorate Francesco Totti, who was retired from football since 2017.[citation needed] It was going to be issued to Paulo Dybala in 2022, but Dybala chose the number 21 instead of number 10.[citation needed]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
10 FW Italy ITA Francesco Totti (1993–2017)

Management staff

Position Staff
Chairman United States Dan Friedkin
Vice Chairman United States Ryan Friedkin
Chief Executive Officer Greece Lina Souloukou
General Manager Greece Lina Souloukou
Director of Development Italy Alberto De Rossi
Team Manager Italy Valerio Cardini
Academy Manager Italy Bruno Conti
Head Coach Italy Daniele De Rossi
Assistant Coach Uruguay Guillermo Giacomazzi
Goalkeeping Coach Italy Simone Farelli
Fitness Coach Italy Gianni Brignardello
Match Analyst Italy Francesco Checcucci
Technical Coach Italy Enrico Iodice
Athletic Coach Italy Manrico Ferrari
Italy Maurizio Fanchini
Italy Stefano Rapetti
Italy Gianni Brignardello
Head of Scouting Italy Simone Lo Schiavo
Scout Portugal José Fontes
Chief Analyst Italy Michele Salzarulo
Chief Medical Officer Italy Andrea Causarano
Head of Medicine Italy Federico Manara
Physiotherapist Italy Valerio Flammini
Italy Massimiliano Greco
Italy Alessandro Cardini
Italy Marco Esposito
Podiatrist Italy Raniero Russo
Osteopath Italy Walter Martinelli
Nutrionist Italy Guido Rillo
Secretary Italy Marco Robino Rizzet
Referee Caretaker Italy Vito Scala

Last updated: 5 February 2024
Source: [citation needed]

Chairmen history

Roma have had numerous chairmen (Italian: presidenti, lit.'presidents' or Italian: presidenti del consiglio di amministrazione, lit.'chairmen of the board of directors') over the course of their history, some of which have been the owners and co-owners of the club, some of them were nominated by the owners.[122] Franco Sensi was the chairman until his death in 2008, with his daughter, Roma CEO Rosella Sensi taking his place as chairman.[123][124] Here is a complete list of Roma chairmen from 1927 until the present day.[124]

 
Name Years
Italo Foschi 1927–1928
Renato Sacerdoti 1928–1935
Vittorio Scialoja 1935–1936
Igino Betti 1936–1941
Edgardo Bazzini 1941–1944
Pietro Baldassarre 1944–1949
Pier Carlo Restagno 1949–1952
Romolo Vaselli 1952
Renato Sacerdoti 1952–1958
Anacleto Gianni 1958–1962
Francesco Marini-Dettina 1962–1965
Franco Evangelisti 1965–1968
Francesco Ranucci 1968–1969
 
Name Years
Alvaro Marchini 1969–1971
Gaetano Anzalone 1971–1979
Dino Viola 1979–1991
Flora Viola 1991
Giuseppe Ciarrapico 1991–1993
Ciro Di Martino 1993
Franco Sensi 1993–2008
Rosella Sensi 2008–2011
Roberto Cappelli[122] 2011
Thomas R. DiBenedetto 2011–2012
James Pallotta 2012–2020
Dan Friedkin 2020–present

Managerial history

Roma have had many managers and trainers running the team during their history, here is a chronological list of them from 1927 onwards.[14]

 
Manager Nationality Years
William Garbutt England 1927–29
Guido Baccani Italy 1929–30
Herbert Burgess England 1930–32
Lászlo Barr Hungary 1932–33
Lajos Kovács Hungary 1933–34
Luigi Barbesino Italy 1934–38
Guido Ara Italy 1938–39
Alfréd Schaffer Hungary 1939–42
Géza Kertész Hungary 1942–43
Guido Masetti Italy 1943–45
Giovanni Degni Italy 1945–47
Imre Senkey Hungary 1947–48
Luigi Brunella Italy 1948–49
Fulvio Bernardini Italy 1949–50
Adolfo Baloncieri Italy 1950
Pietro Serantoni Italy 1950
Guido Masetti Italy 1950–51
Giuseppe Viani Italy 1951–53
Mario Varglien Italy 1953–54
Jesse Carver England 1954–56
György Sárosi Hungary 1956
Guido Masetti Italy 1956–57
Alec Stock England 1957–58
Gunnar Nordahl Sweden 1958–59
 
Manager Nationality Years
György Sarosi Italy 1959–60
Alfredo Foni Italy 1960–61
Luis Carniglia Argentina 1961–63
Naim Kryeziu Albania 1963
Alfredo Foni Italy 1963–64
Luis Miró Spain 1964–65
Juan Carlos Lorenzo Argentina 1965–66
Oronzo Pugliese Italy 1966–68
Helenio Herrera Argentina 1968–70
Luciano Tessari Italy 1970
Helenio Herrera Argentina 1971–72
Tonino Trebiciani Italy 1972–73
Nils Liedholm Sweden 1974–77
Gustavo Giagnoni Italy 1978–79
Ferruccio Valcareggi Italy 1979–80
Nils Liedholm Sweden 1980–84
Sven-Göran Eriksson Sweden 1984–87
Angelo Sormani Italy 1987
Nils Liedholm Sweden 1987–89
Luciano Spinosi Italy 1989
Gigi Radice Italy 1989–90
Ottavio Bianchi Italy 1990–92
Vujadin Boškov Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 1992–93
Carlo Mazzone Italy 1993–96
 
Manager Nationality Years
Carlos Bianchi Argentina 1996
Nils Liedholm Sweden 1996
Ezio Sella Italy 1996
Zdeněk Zeman Czech Republic 1997–99
Fabio Capello Italy 1999–04
Cesare Prandelli Italy 2004
Rudi Völler Germany 2004
Luigi Delneri Italy 2004–05
Bruno Conti Italy 2005
Luciano Spalletti Italy 2005–09
Claudio Ranieri Italy 2009–11
Vincenzo Montella Italy 2011
Luis Enrique Spain 2011–12
Zdeněk Zeman Czech Republic 2012–13
Aurelio Andreazzoli Italy 2013
Rudi Garcia France 2013–16
Luciano Spalletti Italy 2016–17
Eusebio Di Francesco Italy 2017–19
Claudio Ranieri Italy 2019
Paulo Fonseca Portugal 2019–21
José Mourinho Portugal 2021–24
Daniele De Rossi Italy 2024–

Honours

National titles

Roma fans celebrating the Scudetto in 2001 at the Circus Maximus

European titles

Other titles

Hall of Fame

On 7 October 2012, the AS Roma Hall of Fame was announced.[132] The Hall of Fame players were voted via the club's official website and a special Hall of Fame panel. In 2013 four players were voted in. In 2014, the third year of AS Roma Hall of Fame four more players were voted in.[133][134][135]

Club records and statistics

Historical AS Roma positions in Serie A

Francesco Totti currently holds Roma's official appearance record, having made 786 appearances in all competitions, over the course of 25 seasons from 1993 until 2017.[136] He also holds the record for Serie A appearances with 619, as he passed Giacomo Losi on 1 March 2008 during a home match against Parma.[137]

Including all competitions, Totti is the all-time leading goalscorer for Roma with 307 goals since joining the club, 250 of which were scored in Serie A (another Roma record).[136] Roberto Pruzzo, who was the all-time topscorer since 1988, comes in second in all competitions with 138.[138] In 1930–31, Rodolfo Volk scored 29 goals in Serie A over the course of a single season.[139] Not only was Volk the league's top scorer that year, he also set a Roma record for most goals scored in a season which would later be matched by Edin Džeko in 2016–17.

Its major founders Fortitudo and Alba having been relegated at the end of 1926–27 campaign, new-founded Roma had to take part to Southern First Division championship (Serie B) for its inaugural season.[citation needed] Nevertheless, the FIGC decided on a special enlargement of first level division re-admitting AS Roma and SSC Napoli.[citation needed] The first ever official matches participated in by Roma was in the National Division, the predecessor of Serie A, of 1927–28, against Livorno, a 2–0 Roma win.[140] Calcio e Finanza calculations showed Mourinho cost Roma about €3.5 million for each Serie A point he won. An appointment that turned out to be the worst big-money signing in Roma history.[141][142] The biggest ever victory recorded by Roma was 9–0 against Cremonese during the 1929–30 Serie A season.[136] The heaviest defeat Roma have ever suffered is 1–7, which has occurred five times; against Juventus in 1931–32, Torino in 1947–48, Manchester United in 2006–07, Bayern Munich in 2014–15 and Fiorentina in 2018–19.[136]

Divisional movements

Series Years Last Promotions Relegations
A 91 2023–24 44 times to Europe Decrease 1 (1951)
B 1 1951–52 Increase 1 (1952) never
92 years of professional football in Italy since 1929
AS Roma created in National Division in 1927

UEFA Club Coefficient Ranking

As of 03 March 2024[143]
Rank Team Points
7 Germany Leipzig 96.000
8 England Chelsea 96.000
9 Italy Roma 92.000
10 England Man United 92.000
11 Germany Dortmund 86.000

UEFA Rankings since 2004

As of 03 March 2024[143]
Season Ranking Movement Points Change
2023–24 9 Increase +1 92.000 Decrease -5.000
2022–23 10 Increase +1 97.000 Decrease -3.000
2021–22 11 Increase +2 100.000 Increase +10.000
2020–21 13 Increase +4 90.000 Increase +10.000
2019–20 17 Decrease -3 80.000 Decrease -1.000
2018–19 14 Increase +7 81.000 Increase +17.000
2017–18 21 Increase +16 64.000 Increase +25.000
2016–17 37 Increase +14 39.000 Increase +11.500
2015–16 51 Decrease -5 27.500 Decrease -22.000
2014–15 46 Increase +9 49.500 Increase +13.000
2013–14 55 Decrease -12 26.500 Decrease -14.000
2012–13 43 Decrease -17 40.500 Decrease -17.000
2011–12 26 Decrease -10 57.500 Decrease -15.500
2010–11 16 Decrease -2 73.000 Increase +2.000
2009–10 14 0 71.000 Increase +5.000
2008–09 14 Increase +2 66.000 Increase +4.000
2007–08 16 0 62.000 Increase +5.000
2006–07 16 Increase +1 57.000 Increase +3.000
2005–06 17 Decrease -1 54.000 Increase +1.000
2004–05 16 0 53.000 0.000

Football Club Elo Ranking

As of 03 March 2024[144]
Rank Team Points
25 Spain Girona 1784
26 Portugal Porto 1784
27 Italy Roma 1781
28 England Chelsea 1780
29 Spain Real Sociedad 1777

As a company

NEEP Roma Holding (Group)
RevenueIncrease €128.520 million (2013–14)[145]
Increase (€26.950 million) (2013–14)
Increase (€40.107 million) (2013–14)[nb 1]
Total assetsIncrease €386.31 million (2013–14)
Total equityIncrease €43.398 million (2013–14)[nb 1]
OwnerAS Roma SPV LLC (91%)
James Pallotta
Thomas R. DiBenedetto
Michael Ruane
Richard D'Amore
Starwood Capital
Raptor Holdco LLC (9%)
James Pallotta
SubsidiariesAS Roma SpA (79.044%)
AS Roma Real Estate (100%)
Stadio TdV
Websitewww.asroma.com
A.S. Roma
BITASR
RevenueDecrease €175 million (2016–17)
Decrease (€14 million) (2016–17)
Decrease (€42 million) (2016–17)
Total assetsIncrease €436 million (2016–17)
Total equityIncrease (€89 million) (2016–17)
Owner
  • NEEP Roma Holding (79.044%)
  • other (20.956%)
Subsidiaries
  • Soccer S.a.s. di Brand Management
  • ASR Media and Sponsorship
Websitewww.asroma.com
Footnotes / references
in a consolidated basis[146]

Since 1999, during Franco Sensi's period in charge, Associazione Sportiva Roma has been a listed Società per azioni on Borsa Italiana.[citation needed] From 2004 to 2011, Roma's shares are distributed between; 67.1% to Compagnia Italpetroli SpA (the Sensi family holding; Banca di Roma later acquired 49% stake on Italpetroli due to debt restructuring) and 32.9% to other public shareholders.[citation needed]

Along with Lazio and Juventus, Roma is one of only three quotated Italian clubs.[citation needed] According to The Football Money League published by consultants Deloitte, in the 2010–11 season, Roma was the 15th highest-earning football club in the world with an estimated revenue of €143.5 million.[147]

In April 2008, after months of speculation, George Soros was confirmed by Rosella Sensi, CEO of Serie A club AS Roma, to be bidding for a takeover.[148] The takeover bid was successively rejected by the Sensi family, who instead preferred to maintain the club's ownership.[citation needed] On 17 August 2008, club chairman and owner Franco Sensi died after a long illness; his place at the chairmanship of the club was successively taken by his daughter Rosella.[citation needed]

Since the takeover in 2011, NEEP Roma Holding S.p.A. has owned all shares Sensi previously hold.[clarification needed][citation needed] NEEP, itself a joint venture, was held by DiBenedetto AS Roma LLC (later renamed to AS Roma SPV, LLC) and Unicredit in 60–40 ratio from 2011 to 2013, which the former had four real person shareholders in equal ratio, led by future Roma president Thomas R. DiBenedetto (2011–12). The takeover also activated a mandatory bid of shares from the general public, however not all minority shareholders were willing to sell their shares. The mandatory bid meant NEEP held 78.038% of shares of AS Roma (increased from 67.1% of the Sensi).[149] On 1 August 2013, the president of Roma, as well as one of the four American shareholders of AS Roma SPV, LLC, James Pallotta, bought an additional 9% shares of NEEP Roma Holding from Unicredit (through Raptor Holdco LLC), as the bank was not willing to fully participate in the capital increase of NEEP from €120,000 to €160,008,905 (excluding share premium).[150][151] On 4 April 2014, Starwood Capital Group also became the fifth shareholder of AS Roma SPV, as well as forming a strategic partnership with AS Roma SpA to develop real estate around the new stadium.[152] The private investment firm was represented by Zsolt Kohalmi in AS Roma SPV, who was appointed on 4 April as a partner and head of European acquisitions of the firm.[153] On 11 August 2014, UniCredit sold the remain shares on NEEP (of 31%) for €33 million which meant AS Roma SPV LLC (91%) and Raptor Holdco LLC (9%) were the sole intermediate holding company of AS Roma SpA.[154]

Since re-capitalization in 2003–04, Roma had a short-lived financial self-sustainability, until the takeover in 2011.[citation needed] The club had set up a special amortisation fund[vague] using Articolo 18-bis Legge 91/1981 mainly for the abnormal[tone][vague][clarification needed] signings prior 2002–03 season, (such as Davide Bombardini for €11 million account value in June 2002, when the flopped[tone] player exchange[vague][clarification needed] boosted 2001–02 season result) and the tax payment of 2002–03 was rescheduled. In 2004–05, Roma made a net profit of €10,091,689 and followed by €804,285 in 2005–06.[155] In 2006–07 season the accounting method changed to IFRS,[why?][clarification needed] which meant that the 2005–06 result was reclassified as net loss of €4,051,905 and 2006–07 season was net income of €10,135,539 (€14.011 million as a group).[156] Moreover, the special fund (€80,189,123) was removed from the asset and co-currently for the equity as scheduled, meant[vague][clarification needed] Roma group had a negative equity of €8.795 million on 30 June 2007.[citation needed] Nevertheless, the club had sold the brand to a subsidiary which boost[vague][clarification needed] the profit in a separate financial statement, which La Repubblica described as "doping".[157] In 2007–08, Roma made a net income of €18,699,219. (€19 million as a group)[158] However, 2008–09 saw the decrease of gate and TV income, co-currently with finishing sixth in Serie A, which saw Roma make a net loss of €1,894,330. (€1.56 million as a group)[159] The gate and TV income further slipped in 2009–10, with a net loss of €21,917,292 (already boosted by the sale of Alberto Aquilani; €22 million as a group), despite sporting success (finishing in second place in 2009–10).[160] Moreover, despite a positive equity as a separate company (€105,142,589), the AS Roma Group had a negative equity on the consolidated balance sheet, and fell from +€8.8 million to −€13.2 million. In the 2010–11 season, Roma was administered by UniCredit as the Sensi family failed to repay the bank and the club was put on the market,[161] and were expected to have a quiet transfer window.[162] Concurrently, with no selling profit on the players, Roma's net loss rose to €30,589,137 (€30.778 million as a group) and the new owner had already planned a re-capitalization after the mandatory bid on the shares. On the positive side,[tone][according to whom?] TV income was increased from €75,150,744 to €78,041,642, and gate income increased from €23,821,218 to €31,017,179. This was because Roma entered the 2010–11 Champions League, which counter-weighed the effect of the new collective agreement of Serie A. In 2011–12, the renewal of squad and participation in the 2011–12 UEFA Europa League had worsened the financial result, which the €50 million capital increase (in advance) was counter-weighted totally by the net loss.[vague][clarification needed] In the 2012–13 season, the participation in domestic league only, was not only not harmful to the revenue but increase in gate income as well as decrease in wage bill, however Roma still did not yet break even (€40.130 million net loss in consolidated accounts).[vague][clarification needed] NEEP Roma also re-capitalized AS Roma in advance for another €26,550,000 during 2012–13.[citation needed] A proposed capital increase by €100 million for Roma was announced on 25 June 2014; however, until 22 May 2014, NEEP already injected €108 million into the club, which depends on public subscription; more than €8 million would convert to medium-long-term loan from shareholder instead of becoming share capital.[163] Another capital increase was carried in 2018.[citation needed]

A joint venture of Roma, which was owned by Roma (37.5%), SS Lazio (37.5%) and Parma FC (25%), Società Diritti Sportivi S.r.l., was in the process of liquidation since 2005.[when?][citation needed] The company was a joint-venture of four football clubs, including Fiorentina.[citation needed] After the bankruptcy of Fiorentina however, both Roma and Lazio had increased their shares ratio from 25% to 37.5%.[citation needed] Another subsidiary, "Soccer S.A.S. di Brand Management S.r.l.", was a special-purpose entity (SPV) that Roma sold their brand to the subsidiary in 2007.[vague][clarification needed][citation needed] In February 2015, another SPV, "ASR Media and Sponsorship S.r.l",[164] was set up to secure a five-year bank loan of €175 million from Goldman Sachs, for three-month Euribor (min. 0.75%) + 6.25% spread (i.e. min. 7% interests rate p.a.).[165][166]

In 2015, Inter and Roma were the only two Italian clubs that were sanctioned by UEFA for breaking UEFA Financial Fair Play Regulations, which they signed settlement agreements with UEFA.[vague][clarification needed][167] It was followed by Milan in 2018.[citation needed]

Roma had compliance with the requirements and overall objective of the settlement agreement in 2018, which the club exited from settlement regime.[vague][clarification needed][168][169]

Superleague Formula

AS Roma had a team in the Superleague Formula race car series where teams were sponsored by football clubs.[citation needed] Roma's driver was ex-IndyCar Series driver Franck Perera.[citation needed] The team had posted three podiums and was operated by Alan Docking Racing.[citation needed]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Included minority interests

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