Science is what we do to find out about the natural world. Natural sciences include physics, chemistry, biology, geology and astronomy. Science uses mathematics and logic, which are sometimes called "formal sciences". Natural science makes observations and experiments. Science produces accurate facts, scientific laws and theories. 'Science' also refers to the large amount of knowledge that has been found using this process.
Research uses the scientific method. Scientific research uses hypotheses based on ideas or earlier knowledge, which can be categorized through different topics. Then those hypotheses are tested by experiments.
People who study and research science and try to find out everything about it are called scientists. Scientists study things by looking at them very carefully, by measuring them, and by doing experiments and tests. Scientists try to explain why things act the way they do, and predict what will happen.
Scientific method[change | change source]
Today, "science" usually refers to a way of pursuing knowledge, not just the knowledge itself. It is mainly about the phenomena of the material world. In the 17th and 18th centuries scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of laws of nature such as Newton's laws of motion. And over the course of the 19th century, the word "science" became increasingly associated with the scientific method itself, as a way to study the natural world, including physics, chemistry, geology and biology.
It was in the 19th century also that the term scientist was created by William Whewell. He meant it to distinguish those who sought knowledge on nature from those who sought other types of knowledge.
- Scientists identify a question or a problem about nature. Some problems are simple, such as "how many legs do flies have?" and some are very deep, such as "why do objects fall to the ground?"
- Next, scientists investigate the problem. They work at it, collecting facts. Sometimes all it takes is to look carefully.
- Some questions cannot be answered directly. Then scientists suggest ideas, and test them out. They do experiments and collect data.
- Eventually, they figure out what they think is a good answer to the problem. Then they tell people about it.
- Later, other scientists may agree or not agree. They may suggest another answer. They may do more experiments. Anything in science might be revised if we find out the previous solution was not good enough.
An example[change | change source]
A famous example of science in action was the expedition led by Arthur Eddington to Principe Island in Africa in 1919. He went there to record the positions of stars around the Sun during a solar eclipse. The observation of star positions showed that the apparent star positions close to the Sun were changed. In effect, the light passing the Sun was pulled towards the Sun by gravitation. This confirmed predictions of gravitational lensing made by Albert Einstein in the general theory of relativity, published in 1915. Eddington's observations were considered to be the first solid evidence in favour of Einstein's theory. Had the observations resulted differently, this would have counted against Einstein's theory, and perhaps refuted it (shown it was wrong).
Practical impacts of scientific research[change | change source]
Discoveries in fundamental science can be world-changing. For example:
Research Impact Static electricity and magnetism (1600)
Electric current (18th century)
All electric appliances, dynamo's, electric power stations, modern electronics, including electric lighting, television, electric heating, magnetic tape, loudspeaker, plus the compass and lightning rod. Diffraction (1665) Optics, hence fiber optic cable (1840s), cable TV and internet Germ theory (1700) Hygiene, leading to decreased transmission of infectious diseases; antibodies, leading to techniques for disease diagnosis and targeted anticancer therapies. Vaccination (1798) Leading to the elimination of most infectious diseases from developed countries and the worldwide eradication of smallpox. Photovoltaics (1839) Solar cells (1883), hence solar power, solar powered watches, calculators and other devices. The strange orbit of Mercury (1859) and other research
leading to special (1905) and general relativity (1916)
Satellite-based technology such as GPS (1973), satnav and communications satellites. Radio waves (1887) Radio quickly became known for its use in broadcast radio (1906) and television (1927) entertainment. It was also much used in areas of telephony, emergency services, radar (navigation and weather forecasting), medicine, astronomy, wireless communications, and networking. Radio research also led to the use of microwaves, for heating and cooking food. Radioactivity (1896) and antimatter (1932) Cancer treatment (1896), Radiometric dating (1905), nuclear reactors (1942) and weapons (1945), PET scans (1961), and medical research (with isotopic labelling) X-rays (1896) Medical imaging, including computer tomography Crystallography and quantum mechanics (1900) Semiconductor devices (1906), hence modern computing and telecommunications including the integration with wireless devices: the mobile phone Plastics (1907) Starting with bakelite, many types of artificial polymers for numerous applications in industry and daily life Antibiotics (1880's, 1928) Salvarsan, Penicillin, doxycycline etc. Nuclear magnetic resonance (1930's) Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1946), magnetic resonance imaging (1971), functional magnetic resonance imaging (1990's).
Other features of science[change | change source]
Not everyone completely agrees about how science works. Some philosophers and scientists say that scientific theories are only accepted for the time being. They last so long as they are the best explanation. When theories no longer explain the data, they are discarded and replaced. Or, sometimes scientists will make a theory better rather than discard it, or they will keep on using the theory hoping that it will be made better eventually.
Science is a way to get knowledge by discarding what is not true.
Scientists must be very careful to make explanations that fit well with what they observe and measure. They compete to provide better explanations. An explanation might be interesting or pleasing, but if it does not agree with what other scientists really see and measure, they will try to find a better explanation.
Before a scientific article is published, other scientists read the article and decide whether the explanations make sense from the data. This is called peer review. After articles are published, other scientists will also check if the same experiments, observations or tests produce the same data again. Peer review and repeating experiments are the only way to be sure the knowledge is correct.
Science makes models of nature, models of our universe, and medicine. There are many different sciences with their own names. However it is not right to say "science says" any one thing. Science is a process, not just the facts and rules believed at one time.
Some types of science[change | change source]
- Formal and applied sciences
HIGHLIGHTS by Years (including 2000s); Breakthroughs; History; Outline; Timelines (Human, Life, Nature); Questions.
- Astronomers have estimated that there are as many as "One Septillion" (or, 1×1024) stars in the observable universe – more stars than all the grains of beach sand on the planet Earth.
- Astronomers have confirmed (as of November 1, 2020) => 4,370 exoplanets (in 3,230 exoplanet systems and 715 multi-exoplanetary systems) – after studying only a very small portion of the starry sky.
- The NASA probes currently active on the planet Mars (as of November 30, 2020) are the following:
Curiosity rover => 2957 sols (3038 days) (8 years, 116 days) (landed August 6, 2012).
InSight lander => 715 sols (735 days) (2 years, 4 days) (landed November 26, 2018).
(USA flag on Mars – Weather on Mars: Curiosity / InSight – Mars rocks – Martians found?).
- A spaceship from planet Earth speeding 165,000 miles an hour (as fast as our fastest one), would take nearly 20,000 years to travel beyond our Solar System to the nearest star Proxima Centauri – with no worthy place to land.
- Spaceship planet Earth is speeding about "One Million" miles an hour through outer space and, along with the rest of the Milky Way Galaxy, is traveling toward Andromeda Galaxy. (WikiTalk).
- The Universe contains life – on planet Earth – at least – and – we are not alone – life abounds – wherever we are – with microorganisms – at the very minimum.
- Biologists currently understand that microorganisms were the only known life forms present during the earliest 85% of time since the planet Earth was formed 4.54 billion years ago – Plants and Animals appear much more recently – in the latest 15% of time – Modern Humans, much more recently yet – in less than the latest 0.005% of time.
- Biologists have estimated that over 99% of all species of life forms that have ever lived on planet Earth are now extinct.
- Chemists have determined that all life forms on planet Earth are based on one particular chemical – with astronomical variations.
- Physicists have determined that, from the very small to the very large, 99.9999999% of all matter in the Universe is empty space.
- Wilson, Edward O. 1998. Consilience: the unity of knowledge. New York: Vintage Books, 49–71. ISBN 0-679-45077-7
- Heilbron J.L. 2003. The Oxford companion to the history of modern science. New York: Oxford University Press, vii. ISBN 0-19-511229-6.
"... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. It was a discovery that nature generally acts regularly enough to be described by laws and even by mathematics; and required invention to devise the techniques, abstractions, apparatus, and organization for exhibiting the regularities and securing their law-like descriptions".
- "Online dictionary". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2009-05-22.knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method...
- Popper, Karl (2002) . The Logic of Scientific Discovery (2nd English edition ed.). New York, NY: Routledge Classics. p. 3. ISBN 0-415-27844-9. OCLC 59377149.CS1 maint: extra text (link)
- Oxford English Dictionary
- The Oxford English Dictionary dates the origin of the word "scientist" to 1834.
- Evicting Einstein, March 26, 2004, NASA. "Both [relativity and quantum mechanics] are extremely successful. The Global Positioning System (GPS), for instance, wouldn't be possible without the theory of relativity. Computers, , and the Internet, meanwhile, are spin-offs of quantum mechanics."
- Staff (2020). "How many stars are there in the Universe?". European Space Agency. Retrieved January 17, 2020.
- Mackie, Glen (February 1, 2002). "To see the Universe in a Grain of Taranaki Sand". Swinburne University of Technology. Retrieved January 17, 2020.
- Staff (2020). "The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia - Catalog". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 17, 2020.
- Staff (2020). "Rover Environmental Monitoring Station - Mars Science Laboratory (NASA)". Spanish Astrobiology Center. Retrieved January 17, 2020.
- Staff (2020). "Mars InSight Mission - Latest Weather at Elysium Planitia". NASA. Retrieved January 17, 2020.
- Staff (2020). "Martians on Mars found by the Curiosity rover". 360cities.net. Retrieved January 17, 2020.
- Cofield, Calla (August 24, 2016). "How We Could Visit the Possibly Earth-Like Planet Proxima b". Space.com. Retrieved January 17, 2020.
- Bogdan, Dr. Dennis (2020). "Calculation - Time to nearest star". LiveJournal. Archived from the original on August 20, 2020. Retrieved January 17, 2020.
- Fraknoi, Andrew (2007). "How Fast Are You Moving When You Are Sitting Still?" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved January 17, 2020.
- Kolata, Gina (June 14, 2012). "In Good Health? Thank Your 100 Trillion Bacteria". The New York Times. Retrieved January 17, 2020.
- Novacek, Michael J. (November 8, 2014). "Prehistory's Brilliant Future". The New York Times. Retrieved January 17, 2020.
- Bogdan, Dr. Dennis (February 16, 2020). "The one particular chemical is Nucleic Acid - a basic chemical for all known life forms - in the form of DNA - and/or - RNA - that defines - by way of a particular genetic code sequence - all the astronomically diverse known life forms on Earth - all such known life forms are essentially a variation of this particular Nucleic Acid chemical that, at a very basic level, has been uniquely coded for a specific known life form". Dr. Dennis Bogdan.
- Berg, J.M.; Tymoczko, J.L.; Stryer, L. (2002). Chapter 5. DNA, RNA, and the Flow of Genetic Information. Biochemistry. 5th edition. Retrieved February 16, 2020.
- Sundermier, Ali (September 23, 2016). "99.9999999% of Your Body Is Empty Space". ScienceAlert.com. Retrieved January 17, 2020.