امپراتوری سلجوقی

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آلِ سلجوق[۱]
امپراتوری
۱۰۳۷–۱۱۹۴
قلمرو سلجوقیان در سال ۱۰۹۲،
زمان مرگ ملک‌شاه یکم
پایتخت نیشابور
(۱۰۳۷–۱۰۴۳)
شهر ری
(۱۰۴۳–۱۰۵۱)
اصفهان
(۱۰۵۱–۱۱۱۸)
همدان، پایتخت غربی (۱۱۱۸–۱۱۹۴)
مرو، پایتخت شرقی (۱۱۱۸–۱۱۵۳)
زبان‌(ها)
دین مسلمان سنی (حنفی)
دولت پادشاهی
سلجوقیان یا شاه
 - ۱۰۳۷–۱۰۶۳ طغرل بیک (یکم)
 - ۱۱۷۴–۱۱۹۴ طغرل سوم سلجوقی (آخرین)[۶][۷]
تاریخچه
 - طغرل بیک آن را بنیان نهاد ۱۰۳۷
 - توسط خوارزمشاهیان ادامه یافت[۸] ۱۱۹۴
مساحت
 - ۱۰۸۰ (تخمین) ۳۹۰۰۰۰۰کیلومترمربع (۱٬۵۰۵٬۷۹۸مایل‌مربع)
پیش از آن
به دنبال آن
غزنویان
آل بویه
Sallarid dynasty
امپراتوری روم شرقی
آل کاکویه
غوریان
خوارزمشاهیان
سلجوقیان روم
ایوبیان
اتابکان آذربایجان
Burid dynasty
دودمان زنگیان
دانشمندیان
آل ارتق
بنی سلدق
ارمن‌شاهان
شدادیان
امروزه بخشی از
History of the Turkic peoples
تاریخ اقوام ترک
در قرن چهاردهم
خاقانات ترک 552–744
  خاقانات غربی ترک
  Eastern Turkic
خزرها 618–1048
Xueyantuo 628–646
بلغارستان کبیر قدیم 632–668
  امپراتوری نخست بلغارستان
  بلغارستان ولگا
Kangar union 659–750
تورگش 699–766
Uyghur Khaganate 744–840
Karluk Yabgu State 756–940
قراخانیان 840–1212
  قراخانیان
  قراخانیان
Gansu Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036
مملکت قره‌خواجه 856–1335
پچنگ‌ها
860–1091
خانات کیمک
743–1035
دشت قبچاق
1067–1239
Oghuz Yabgu State
750–1055
غزنویان 963–1186
امپراتوری سلجوقی 1037–1194
  سلجوقیان روم
خوارزمشاهیان 1077–1231
سلطنت دهلی 1206–1526
  سلطنت مملوک (دهلی)
  دودمان خلجی
  تغلق‌شاهیان
اردوی زرین | [۹][۱۰][۱۱] 1240s–1502
سلطنت مملوک (مصر) 1250–1517
  ممالیک بحری
  امپراتوری عثمانی 1299-1923

آل سلجوق که با نام‌های امپراتوری کبیر سلجوقیان (ترکی Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu) یا دولت کبیر سلجوقیان (ترکمنی Beỳik Seljuk Döwleti) نیز شناخته می‌شود حکومتی ترکی-ایرانی[۱۲] و سنی مذهب بود که ایل قنیق ترکان اغوز شکل گرفت.[۱۳] وسعت قلمرو سلجوقیان از شرق تا کوه‌های هندوکش، از غرب تا فلات آناتولی و شام، از شمال تا آسیای مرکزی و از جنوب تا خلیج فارس ادامه داشت. سلجوقیان سرزمین مادر خود یعنی حاشیه دریای آرال به خراسان حمله کرده و سپس وارد بخش مرکزی ایران شدند و پس از آن آناتولی را تصرف کردند.

جد این امپراتوری سلجوق پسر دقاق بود، دقاق بزرگترین فرماندهٔ نظامی ایالت اوغوز یابغو بود. به دلیل مهارت وی در تیراندازی به وی لقب تیمور یالیق (کمان آهنین) داده بودند.

امپراتوری سلجوقیان در سال ۱۰۳۷ میلادی توسط طغرل‌بیگ بنیانگذاری شد. طغرل به واسطه سلجوق بیگ که یکی از سران ترکان اوغوز بود به قدرت رسید. سلجوقیان باعث اتحاد دوباره جهان اسلام شدند و نقش کلیدی در جنگ‌های صلیبی اول و دوم داشتند. سلجوقیان به شدت تحت تأثیر فرهنگ[۱۴] و زبان[۱۵] ایرانیان قرار گرفتند و نقش مهمی در ایجاد پیوند بین فرهنگ‌های ترکی-ایرانی بودند[۱۶] به گونه‌ای که حتی باعث انتقال فرهنگ ایرانی به فلات آناتولی نیز گشتند.[۱۷][۱۸] مهاجرت ترک‌تباران به مناطق استراتژیک مرزهای شمالی و شمال غربی امپراتوری سلجوقی برای مقابله با حملات احتمالی دشمنان خارجی باعث ترک‌سازی این مناطق شد.[۱۹]

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. Rāvandī, Muḥammad (1385). Rāḥat al-ṣudūr va āyat al-surūr dar tārīkh-i āl-i saljūq. Tihrān: Intishārāt-i Asāṭīr. ISBN 9643313662. 
  2. ۲٫۰ ۲٫۱ Savory, R. M. and Roger Savory, Introduction to Islamic civilisation, (Cambridge University Press, 1976), 82.
  3. Black, Edwin, Banking on Baghdad: inside Iraq's 7,000-year history of war, profit and conflict, (John Wiley and sons, 2004), 38.
  4. ۴٫۰ ۴٫۱ ۴٫۲ C.E. Bosworth, "Turkish Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, p. 391: "While the Arabic language retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuk rulers (Qubād, Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkish must have been essentially a vehicle for everyday speech at this time)
  5. Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, Ed. Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie, (Elsevier Ltd. , 2009), 1110;Oghuz Turkic is first represented by Old Anatolian Turkish which was a subordinate written medium until the end of the Seljuk rule.".
  6. A New General Biographical Dictionary, Vol.2, Ed. Hugh James Rose, (London, 1853), 214.
  7. Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (New Brunswick:Rutgers University Press, 1988), 167.
  8. Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (New Brunswick:Rutgers University Press, 1988),159,161; "In 1194, Togrul III would succumb to the onslaught of the Khwarizmian Turks, who were destined at last to succeed the Seljuks to the empire of the Middle East."
  9. Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2006). Peoples of Western Asia. p. 364. 
  10. Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. p. 280. 
  11. Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. p. 162. 
  12. * "Aḥmad of Niǧde's al-Walad al-Shafīq and the Seljuk Past", A. C. S. Peacock, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 54, (2004), 97; "With the growth of Seljuk power in Rum, a more highly developed Muslim cultural life, based on the Persianate culture of the Great Seljuk court, was able to take root in Anatolia."
    • Meisami, Julie Scott, Persian Historiography to the End of the Twelfth Century, (Edinburgh University Press, 1999), 143; "Nizam al-Mulk also attempted to organise the Saljuq administration according to the Persianate Ghaznavid model&nbsp k..."
    • Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Šahrbānu", Online Edition: "here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkmen heroes or Muslim saints ..."
    • Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, 2005, p. 399
    • Michael Mandelbaum, Central Asia and the World, Council on Foreign Relations (May 1994), p. 79
    • Jonathan Dewald, Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24: "Turcoman armies coming from the East had driven the Byzantines out of much of Asia Minor and established the Persianized sultanate of the Seljuks."
    • Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 161, 164; "renewed the Seljuk attempt to found a great Turko-Persian empire in eastern Iran." "It is to be noted that the Seljuks, those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia, did not Turkify Persia-no doubt because they did not wish to do so. On the contrary, it was they who voluntarily became Persians and who, in the manner of the great old Sassanid kings, strove to protect the Iranian populations from the plundering of Ghuzz bands and save Iranian culture from the Turkoman menace."
    • Wendy M. K. Shaw, Possessors and possessed: museums, archaeology, and the visualization of history in the late Ottoman Empire. University of California Press, 2003, شابک: ‎۰-۵۲۰-۲۳۳۳۵-۲, شابک: ‎۹۷۸-۰-۵۲۰-۲۳۳۳۵-۵; p. 5.
  13. * Jackson, P. (2002). "Review: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens". Journal of Islamic Studies. Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies. 13 (1): 75–76. doi:10.1093/jis/13.1.75. 
    • Bosworth, C. E. (2001). 0Notes on Some Turkish Names in Abu 'l-Fadl Bayhaqi's Tarikh-i Mas'udi". Oriens, Vol. 36, 2001 (2001), pp. 299–313.
    • Dani, A. H. , Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).
    • Hancock, I. (2006). On Romani origins and identity. The Romani Archives and Documentation Center. The University of Texas at Austin.
    • Asimov, M. S. , Bosworth, C. E. (eds.). (1998). History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: "The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century", Part One: "The Historical, Social and Economic Setting". Multiple History Series. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.
    • Dani, A. H. , Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).
  14. * C.E. Bosworth, "Turkmen Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO History of Humanity, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, p. 391: "While the Arabic language retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuk rulers (Qubād, Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkmen must have been essentially a vehicle for everyday speech at this time). The process of Persianization accelerated in the thirteenth century with the presence in Konya of two of the most distinguished refugees fleeing before the Mongols, Bahā' al-Dīn Walad and his son Mawlānā Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī, whose Mathnawī, composed in Konya, constitutes one of the crowning glories of classical Persian literature."
    • Mehmed Fuad Köprülü, "Early Mystics in Turkish Literature", Translated by Gary Leiser and Robert Dankoff, Routledge, 2006, p. 149: "If we wish to sketch, in broad outline, the civilization created by the Seljuks of Anatolia, we must recognize that the local—i.e. , non-Muslim, element was fairly insignificant compared to the Turkish and Arab-Persian elements, and that the Persian element was paramount. The Seljuk rulers, to be sure, who were in contact with not only Muslim Persian civilization, but also with the Arab civilizations in al-jazlra and Syria—indeed, with all Muslim peoples as far as India—also had connections with {various} Byzantine courts. Some of these rulers, like the great 'Ala' al-Dln Kai-Qubad I himself, who married Byzantine princesses and thus strengthened relations with their neighbors to the west, lived for many years in Byzantium and became very familiar with the customs and ceremonial at the Byzantine court. Still, this close contact with the ancient Greco-Roman and Christian traditions only resulted in their adoption of a policy of tolerance toward art, aesthetic life, painting, music, independent thought—in short, toward those things that were frowned upon by the narrow and piously ascetic views {of their subjects}. The contact of the common people with the Greeks and Armenians had basically the same result. [Before coming to Anatolia,] the Turkmens had been in contact with many nations and had long shown their ability to synthesize the artistic elements that thev had adopted from these nations. When they settled in Anatolia, they encountered peoples with whom they had not yet been in contact and immediately established relations with them as well. Ala al-Din Kai-Qubad I established ties with the Genoese and, especially, the Venetians at the ports of Sinop and Antalya, which belonged to him, and granted them commercial and legal concessions. Meanwhile, the Mongol invasion, which caused a great number of scholars and artisans to flee from Turkmenistan, Iran, and Khwarazm and settle within the Empire of the Seljuks of Anatolia, resulted in a reinforcing of Persian influence on the Anatolian Turks. Indeed, despite all claims to the contrary, there is no question that Persian influence was paramount among the Seljuks of Anatolia. This is clearly revealed by the fact that the sultans who ascended the throne after Ghiyath al-Din Kai-Khusraw I assumed titles taken from ancient Persian mythology, like Kai-Khusraw, Kai-Ka us, and Kai-Qubad; and that. Ala' al-Din Kai-Qubad I had some passages from the Shahname inscribed on the walls of Konya and Sivas. When we take into consideration domestic life in the Konya courts and the sincerity of the favor and attachment of the rulers to Persian poets and Persian literature, then this fact [i.e., the importance of Persian influence] is undeniable. With regard to the private lives of the rulers, their amusements, and palace ceremonial, the most definite influence was also that of Iran, mixed with the early Turkish traditions, and not that of Byzantium."
    • Stephen P. Blake, Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India, 1639–1739. Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 123: "For the Seljuks and Il-Khanids in Iran it was the rulers rather than the conquered who were "Persianized and Islamicized"
  15. * Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Šahrbānu", Online Edition: "here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkmen heroes or Muslim saints ..."
    • O. Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries Archived 2012-01-22 at the Wayback Machine.", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition
    • Encyclopædia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition: "Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
    • M. Ravandi, "The Seljuq court at Konya and the Persianisation of Anatolian Cities", in Mesogeios (Mediterranean Studies), vol. 25-6 (2005), pp. 157–69
    • F. Daftary, "Sectarian and National Movements in Iran, Khorasan, and Trasoxania during Umayyad and Early Abbasid Times", in History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol 4, pt. 1; edited by M.S. Asimov and C.E. Bosworth; UNESCO Publishing, Institute of Ismaili Studies: "Not only did the inhabitants of Khurasan not succumb to the language of the nomadic invaders, but they imposed their own tongue on them. The region could even assimilate the Turkic Ghaznavids and Seljuks (eleventh and twelfth centuries), the Timurids (fourteenth–fifteenth centuries), and the Qajars (nineteenth–twentieth centuries) ..."
  16. "The Turko-Persian tradition features Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers." See Daniel Pipes: "The Event of Our Era: Former Soviet Muslim Republics Change the Middle East" in Michael Mandelbaum, "Central Asia and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkemenistan and the World", Council on Foreign Relations, p. 79. Exact statement: "In Short, the Turko-Persian tradition featured Persian culture patronized by Turcophone rulers."
  17. Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 574.
  18. Bingham, Woodbridge, Hilary Conroy and Frank William Iklé, History of Asia, Vol.1, (Allyn and Bacon, 1964), 98.
  19. *An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples (Peter B. Golden. Otto Harrasowitz, 1992). pg 386: "Turkic penetration probably began in the Hunnic era and its aftermath. Steady pressure from Turkic nomads was typical of the Khazar era, although there are no unambiguous references to permanent settlements. These most certainly occurred with the arrival of the Oguz in the 11th century. The Turkicization of much of Azarbayjan, according to Soviet scholars, was completed largely during the Ilxanid period if not by late Seljuk times. Sumer, placing a slightly different emphasis on the data (more correct in my view), posts three periods which Turkicization took place: Seljuk, Mongol and Post-Mongol (Qara Qoyunlu, Aq Qoyunlu and Safavid). In the first two, Oguz Turkic tribes advanced or were driven to the western frontiers (Anatolia) and Northern Azarbaijan (Arran, the Mugan steppe). In the last period, the Turkic elements in Iran (derived from Oguz, with lesser admixture of Uygur, Qipchaq, Qaluq and other Turks brought to Iran during the Chinggisid era, as well as Turkicized Mongols) were joined now by Anatolian Turks migrating back to Iran. This marked the final stage of Turkicization. Although there is some evidence for the presence of Qipchaqs among the Turkic tribes coming to this region, there is little doubt that the critical mass which brought about this linguistic shift was provided by the same Oguz-Turkmen tribes that had come to Anatolia. The Azeris of today are an overwhelmingly sedentary, detribalized people. Anthropologically, they are little distinguished from the Iranian neighbors."
    • John Perry: "We should distinguish two complementary ways in which the advent of the Turks affected the language map of Iran. First, since the Turkish-speaking rulers of most Iranian polities from the Ghaznavids and Seljuks onward were already Iranized and patronized Persian literature in their domains, the expansion of Turk-ruled empires served to expand the territorial domain of written Persian into the conquered areas, notably Anatolia and Central and South Asia. Secondly, the influx of massive Turkish-speaking populations (culminating with the rank and file of the Mongol armies) and their settlement in large areas of Iran (particularly in Azerbaijan and the northwest), progressively turkicized local speakers of Persian, Kurdish and other Iranian languages"
    (John Perry. "The Historical Role of Turkish in Relation to Persian of Iran". Iran & the Caucasus, Vol. 5, (2001), pp. 193–200.)
    • According to C.E. Bosworth:
    "The eastern Caucasus came under Saljuq control in the middle years of the 5th/11th century, and in c. 468/1075-56 Sultan Alp Arslān sent his slave commander ʿEmād-al-dīn Savtigin as governor of Azerbaijan and Arrān, displacing the last Shaddadids. From this period begins the increasing Turkicization of Arrān, under the Saljuqs and then under the line of Eldigüzid or Ildeñizid Atabegs, who had to defend eastern Transcaucasia against the attacks of the resurgent Georgian kings. The influx of Oghuz and other Türkmens was accentuated by the Mongol invasions. Bardaʿa had never revived fully after the Rūs sacking, and is little mentioned in the sources." (C.E. Bsowrth, Arran in Encyclopedia Iranica)
    • According to Fridrik Thordarson:
    "Iranian influence on Caucasian languages. There is general agreement that Iranian languages predominated in Azerbaijan from the 1st millennium b.c. until the advent of the Turks in a.d. the 11th century (see Menges, pp. 41–42; Camb. Hist. Iran IV, pp. 226–228, and VI, pp. 950–952). The process of Turkicization was essentially complete by the beginning of the 16th century, and today Iranian languages are spoken in only a few scattered settlements in the area."


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