2003 invasion of Iraq
|2003 invasion of Iraq|
|Part of the Iraq War|
From left to right: Marines of the U.S. 1st Marine Regiment escort Iraqi prisoners of war; a convoy of U.S. military vehicles in a sandstorm; U.S. soldiers watch an enemy building in Baghdad burn; Iraqi civilians cheer as a statue of Saddam Hussein is toppled.
| || |
|Commanders and leaders|
| Masoud Barzani|
Kosrat Rasul Ali
| Saddam Hussein|
Abid Hamid Mahmud
Ali Hassan al-Majid
Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti
Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri
Taha Yassin Ramadan
|Iraqi National Congress: 620|| |
Iraqi Armed Forces: 538,000 active
Shia Al Mahdi Army: 1600–2800
|Casualties and losses|
238 dead, 1,000+ wounded
13,500–45,000 (extrapolated from fatality rates in units serving around Baghdad)
Total: 7,600–8,000 killed
The 2003 invasion of Iraq (March 20, 2003 - May 1, 2003) was the war fought by the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Poland and some other countries against Iraq, to end the rule of Saddam Hussein. The main reason that the war started was said to be because the British and American Governments believed that Iraq had dangerous weapons of mass destruction (such as chemical or nuclear weapons) that could be used against other countries. This turned out after the invasion to not be true.
Another reason for the start of the war was that many people thought that Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, one of the leaders of al-Qaeda, was hiding in Iraq after the September 11, 2001 attacks. Though Saddam Hussein was not involved in the planning of the September 11 attacks, many people accused him of giving al-Qaeda a safe place to hide from the United States. The war was extremely controversial. Many British and American people blamed British Prime Minister Tony Blair and the American President, George W. Bush.
Paratroopers landed in the far north of Iraq and a few soldiers attacked from the sea, but most invaded from Kuwait in the south. 4,734 NATO soldiers were killed in Iraq war including 4,600 U.S. servicemen, 179 UK servicemen and 139 Other NATO soldiers with a total of 4900 casualties. 31,882 U.S. servicemen and over 3,600 UK servicemen were wounded in Iraq. More than 100,000 Iraqi civilians who were not soldiers were also killed.
Aftermath[change | change source]
On December 30 2008, US soldier Christopher Lotter was killed in Tikrit as retaliation for Saddam's execution on December 30 2006 . On April 18 2010, ISIS leaders Abu Ayyub al-Masri and Abu Abdullah al-Rashid al-Baghdadi were killed in a raid 10 km (6 mi) of Tikrit in a safe house.
References[change | change source]
- Graham, Bradley (7 April 2003). "U.S. Airlifts Iraqi Exile Force For Duties Near Nasiriyah". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 8 August 2007. Retrieved 13 September 2009.
- John Pike (14 March 2003). "Free Iraqi Forces Committed to Democracy, Rule of Law – DefenseLink". Globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 10 September 2009. Retrieved 13 September 2009.
- "Deploying the Free Iraqi Forces – U.S. News & World Report". Usnews.com. 7 April 2003. Archived from the original on 4 February 2004. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- Kim Ghattas (14 April 2003). "Syrians join Iraq 'jihad'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 21 September 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- "Arab volunteers to Iraq: 'token' act or the makings of another Afghan jihad?". Archived from the original on 27 November 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- Kahana, Ephraim; Suwaed, Muhammad (2009). The A to Z of Middle Eastern Intelligence. Scarecrow Press. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-8108-7070-3.
- "Security Council endorses formation of sovereign interim government in Iraq; welcomes end of occupation by 30 June, democratic elections by January 2005". United Nations. 8 June 2004. Archived from the original on 23 September 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 July 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Katzman, Kenneth (5 February 2009). "Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security" (PDF). fpc.state.gov/. Congressional Research Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
In the war, Iraq's conventional military forces were overwhelmed by the approximately 380,000-person U.S. and British-led 30-country18 "coalition of the willing" force, a substantial proportion of which were in supporting roles.
- "A Timeline of Iraq War, Troop Levels". Huffington Post. Associated Press. 15 April 2008. Archived from the original on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- Australian Department of Defence (2004). The War in Iraq. ADF Operations in the Middle East in 2003 Archived 9 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Page 11.
- MAJ Isaac J. Peltier, US Army. "Surrogate Warfare: The Role of U.S. Army Special Forces" (PDF). p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 May 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Toby Dodge (16 November 2002). "Iraqi army is tougher than US believes". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
- "IRAQ: Iraq's Prewar Military Capabilities". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 14 December 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
- "Foreign Irregulars in Iraq:". www.washingtoninstitute.org. 10 April 2003. Archived from the original on 3 April 2019. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- "Iraq Coalition Casualties: Fatalities by Year and Month" Archived 6 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine iCasualties.org. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- icasualties Iraq Coalition Casualties: U.S. Wounded Totals Archived 24 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- Willing to face Death: A History of Kurdish Military Forces – the Peshmerga – from the Ottoman Empire to Present-Day Iraq (page 67) Archived 29 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Michael G. Lortz
- "The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict". Commonwealth Institute of Cambridge. Archived from the original on 2 September 2009. Retrieved 13 September 2009.
- "Wages of War – Appendix 1. Survey of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 war". Commonwealth Institute of Cambridge. Archived from the original on 2 September 2009. Retrieved 13 September 2009.
- "Body counts". By Jonathan Steele. The Guardian. 28 May 2003.
- Iraq Body Count project Archived 9 November 2009 at WebCite. Source of IBC quote on undercounting by media is Press Release 15 :: Iraq Body Count. Archived 9 November 2009 at WebCite
- "Countries involved in the war". www.islamonline.net. Archived from the original on 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- "Reason for the war". www.whitehouse.gov. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- "Thoughts of the September 11 attacks". www.whitehouse.gov. Archived from the original on 2012-03-24. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2010-04-20.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-02-18. Retrieved 2010-05-12.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "iCasualties Iraq: iCasualties Home Page". www.icasualties.org.
- "U.S. Department of Defense". U.S. Department of Defense.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-03-31. Retrieved 2010-04-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Iraq Body Count". Archived from the original on 2009-11-09. Retrieved 2011-07-11.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- "Excerpts: Annan interview". 16 September 2004 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
Other websites[change | change source]
- Encyclopedia Britannica's Article on 2003 War
- Architects of Illegal American-Iraq 2003 war: George Bush jr, Dick Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld found guilty of war crimes!
- War Report. More than 5,000 articles, documents and analyses of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, updated four times a week—Project on Defense Alternatives.
- CIA’s final report
- Occupation of Iraq Timeline at the History Commons
- Morgues so full, bodies turned away
- The War In Context News aggregator
- ProCon's examination of Iraq Invasion Archived 2008-06-20 at the Wayback Machine
- by Professor Dr. Sedat Laciner, "Ten Impasses of the Resistance in Iraq" Archived 2005-04-03 at the Wayback Machine
- Amnesty International Report on Iraq Archived 2003-04-28 at the Wayback Machine