Protesterna i Chile 2019

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Protester i Santiago.

Protesterna i Chile 2019 inleddes 18 oktober. Den utlösande faktorn var höjda priser i kollektivtrafiken, men en stor del av missnöjet beror också på pensionssystemet där privata fonder går med stora överskott samtidigt som många pensionärer i Chile är mycket fattiga.[1] Protesterna, som har som mest har samlat över en miljon människor i samma demonstrationståg i Santiago,[2] har alltmer kommit att handla om de allmänna levnadsvillkoren i landet. Protesterna riktar sig primärt mot den ekonomiska ojämlikheten som fortgått sedan Chiles konstitution skrevs om 1980 med nyliberala förtecken under diktatorn Augusto Pinochet som kom till makten via militärkuppen i Chile 1973, då landets socialistiska president Salvador Allende mördades (som indirekt assisterades av USA eftersom USA fruktade en lyckad socialistisk politik i Chile).[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] Demonstranterna kräver sociala reformer och sänkta kostnader för att köpa nödvändiga förnödenheter.[19][20] President Sebastián Piñera uttalade till en början att landet befann sig i en krigssituation genom det resoluta konstaterandet ''vi är i krig''[1], men han har senare tvingats backa och drastiskt ombildat regeringen samt utlovat reformer som exempelvis genom att höja grundpensionen 20% och att stryka de elkostnader som nyligen skulle höjas med 9% elkostnader.[21] När fackföreningarna tillsammans med The Workers' United Center of Chile (CUT) kallade till generalstrejk så gick militären brutalt fram och minst 20 människor har nu dödats sedan protesterna började, vilket nu inkluderar ett fyraårigt barn.[22][23][24][25] Människorättsorganisationer har fått in flera rapporter angående brott som begåtts mot demonstranter, bland annat tortyr och sexuellt våld.[26][27][28]

Kamplåtar som El derecho de vivir en paz (Rätten till ett liv i fred) av Victor Jara och El pueblo unido jamás será vencido (Ett enat folk kan aldrig trampas ner) av Quilapayún, har enat demonstranterna över hela landet i sång.[29][30] Protester har även skett med kastruller, något som är återkommande för Chile.[1]

Mycket stora mängder solidaritetshälsningar har delgivits från såväl civilbefolkning[31][32][33][34][35][36] som studenter[37][38][39][40], generella fackförbund[41] respektive fackförbund av kanadensiska postarbetare[42][43], amerikanska advokater[44], men även politiska partier som Amerikas Demokratiska Socialister (DSA)[45][46] GUE/NGL[47] och gräsrotsorganisationer[48], respektive tidskrifter, näst intill uteslutande socialistiska sådana.[49]

Dricksvatten är 2019 fortfarande en handelsvara i Chile, i ett tillstånd med snabbt ökande ojämlikhet där priserna, precis som i västvärlden under de senaste decennierna har ökat mer än reallönerna.[1][50][51]

Referenser[redigera | redigera wikitext]

  1. ^ [a b c d] Olsson, Erik (22 oktober 2019). ”Kastrullerna är tillbaka på gatorna i Chile – nästan 30 år efter diktaturens fall”. https://www.svt.se/nyheter/utrikes/kastrullerna-ar-tillbaka-pa-gatorna-i-chile-nastan-30-ar-efter-diktaturens-fall. Läst 30 oktober 2019. 
  2. ^ Orozco Salinas, Karina (2018-12-30). ”El Patrimonio cultural inmaterial de la Plaza Baquedano en Santiago de Chile = The Intangible Cultural Heritage of Plaza Baquedano in Santiago de Chile”. Territorios en formación (14): sid. 74. doi:10.20868/tf.2019.14.3893. ISSN 2174-8659. http://dx.doi.org/10.20868/tf.2019.14.3893. Läst 10 november 2019. 
  3. ^ ”CIA Activities in Chile — Central Intelligence Agency”. www.cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/chile/#5. Läst 20 november 2019. ”Support for Coup in 1970. Under “Track II” of the strategy, CIA sought to instigate a coup to prevent Allende from taking office after he won a plurality in the 4 September election[...] CIA was working with three different groups of plotters. All three groups made it clear that any coup would require the kidnapping of Army Commander Rene Schneider, who felt deeply that the Constitution required that the Army allow Allende to assume power. CIA agreed with that assessment. [...]CIA provided weapons to one of the groups, we have found no information that the plotters’ or CIA’s intention was for the general to be killed. [...] CIA provided tear gas, submachine-guns and ammunition[...] The third group attempted to kidnap Schneider, mortally wounding him in the attack. CIA had previously encouraged this group to launch a coup but withdrew support four days before the attack because, in CIA’s assessment, the group could not carry it out successfully. Awareness of Coup Plotting in 1973. Although CIA did not instigate the coup that ended Allende’s government on 11 September 1973, it was aware of coup-plotting by the military, had ongoing intelligence collection relationships with some plotters, and—because CIA did not discourage the takeover and had sought to instigate a coup in 1970—probably appeared to condone it.[...] Knowledge of Human Rights Violations. CIA officers were aware of and reported to analysts and policymakers in 1973 that General Pinochet and the forces that overthrew the Allende Government were conducting a severe campaign against leftists and perceived political enemies in the early months after the coup. Activities of some security services portended a long-term effort to suppress opponents. [...] Propaganda in Support of Pinochet Regime. After the coup in September 1973, CIA suspended new covert action funding but continued some ongoing propaganda projects, including support for news media committed to creating a positive image for the military Junta. Chilean individuals who had collaborated with the CIA but were not acting at CIA direction assisted in the preparation of the “White Book,” a document intended to justify overthrowing Allende. It contained an allegation that leftists had a secret “Plan Z” to murder the high command in the months before the coup, which CIA believed was probably disinformation by the Junta. [...]in at least a few cases, kill political opponents. This was the precursor to Operation Condor, an intelligence-sharing arrangement among Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay established in 1975. 
  4. ^ ”New declassified files shed light on US role in ousting Allende – The Santiago Times”. web.archive.org. 9 oktober 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20161009185456/http://santiagotimes.cl/2014/05/26/new-declassified-files-shed-light-us-role-ousting-allende/. Läst 20 november 2019. ”This collection is the latest in tens of thousands of formerly classified documents regarding former U.S. President Richard Nixon and National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger’s efforts to destabilize the democratically-elected Marxist and their support for the military coup in 1973 that resulted in a 17-year dictatorship led by Gen. Augusto Pinochet. The United States feared Allende’s example would spark left-wing uprisings in the region and so pulled international loans from the country and ordered the CIA to help promote a coup.” 
  5. ^ Gilbert M. Joseph, Greg Grandin, red (2010). A Century of Revolution. doi:10.1215/9780822392859. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/9780822392859. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  6. ^ Kornbluh, Peter.. The Pinochet file : a declassified dossier on atrocity and accountability. ISBN 9781595589958. OCLC 868956328. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/868956328. Läst 20 november 2019 
  7. ^ Qureshi, Lubna Z., 1974- (2009). Nixon, Kissinger, and Allende : U.S. involvement in the 1973 coup in Chile. Lexington Books. ISBN 9780739126554. OCLC 236117377. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/236117377. Läst 20 november 2019 
  8. ^ ”CIA Acknowledges Ties to Pinochet’s Repression”. nsarchive2.gwu.edu. https://nsarchive2.gwu.edu/news/20000919/. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  9. ^ Collective, ROAR. ”The Other 9/11: remembering the neoliberal coup in Chile” (på en-US). ROAR Magazine. https://roarmag.org/2019/09/11/the-other-9-11-remembering-the-neoliberal-coup-in-chile/. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  10. ^ ”Chile protests: What prompted the unrest?”. www.aljazeera.com. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/10/chile-protests-prompted-unrest-191022160029869.html. Läst 30 oktober 2019. 
  11. ^ ”Cost of living protests in Chile take deadly toll” (på en-GB). 21 oktober 2019. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-50119649. Läst 30 oktober 2019. 
  12. ^ Elections in the Americas : a data handbook. ISBN 0199253587. OCLC 58051010. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/58051010. Läst 30 oktober 2019 
  13. ^ Nohlen. sid. s. 268 
  14. ^ ”CIA Machinations in Chile in 1970 — Central Intelligence Agency”. www.cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol47no3/article03.html. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  15. ^ ”Castro Speech Data Base - LANIC - Browse Speeches from 1971”. www1.lanic.utexas.edu. http://www1.lanic.utexas.edu/project/castro/1971/. Läst 20 november 2019. ”Obs: Förtydligande: The U.S. feared the example of a "well-functioning socialist experiment" in the region and exerted diplomatic, economic, and covert pressure upon Chile's elected socialist government. ISBN 978-0-226-06252-5. http://santiagotimes.cl/2014/05/26/new-declassified-files-shed-light-us-role-ousting-allende/ https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol47no3/article03.html At the end of 1971, the Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro made a four-week state visit to Chile, alarming Western observers worried about the "Chilean Way to Socialism".” 
  16. ^ CNN, Helen Regan and Christopher Ulloa. ”Chile extends curfew again as violent unrest paralyzes capital and death toll rises to 15”. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/10/22/americas/chile-protests-inequality-curfew-intl-hnk/index.html. Läst 30 oktober 2019. 
  17. ^ ”A Century of Revolution: Insurgent and Counterinsurgent Violence during Latin America’s Long Cold War | Books Gateway | Duke University Press” (på en). read.dukeupress.edu. https://read.dukeupress.edu/books/book/1453/A-Century-of-RevolutionInsurgent-and. Läst 30 oktober 2019. 
  18. ^ admin (23 oktober 2019). ”Child killed in mounting Chile unrest as general strike begins” (på en-US). Londoner News. https://londonernews.co.uk/2019/10/23/child-killed-in-mounting-chile-unrest-as-general-strike-begins/. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  19. ^ CNN, Claudia Dominguez and Daniel Silva Fernandez. ”Chile's president declares state of emergency after riots over metro fare hike”. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/10/19/americas/chile-protests-intl/index.html. Läst 30 oktober 2019. 
  20. ^ ”Chile's capital in state of emergency amid unrest” (på en-GB). 19 oktober 2019. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-50106743. Läst 30 oktober 2019. 
  21. ^ admin (23 oktober 2019). ”Child killed in mounting Chile unrest as general strike begins” (på en-US). Londoner News. https://londonernews.co.uk/2019/10/23/child-killed-in-mounting-chile-unrest-as-general-strike-begins/. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  22. ^ admin (23 oktober 2019). ”Child killed in mounting Chile unrest as general strike begins” (på en-US). Londoner News. https://londonernews.co.uk/2019/10/23/child-killed-in-mounting-chile-unrest-as-general-strike-begins/. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  23. ^ ”Chile protests: More than one million bring Santiago to a halt”. www.aljazeera.com. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/10/chile-protests-million-bring-santiago-halt-191025223542333.html. Läst 30 oktober 2019. 
  24. ^ ”4-year-old child killed in Chile protests as toll rises to 18”. DailySabah. https://www.dailysabah.com/americas/2019/10/23/4-year-old-child-killed-in-chile-protests-as-toll-rises-to-18. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  25. ^ ”Child latest victim of Chile violence as strike begins” (på en). CNA. https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/world/child-latest-victim-of-chile-violence-as-strike-begins-12028704. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  26. ^ ”Amnesty announces research mission to document human rights violations in Chile” (på en). www.amnesty.org. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2019/10/chile-investigacion-para-documentar-violaciones-derechos-humanos/. Läst 30 oktober 2019. 
  27. ^ ”Wage rises fail to quell Chile unrest” (på en-GB). 24 oktober 2019. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-50166538. Läst 30 oktober 2019. 
  28. ^ ”18 Killed As Thousands of Protestors Take to the Streets in Chile. Here’s What to Know” (på en). Time. https://time.com/5710268/chile-protests/. Läst 30 oktober 2019. 
  29. ^ ”'El Derecho De Vivir En Paz' Gives Voice To Protesters In Chile” (på en). NPR.org. https://www.npr.org/2019/11/02/775533882/el-derecho-de-vivir-en-paz-gives-voice-to-protesters-in-chile. Läst 10 november 2019. 
  30. ^ Vera-Zavala, America. ”America Vera-Zavala: Folket i Chile vill bort från nyliberalismen”. gp.se. http://www.gp.se/1.19811815. Läst 10 november 2019. 
  31. ^ ”Bay Area Rally Shows Solidarity with Protesters in Chile” (på en-us). KQED. 27 oktober 2019. https://www.kqed.org/news/11782488/bay-area-rally-shows-solidarity-with-protesters-in-chile. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  32. ^ Perry, Mariana (2016). ”'With a Little Help from My Friends': The Dutch Solidarity Movement and the Chilean Struggle for Democracy”. European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies / Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe (101): sid. 75–96. ISSN 0924-0608. http://www.jstor.org/stable/43774312. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  33. ^ https://theconcordian.com/2019/11/montrealers-solidarity-with-chilean-protests/
  34. ^ ”Socialism 2019: the Saturday rally, 2nd November 2019. Reports of the event will be posted soon.”. www.socialistparty.org.uk. https://www.socialistparty.org.uk/articles/29800/30-10-2019/chile-protests-london-solidarity-rally. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  35. ^ ”Solidarity with the People of Chile” (på en-US). La Peña Cultural Center. 23 oktober 2019. https://lapena.org/solidarity-with-the-people-of-chile/. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  36. ^ Dunkel, G. (15 november 2019). ”New York City solidarity with Chile” (på en-US). Workers World. https://www.workers.org/2019/11/44400/. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  37. ^ ”St Andrews student’s call for solidarity with Chile goes global” (på en-GB). news.st-andrews.ac.uk. 28 oktober 2019. https://news.st-andrews.ac.uk/archive/st-andrews-students-call-for-solidarity-with-chile-goes-global/. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  38. ^ ”r/chile - Solidarity from Greek uni students! Keep up!” (på en-US). reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/chile/comments/dpp8r6/solidarity_from_greek_uni_students_keep_up/. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  39. ^ Lucha, Struggle-La (25 oktober 2019). ”‘Solidarity with the struggle for a more just Chile’” (på en-US). Struggle - La Lucha. https://www.struggle-la-lucha.org/2019/10/25/solidarity-with-the-struggle-for-a-more-just-chile/. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  40. ^ ”Edinburgh’s Chilean community solidarity protests” (på en-GB). The Student. 30 oktober 2019. http://www.studentnewspaper.org/edinburghs-chilean-community-solidarity-protests/. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  41. ^ ”San Francisco Labor In Solidarity With Chilean Workers At SFLC Meeting” (på en). Indybay. https://www.indybay.org/newsitems/2019/10/28/18827696.php. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  42. ^ https://www.cupw.ca/sites/default/files/10-31-19_Statement_Chile_PDF_E.pdf
  43. ^ ”Solidarity with the Chilean People” (på en). CUPW. https://www.cupw.ca/en/solidarity-chilean-people. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  44. ^ ”NLG Statement in Solidarity with the People of Chile” (på en-US). National Lawyers Guild. 24 oktober 2019. https://www.nlg.org/nlg-statement-in-solidarity-with-the-people-of-chile/. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  45. ^ November 13; 2019. ”Statement of Solidarity with the Chilean People” (på en-US). Democratic Socialists of America (DSA). https://www.dsausa.org/statements/statement-of-solidarity-with-the-chilean-people/. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  46. ^ André (13 november 2019). ”Statement of Solidarity with the Chilean People” (på en-gb). RedGlobe. https://www.redglobe.de/en/latin-america/chile/59239-statement-of-solidarity-with-the-chilean-people. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  47. ^ ”Solidarity with Chile - 7/11/2019” (på en). GUE/NGL. https://www.guengl.eu/medias/gallery/solidarity-with-chile-7-11-2019/. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  48. ^ ”Protests in Chile: Slow Food Network in the Country Joins in Solidarity” (på en-US). Slow Food International. 25 oktober 2019. https://www.slowfood.com/protests-in-chile-slow-food-network-joins-in-solidarity/. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  49. ^ Lucha, Struggle-La (25 oktober 2019). ”‘Solidarity with the struggle for a more just Chile’” (på en-US). Struggle - La Lucha. https://www.struggle-la-lucha.org/2019/10/25/solidarity-with-the-struggle-for-a-more-just-chile/. Läst 20 november 2019. 
  50. ^ ”Dokument inifrån - Lönesänkarna”. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VF__jA7GUhY. Läst 30 oktober 2019. 
  51. ^ ”Lönesänkarna (SVT Dokumentär)”. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nRyktQWtwYQ. Läst 30 oktober 2019. 


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