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September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 120 days remaining until the end of the year. 44 BC – Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. 31 BC – Roman Civil War: Battle of Actium – Off the western coast of Greece, forces of Octavian defeat troops under Mark Antony and Cleopatra. 1192 - The Third Crusade ends, after a peace agreement Sultan Saladin and Richard I of England. 1649 – The Italian city of Castro is completely destroyed by the forces of Pope Innocent X, ending the Wars of Castro. 1666 – The Great Fire of London breaks out and burns for three days destroying 10,000 buildings including St. Paul's Cathedral. 1667 - Street lighting is introduced in Paris. 1752 – The United Kingdom adopts the Gregorian calendar, nearly two centuries later than most of Western Europe. 1789 – United States Department of the Treasury was founded. 1792 – During what became known as the September Massacres of the French Revolution, rampaging mobs slaughtered three Roman Catholic Church bishops and more than two hundred priests. 1806 - A massive landslide destroys the town of Goldau, Switzerland, killing 457 people. 1807 – British Navy bombards Copenhagen with fire bombs and phosphorus rockets to stop Denmark from surrendering its fleet to Napoleon. 70% of the city was destroyed and 2000 citizens were killed. 1811 - The University of Oslo is founded as The Royal Fredericks University, named after King Frederick VI of Denmark and Norway. 1859 - A solar super storm affects the electrical telegraph service. 1862 – American Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln reluctantly restores Union General George McClellan to full command after General John Pope's disastrous defeat at the Battle of Second Bull Run. 1864 – American Civil War: Union forces under General William T. Sherman enter Atlanta, Georgia a day after the Confederate defenders fled the city. 1867 – Mutsuhito, the Meiji Emperor of Japan marries Ichijo Masako. The Empress consort is thereafter known as Lady Haruko. 1870 – Franco-Prussian War: Battle of Sedan – Prussian forces defeat the French armies and take emperor Napoleon III and 100,000 of his soldiers prisoner at Sedan. 1885 – In Rock Springs, Wyoming, 150 white miners attack their Chinese coworkers, killing 28, wounding 15, and forcing several hundred more out of town. 1898 – Battle of Omdurman – British and Egyptian troops led by Horatio Kitchener defeat Sudanese tribesmen led by Khalifa Abdullah al-Taashi, thus establishing British dominance in the Sudan. 1901 – Vice President Theodore Roosevelt utters the famous phrase, "Speak softly and carry a big stick" at the Minnesota State Fair. 1935 – Labor Day Hurricane of 1935: A large hurricane hit the Florida Keys killing 423. 1939 – Following the invasion of Poland, Freie Stadt Danzig Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) ruled by Nazi leader Forster is annexed to Nazi Germany. 1944 – Holocaust: Diarist Anne Frank and her family are placed on the last transport train from Westerbork to Auschwitz. They arrive three days later. 1945 – World War II ends: The final official surrender of Japan was accepted by General Douglas MacArthur and Admiral Chester Nimitz aboard the battleship in Tokyo Bay. Missouri 1945 – Vietnam declares its independence forming the Democratic Republic of Vietnam ( North Vietnam). 1946 - A caretaker government is formed in India, with Jawaharlal Nehru taking Prime Ministerial powers. 1957 - South Vietnamese leader Ngo Dinh Diem makes the first-ever state visit to Australia. 1958 - United States Air Force C-130 A-II is shot down by fighters over Yerevan, Armenia, when it strays into Soviet airspace while conducting a mission, killing all crew members. 1960 - First election to Parliament of Central Tibetan Administration. 1963 – becomes network CBS Evening News television's first half-hour weeknight news broadcast, when the show is lengthened from 15 to 30 minutes. 1967 – The microstate Principality of Sealand unilaterally declared its independence. 1969 – The first automatic teller machine in the United States is installed in Rockville Centre, New York. 1970 - NASA cancels two planned Moon missions, Apollo 15 and Apollo 19. 1973 - France pulls its last troops out of Madagascar. 1984 - Typhoon Ike kills over 1,400 people. 1987 – In Moscow, the trial of 19-year-old pilot Mathias Rust, who flew his Cessna airplane into Red Square in May 1987, begins. 1990 - Transnistria is declared a Soviet republic on its own right. Mikhail Gorbachev declares the move illegal. 1991 – The United States recognizes the independence of the Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. 1992 - An earthquake in Nicaragua kills 116 people. 1995 – Rock and Roll Hall of Fame opens in Cleveland, Ohio. The building was designed by I. M. Pei. 1995 - Frank Bruno becomes Boxing Heavyweight Champion, defeating Oliver McCall in London. 1998 – In Canada, pilots for Air Canada launch the first strike in company's history. 1998 – A McDonnell Douglas MD-11 airliner carrying Swissair Flight 111 crashes near Peggys Cove, Nova Scotia after taking off from New York City en route to Geneva. All 229 people on board are killed. 1998 – A United Nations court finds Jean-Paul Akayesu, the former mayor of a small town in Rwanda, guilty of nine counts of genocide, marking the first time that the 1948 law banning genocide is enforced. 1661 - Georg Böhm, German organist and composer (d. 1733) 1675 - William Somerville, English poet (d. 1742) 1753 - Marie Josephine of Savoy, Italian-born Queen Consort of France (d. 1810) 1763 - Caroline Schelling, German writer and translator (d. 1809) 1778 – Louis Bonaparte, King of the Netherlands (d. 1846) 1798 - Thomas Holliday Higgins, Governor of Maryland (d. 1865) 1805 - Esteban Echeverria, Argentine writer (d. 1851) 1810 - Lysander Button, American engineer (d. 1898) 1810 - William Seymour Tyler, American historian and educator (d. 1897) 1811 - J. C. Jacobsen, Danish industrialist and philanthropist, founder of the Carlsberg brewery (d. 1887) 1812 - William Fox, 2nd Prime Minister of New Zealand (d. 1893) 1814 - Ernst Curtius, German archaeologist and philologist (d. 1896) 1820 - Lucretia Hale, American journalist and author (d. 1900) 1830 – William P. Frye, American politician (d. 1911) 1838 – Liliuokalani, Queen of Hawaii (d. 1917) 1838 - Bhaktivinoda Thakur, Indian/Bengali writer and religious figure (d. 1914) 1839 - Henry George, American economist (d. 1897) 1840 - Giovanni Verga, Italian writer (d. 1922) 1850 – Albert Spalding, American baseball player and sporting goods manufacturer (d. 1915) 1850 - Alfred Pringsheim, German mathematician and art collector (d. 1941) 1850 - Woldemar Voigt, German physicist (d. 1919) 1853 – Wilhelm Ostwald, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1932) 1866 - Hiram Johnson, Governor of California (d. 1945) 1877 – Frederick Soddy, British chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1956) 1878 - Ion Dragoumis, Greek diplomat, writer and revolutionary (d. 1920) 1879 - An Jung-geun, Korean assassin of Ito Hirobumi (d. 1910) 1883 – Archduchess Elisabeth Marie of Austria, Austrian archduchess (d. 1963) 1883 - Rudolf Weigl, Polish biologist (d. 1957) 1884 – Frank Laubach, American Christian missionary (d. 1970) 1886 - Warren Brittingham, American soccer player (d. 1962) 1894 - Joseph Roth, Austrian novelist (d. 1939) 1898 - Pietro Ferrero, Italian entrepreneur (d. 1949) 1898 - Alfons Gorbach, Chancellor of Austria (d. 1972) 1901 – Adolph Rupp, American College basketball coach (d. 1977) 1904 - Set Svanholm, Swedish tenor (d. 1964) 1912 - Ingeborg Rapoport, German paediatrician (d. 2017) 1913 – Israel Gelfand, Russian mathematician (d. 2009) 1913 – Bill Shankly, Scottish football manager (d. 1981) 1915 – Meinhardt Raabe, American actor (d. 2010) 1917 – Cleveland Amory, writer (d. 1998) 1918 - Allen Drury, American writer (d. 1998) 1919 - Marge Champion, American actress, dancer and choreographer 1922 - Arthur Ashkin, American physicist 1923 – René Thom, French mathematician (d. 2002) 1924 – Daniel arap Moi, former President of Kenya 1925 - Hugo Montenegro, American composer and bandleader (d. 1981) 1925 - Russ Conway, British pianist, composer and singer (d. 2000) 1926 – Stanley Cavell, American philosopher (d. 2018) 1926 – Ibrahim Nasir, President of the Maldives (d. 2008) 1927 - Milo Hamilton, American sportscaster (d. 2015) 1927 - Francis Matthews, English actor (d. 2014) 1928 - Horace Silver, American jazz pianist (d. 2014) 1928 - Mel Stuart, American director and producer (d. 2012) 1929 – Hal Ashby, American movie director (d. 1988) 1929 - Victor Spinetti, Welsh actor and director (d. 2012) 1930 - Andrey Petrov, Russian composer (d. 2006) 1931 - Clifford Jordan, American jazz musician (d. 1993) 1933 - Mathieu Kérékou, former President of Benin (d. 2015) 1934 – Chuck McCann, American actor and comedian (d. 2018) 1936 – Andrew Grove, American computer chip manufacturer (d. 2016) 1937 - Len Carlson, Canadian voice actor (d. 2006) 1938 - Giuliano Gemma, Italian actor (d. 2013) 1941 - David Bale, South African activist 1942 - Andrew Kohut, American political scientist (d. 2015) 1943 - Rosalind Ashford, American singer ( Martha and the Vandellas) 1944 – Al Matthews, American actor (d. 2002) 1946 – Billy Preston, American musician (d. 2006) 1947 - Louis Michel, Belgian educator and politician 1948 – Terry Bradshaw, American football player 1948 – Christa McAuliffe, American schoolteacher and astronaut (d. 1986) 1949 - Moira Stuart, British broadcast journalist 1950 - Michael Rother, German guitarist and keyboardist 1950 - Yuen Wah, Chinese actor, martial artist and stuntman 1951 – Mark Harmon, American actor 1952 – Jimmy Connors, American tennis player 1953 - Keith Allen, British actor 1953 – John Zorn, American musician 1954 - Andrej Babis, Czech businessman and politician, Prime minister of the Czech Republic 1956 - Doria Ragland, mother of Meghan, Duchess of Sussex 1956 - Mario Tremblay, Canadian ice hockey player 1957 - Steve Porcaro, American musician ( Toto) 1958 - Lynne Kosky, Australian politician (d. 2014) 1958 - Olivier Grouillard, French racing driver 1959 - Guy Laliberté, Canadian poker player and entrepreneur, founder of the Cirque du Soleil 1960 - Kristin Halvorsen, Norwegian politician 1961 – Eric Dickerson, American football player 1961 - Claude Puel, French footballer and manager 1961 – Carlos Valderrama, Colombian footballer 1962 - Eugenio Derbez, Mexican actor, director, producer and screenwriter 1962 - Keir Starmer, English lawyer and politician 1963 - Prachya Pinkaew, Thai movie director, producer and screenwriter 1963 - Stanislav Cherchesov, Russian footballer and manager 1964 – Keanu Reeves, Canadian actor 1965 – Lennox Lewis, Canadian-British boxer 1966 – Salma Hayek, Mexican actress 1967 – Andreas Moeller, German footballer 1969 – Cedric "K-Ci" Hailey, singer 1969 - Stephane Matteau, Canadian ice hockey player 1971 - Kjetil André Aamodt, Norwegian alpine skier 1971 – Tommy Maddox, American football player 1972 – Sergei Zholtok, ice hockey player 1973 – Mark Shield, Australian football referee 1974 - Sami Salo, Finnish ice hockey player 1976 - Momodu Mutairu, Nigerian footballer 1977 - Frédéric Kanouté, Malian footballer 1979 – Tomer Ben Yosef, Israeli footballer 1980 - Danny Shittu, Nigerian footballer 1981 - Chris Tremlett, English cricketer 1982 – Joey Barton, English footballer 1983 - José Alfredo Castillo, Bolivian footballer 1983 - Aimee Osbourne, American model and actress 1986 - Gelson Fernandes, Swiss footballer 1986 - Rafik Halliche, Algerian footballer 1986 – Kyle Hines, American basketball player 1987 - Spencer Smith, American drummer ( Panic! at the Disco) 1987 - Jevan Snead, American football player (d. 2019) 1988 - Javi Martínez, Spanish footballer 1988 - Dimitrij Ovtcharov, German table tennis player 1989 – Alexandre Pato, Brazilian footballer 1989 - Marcus Morris, American basketball player 1989 - Markieff Morris, American basketball player 1990 - Marcus Ericsson, Swedish racing driver 1992 - Alberto Masi, Italian footballer 1993 - Montana Cox, Australian model 1996 - Sungha Jung, South Korean musician 1997 - Brandon Ingram, American basketball player 490 BC - Pheidippides, Greek hero (b. around 530 BC) 421 – Constantius III, Roman Emperor (b. late 300s) 459 - Simeon Stylites, Byzantine saint (b. 390) 595 - Patriarch John IV of Constantinople 1031 - Saint Emeric of Hungary 1274 – Prince Munetaka, 6th Kamakura shogun in Japan (b. 1242) 1397 - Francesco Landini, Italian composer (b. between 1325 and 1335) 1540 – Lebna Dengel, Emperor of Ethiopia (b. 1501) 1680 - Per Brahe, Swedish soldier and statesman (b. 1602) 1690 - Philipp Wilhelm, Elector Palatine (b. 1615) 1721 - Kwon Sang-ha, politician and Neo Confucian scholar of Korea (b. 1641) 1764 – Revd Nathaniel Bliss, British astronomer Royal (b. 1700) 1768 - Antoine Deparcieux, French mathematician (b. 1703) 1813 - Jean-Victor Moreau, French general (b. 1763) 1820 – Jiaqing Emperor, Emperor of China (b. 1760) 1832 – Franz Xaver, Baron Von Zach, Austrian scientific editor, astronomer (b. 1754) 1834 – Thomas Telford, British civil engineer (b. 1757) 1845 - Bernardino Rivadavia, Argentine statesman (b. 1780) 1865 - William Rowan Hamilton, Irish mathematician (b. 1805) 1872 – Nicolai Grundtvig, Danish writer and philosopher (b. 1783) 1877 - Constantine Kanaris, Greek admiral, freedom fighter and politician (b. 1793) 1884 - Henry B. Anthony, Governor of Rhode Island (b. 1815) 1895 - Charles Anderson, 27th Governor of Ohio (b. 1814) 1898 – Wilford Woodruff, president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (b. 1807) 1910 – Henri Rousseau, French painter (b. 1844) 1921 – Anthony Francis Lucas, Croatian-American oil exploration pioneer (b. 1855) 1921 – Henry Austin Dobson, poet (b. 1840) 1927 - Umegatani Totaro II, Japanese sumo wrestler (b. 1878) 1934 – Alcide Nunez, jazz musician (b. 1884) 1934 - James Allan, New Zealand rugby player (b. 1860) 1937 – Pierre de Coubertin, French founder of the modern Olympic Games (b. 1863) 1948 - Sylvanus Morley, American archaeologist and spy (b. 1883) 1964 – Francisco Craveiro Lopes, Portuguese President (b. 1894) 1964 – Alvin York, most decorated American soldier of World War I (b. 1887) 1969 – Ho Chi Minh, Vietnamese political leader (b. 1890) 1971 - Robert Mensah, Ghanaian footballer (b. 1939) 1973 – J. R. R. Tolkien, British writer (b. 1892) 1973 – Carl Dudley, American movie director (b. 1910) 1976 – Stanisław Grochowiak, Polish poet and dramatist (b. 1934) 1981 - Andrija Maurovic, Croatian illustrator (b. 1901) 1985 - Abe Lenstra, Dutch footballer (b. 1920) 1991 – Alfonso García Robles, Mexican politician (b. 1911) 1992 – Barbara McClintock, American geneticist (b. 1902) 1994 - Roy Castle, English actor, singer and dancer (b. 1932) 1997 - Rudolf Bing, Austrian-born British opera singer (b. 1902) 1997 - Viktor Frankl, Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist (b. 1905) 1998 - Jackie Blanchflower, Northern Irish footballer (b. 1933) 1998 – Allen Drury, American writer (b. 1918) 2000 – Elvera Sanchez, Puerto Rican dancer (b. 1905) 2000 – Curt Siodmak, science fiction writer (b. 1907) 2001 – Christiaan Barnard, South African heart surgeon (b. 1922) 2001 – Troy Donahue, American actor (b. 1936) 2008 - Bill Melendez, Mexican-American animator, director, producer and voice actor (b. 1916) 2009 - Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy, Indian politician (b. 1949) 2010 – Shmuel Eisenstadt, Israeli sociologist (b. 1923) 2013 - Frederik Pohl, American science fiction writer (b. 1919) 2013 - Ronald Coase, British economist (b. 1910) 2013 - Valérie Benguigui, French actress (b. 1965) 2013 - David Jacobs, English radio and television host (b. 1926) 2013 - Paul Scoon, 2nd Governor-General of Grenada (b. 1935) 2014 - Steven Sotloff, American journalist (b. 1983) 2014 - Norman Gordon, South African cricketer (b. 1911) 2014 - Helena Rakoczy, Polish gymnast (b. 1921) 2014 - J. LaMoine Jenson, American religious leader (b. 1935) 2014 - Peter Carter, British diplomat (b. 1956) 2014 - Antonis Vardis, Greek composer and singer (b. 1948) 2015 - Charles Gyamfi, Ghanaian footballer (b. 1929) 2015 - Aleksander Mandziara, Polish footballer and coach (b. 1940) 2015 - Simo Salminen, Finnish comic actor (b. 1932) 2015 - Brianna Lea Pruett, American singer-songwriter, musician, poet and moviemaker (b. 1983) 2016 - Islam Karimov, President of Uzbekistan (b. 1938) 2017 - Viktor Cherepkov, Russian politician (b. 1942) 2017 - Halim El-Dabh, Egyptian composer (b. 1921) 2017 - Xiang Shouzhi, Chinese general (b. 1917) 2018 - Conway Savage, Australian rock singer-songwriter and pianist (b. 1960) 2018 - Claire Wineland, American entrepreneur and health activist (b. 1997) 2019 - Ryszard Czerniawski, Polish lawyer and economist (b. 1952) 2019 - Carlo Fonseka, Sri Lankan physician (b. 1933) 2019 - Joan Antoni Solans Huguet, Spanish urban planner (b. 1941) 2019 - Gyoji Matsumoto, Japanese footballer (b. 1934)
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