From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia
|Owner||Transport for Edinburgh|
|Transit type||Light rail/Tram|
|Number of lines||1|
|Number of stations||16|
|Annual ridership||7.5 million (2018/19)|
|Headquarters||1 Myreton Drive|
|Began operation||31 May 2014|
|Operator(s)||Edinburgh Trams Ltd.|
|Number of vehicles||27 Urbos 3|
|Train length||42.8 m (140 ft 5 in)|
|System length||14 km (8.7 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Electrification||750 V DC OHLE|
|Top speed||70 km/h (43 mph) off-street|
Edinburgh Trams is a tramway in Edinburgh, Scotland, operated by Edinburgh Trams Ltd. As of 2017[update] it is a 14-kilometre (8.7 mi) line between York Place in the New Town and Edinburgh Airport, with 16 stops.
Construction began in June 2008, and after encountering delays it opened on 31 May 2014. The scheme had an initial estimated cost of £375 million in 2003, but by May 2008, when contracts were signed, the cost had risen to £521 million. The final cost after delays was £776 million.
After running for only two years the scheme had achieved pre-tax profitability and exceeded the original ridership targets. On 14 March 2019, Edinburgh Council voted to approve the extension of the existing line from York Place to Newhaven. The extended line is due to be operational by early 2023.
Edinburgh and Leith were originally served by horse-drawn coaches, and then from 1871 various companies and corporations ran trams that were horse-drawn, then cable driven and finally electric, until 16 November 1956. After that date, public transport consisted of buses and a limited network of commuter rail lines.
Towards the end of the 20th century, there was revived interest in trams in the United Kingdom and networks were reintroduced in Birmingham, Croydon, Manchester, Nottingham and Sheffield. Proposals for a network in Edinburgh were made in the 1990s, and a plan to build a line along Princes Street and Leith Walk to Newhaven was proposed in 1999 by the City of Edinburgh Council, Lothian and Edinburgh Enterprise and the New Edinburgh Tramways Company.
Proposals and agreement
A 2001 proposal envisaged three routes, lines 1, 2 and 3. The first was a circular route around the northern suburbs, and the others were radial routes to Newbridge in the west and Newcraighall in the south. All lines would have passed through the city centre. In May 2004, a 15-year operating contract was awarded to Transdev, to operate and maintain the tram network. This contract was cancelled in 2009.
Two bills to reintroduce a tram network were passed by the Scottish Parliament in March 2006. Lines 1 and 2 received parliamentary permission, but funding the entire network was deemed impossible. Line 3, to be paid for by a proposed Edinburgh congestion charge, was scrapped when the charge was heavily defeated in a referendum and construction of the remaining two lines was split into four phases:
- Phase 1a 18.5-kilometre (11.5 mi) from Newhaven to Edinburgh Airport via Princes Street, combining parts of lines 1 and 2
- Phase 1b 5.6-kilometre (3.5 mi) from Haymarket to Granton Square via Crewe Toll, comprising most of the remainder of line 1
- Phase 2 linking Granton Square and Newhaven, completing the line 1 loop
- Phase 3 extending the airport line to Newbridge, completing line 2
The future of the scheme came under threat in 2007, when the Scottish National Party (SNP) published its manifesto for the Scottish Parliamentary election. The party made clear its intention to cancel the scheme, along with the Edinburgh Airport Rail Link, to save £1.1 billion.
Following a lost vote in the Scottish Parliament, the SNP-led minority Scottish Government agreed to continue the line from the airport to Leith on condition that no more public money would be supplied. A report by Audit Scotland, commissioned by the Scottish Government, confirmed that the cost projections were sound. The cost of the scheme in 2003 was estimated at £498 million, £375 million in funding from the Scottish Government and £45 million from Edinburgh Council.
On 25 October 2007, the council approved the final business case. Approval was given on 22 December 2007 for TIE to sign contracts with CAF to supply vehicles and BBS (a consortium of Bilfinger Berger and Siemens) to design and construct the network. Contract negotiations finished in April 2008, and construction started in June 2008. By this stage the cost of the project was estimated at £521 million. Funding problems and political disputes led to the scaling back of the original plans. In April 2009, the council cancelled phase 1b, citing revenue shortfall created by the economic slowdown to save an estimated £75 million. The Granton extension was also cancelled.
Until August 2011, the project was overseen by Transport Initiatives Edinburgh (TIE), a company wholly owned by the City of Edinburgh Council, who were responsible for project-managing the construction of the tramway.
After the draft business case was accepted by the Scottish Government in March 2007, initial construction work commenced in July 2007, with the diversion of underground utilities in preparation for track-laying in Leith. These works followed a plan by System Design Services (SDS), a joint design team led by Parsons Brinckerhoff and Halcrow Group.
The tramway uses a mix of street running and segregated off-road track, with conventional tram stop platforms. Stops are fitted with shelters, ticket machines, lighting and CCTV. The network is operated from a depot in Gogar, close to the A8 roundabout, north of Gyle Centre tram stop.
The route of the line required the construction of bridges to cross railway lines at Edinburgh Park and Stenhouse, and a tunnel under the A8 near the Gogar roundabout. A bridge at Balgreen was widened. Works to build a tram interchange at Haymarket station involved the demolition of a Category C(S) listed building, the former Caledonian Alehouse on Haymarket Terrace.
Some on-street track was laid in a special foundation with cobbled road surfacing designed to be sympathetic with the style of Edinburgh streets but was removed in many places due to objections from cyclists. The trams are powered by overhead cables attached to purpose-built poles or mounted on the sides of buildings. Nine electrical sub-stations were planned for the line to Newhaven, both underground and above-ground but only five were built after the line was truncated at York Place.
Revisions and delays
In 2008 and 2009, the project met with delays to work on tramway infrastructure. Phase 1b of the project was cancelled because of a funding shortfall in April 2009. Contractual disputes delayed track-laying in the city centre. In December 2009, media reported that the project budget was running over £545 million, and the system was unlikely to come into operation until February 2012 or later. The operating contract with Transdev was cancelled in December 2009 to reduce costs and it was announced that the trams would be operated by Edinburgh Trams Limited, a subsidiary of Transport for Edinburgh. In March 2010, Bilfinger Berger announced that the estimated completion date would be in 2014.
In February 2009, work on the Princes Street section stopped due to contractual disagreements between TIE and BSC after the latter submitted a request for an additional £80 million of funding. Edinburgh Council believed the contractors' claims were unjustified as they had agreed to fixed-price contracts. After negotiations, BSC agreed to commence construction in March 2009 within the original budget, although disagreements remained. Work restarted and line construction went ahead.
In August 2009, TIE began legal proceedings against the BSC consortium over delays to the project, and track-laying on Leith Walk, Shandwick Place and Haymarket was suspended. At issue were alleged changes to BSC's work specification, including track works on Princes Street and £5 million additional costs for foundation work near Murrayfield Stadium. The BSC consortium alleged that TIE had not diverted the underground utilities in time for track-laying to begin, breaching contractual agreements and costing the consortium additional staffing expenditure.
In January 2010 the independent arbiter found in favour of TIE on some points, but on most of the disputed issues ruled in favour of BSC and awarded the consortium 90% of its additional costs, estimated to be up to £80m.
Delays in track laying and depot construction affected vehicle testing. By September 2009, construction was reported to be nine months behind schedule, and CAF was due to deliver the first trams from its factory in Spain. With key project dependency out of synchronisation, TIE held discussions with Transport for London about delivering the trams to Croydon to conduct operational tests on the Tramlink network. Tram vehicle testing commenced in March 2010 on the Siemens test track in Wildenrath, Germany. The tests included recreating the steep gradients of Leith Walk, and using weights to simulate the heavy passenger load expected during a Murrayfield match day.
Following further disputes and delays, it was reported in March 2010 that Edinburgh Council was considering cancelling the contract with Bilfinger Berger. By June 2010, the project's cost had risen to £600 million. Council project managers were reported to be in crisis talks, considering options including: borrowing £55 million to fund the increased costs; phasing the introduction of the tram line, so that trams would initially run between the airport and Haymarket; and terminating the contract with Bilfinger Berger. The council asked TIE to draw up costs for truncating the line at four places: Haymarket station, York Place, the foot of Leith Walk or Ocean Terminal.
Work resumed in May 2011 at priority locations, Haymarket Yards and Gogar, while the project's future was decided by the council. In August 2011 it was announced TIE would be disbanded and consultants Turner & Townsend would manage the project.
On 30 June 2011, Edinburgh Council voted to continue the line between Edinburgh Airport and St Andrew Square. Costs rose to an estimated £770m, leaving the council with a shortfall of more than £200m. The option to scrap the project was considered, but rejected. On 25 August 2011, the council voted to cut the line to run between the airport and Haymarket, reducing the expected cost to £715m. A week later, after the Scottish Government threatened to withhold £72 million of funding, the council reversed its decision, restoring the terminus at St Andrew Square. On 29 November 2011 it was announced that the eastern terminus would be at York Place instead of St Andrew Square; the intention had been to build the tracks to a reversing point at York Place (without a stop for passengers). Extending passenger services from St Andrew Square to York Place would enable Broughton Street, Picardy Place and the surrounding area to be better served at comparatively little additional cost.
The first electric wires were energised in October 2011 within the depot at Gogar. Testing trams began in December 2011 near the depot at Gogar, on a 500-metre (550 yd) length of track. On 15 December 2011, the contractors handed the depot to the City of Edinburgh Council.
The first completed section of line, between the depot and Edinburgh Airport, was used to test a tram at full speed on 19 December 2012.
With extra interest payments factored in, the cost of the line was expected to exceed £1 billion.
Cycling groups voiced safety concerns after people were injured as their bicycle wheels became caught in the track. They reported the road surface around the tracks was crumbling, raising further safety problems. In response, TiE promised to carry out repairs and Edinburgh Trams agreed to fund special training for cyclists., but the repairs were insufficient: in 2017, a woman was crushed to death by a passing bus when her bicycle wheel was caught in the tracks. Further safety concerns were raised by residents along the routes about the suspension of overhead electric cables from residential buildings, and some property owners refused permission for cables to be attached.
To remedy crumbling tarmac along the tracks on Princes Street, the road was closed in September 2011 and remained closed for ten months. A road closure between Haymarket and Shandwick Place in March 2012 led to complaints from businesses and residents. It remained closed until October 2013. Originally to open as Shandwick Place tram stop, it was renamed West End - Princes Street prior to opening at the request of local traders, who felt the new name had greater associations to the city centre and would encourage more tourists to get off there. The stop was renamed again in August 2019 as West End.
From late 2012, work continued mostly on schedule. More than 150 metres (160 yd) of flawed concrete trackbed had to be replaced between Shandwick Place and Haymarket. In June 2013, overhead electric wires were installed on the city centre portion of the route. This was considered the last major step in the construction process.
Controversy erupted over concessionary travel for the elderly and disabled. Originally, it was planned that concessionary travel, that is the ability of those with a Scottish National Entitlement Card to travel on public transport free-of-charge, was not going to be offered on the tramway. This was despite the fact that Edinburgh Trams is to be run by Lothian Buses, who are mandated to offer free travel to those with concession cards on all their bus routes. This revelation quickly caused city leaders to support an Edinburgh Evening News campaign to ensure that concessionary travel would be offered on the new tramway. City transport convener Lesley Hinds stated "People in Edinburgh have paid through their council tax and their taxes for the trams to get up and running and it would be wrong for a large proportion of the population not to be allowed to use their concessionary bus pass".
Despite this, the Scottish Government refused to pay for concessionary travel for the tram scheme, as it does for all bus routes in Scotland. Talks between the Scottish Government and Edinburgh Council eventually decided that concession cards should be valid for tram travel, but that they should be paid for by the Council instead of the Government. It was revealed on 15 August 2013 that the cards would be valid, and that travel would be paid for by Edinburgh Council. However, only people with cards issued in Edinburgh would be able to use them. This compromise upset many people in the Lothians, who often commute or travel into Edinburgh.
Works were two months ahead of schedule by September 2013, when Edinburgh Council announced the tramway would open by May 2014. All tram and road works were completed by 19 October with testing of the trams between the depot and Edinburgh Park commencing on 8 October 2013. This was followed by the energising of tram wires from Bankhead tram stop to York Place on 19 November, marking the first time that the route was completely energised. Testing along the full length of the route began on 5 December.
A non-statutory public inquiry to scrutinise the delivery of the project was announced on 5 June 2014. This was subsequently upgraded by the Scottish Government on 7 November 2014 to a statutory inquiry to ensure that key personnel would provide evidence. Edinburgh Council stated on 17 March 2014 that works would be conducted along Leith Walk to prepare it for a possible future extension of tram service. In December 2014, Edinburgh Council ordered a detailed business case for extending the line to Leith. The council said in July 2015 that three options for an extension to Leith had been costed. These were a £144.7 million extension to Newhaven, a £126.6 million extension to Ocean Terminal, or a £78.7 million extension to the Foot of Leith Walk.
In March 2019, Edinburgh Council approved extending the system from York Place to Newhaven, with the line due to be operational by early 2023. Preliminary works to Constitution Street and Leith Walk started in November 2019. Work was suspended in March 2020 due to the coronavirus pandemic but was restarted in June 2020.
The single, 14-kilometre (8.7 mi) route begins running on-street at York Place, in the city centre. It turns into North St Andrew Street, crosses St Andrew Square. From the square, it heads southeast into Princes Street, and west along the street toward Haymarket, via Shandwick Place, Atholl Place and West Maitland Street At Haymarket, the route heads onto a segregated track parallel to the Glasgow to Edinburgh mainline. It follows the railway line west for about 6.8 kilometres (4.2 mi), to Edinburgh Park railway station. There, it leaves the railway line on a segregated track and heads north to Gogar Roundabout from where it heads northwest via Ingliston Park and Ride to Edinburgh Airport, where it terminates.
An additional tram stop was opened in December 2016 in the Gogar area, between the Gyle Centre and Gogarburn tram stops. This stop, called Edinburgh Gateway, is built alongside a new railway station on the Fife Circle Line to form a transport interchange between Edinburgh Trams and the Fife Circle and Edinburgh to Aberdeen Lines.
Frequencies and journey times
Services operate between 05:00 and midnight, at 7- to 10-minute intervals 7 days a week (the period during which the interval is every 7 minutes is shorter on Sunday than on other days). Journey times are approximately 40 minutes from the city centre to the airport. The first morning services commence at the Gyle Centre and the last evening services terminate at Edinburgh Airport from York Place and Edinburgh Gateway on city-bound services after 22:48 from the Airport. During the Festival, trams run later on Friday and Saturday nights.
Edinburgh Trams currently operates a fleet of 27 trams, as follows:
|Class||Image||Type||Top speed||Length |
|CAF Urbos 3||Tram||43||70||42.8||78||170||2||250||27||—||251-277||All lines||2010–2012||2014–present|
CAF Urbos 3
A £40 million contract to build 27 Urbos 3 trams, sufficient for phase 1a and (unbuilt) 1b lines, was awarded to CAF. When the line was cut back to York Place, only 17 trams would be needed. An unsuccessful attempt was made in 2011 to lease ten trams to Transport for London for use on Tramlink.
In April 2010, the first tram was delivered and displayed at the Princes Street stop at the bottom of The Mound, before being moved to open storage in Broxburn. The 27th tram was delivered in December 2012. The trams have wrapped advertisements for promoting local events and commercial advertising.
Fares and ticketing
Ticketing and fares are integrated with Lothian Buses. The single fare is the same as on Lothian Buses for most rides, and day tickets and Ridacards are valid on trams and buses. However the tram fare from the centre to the airport is more expensive than the bus.
The "Ridacard" is a smartcard season ticket issued by Transport for Edinburgh; it is valid on both Edinburgh Trams and Lothian Buses (available for 1 week, 4 weeks or annually). On 1 September 2014, a rechargeable pre-paid smartcard for single journeys on both buses and trams, called "Citysmart", was introduced.
Free travel is available to holders of City of Edinburgh Council-issued Scottish National Entitlement Cards which are eligible for concessionary travel, and for a companion travelling with the cardholder of National Entitlement Cards with a companion entitlement. Passengers with National Entitlement Cards eligible for concessionary travel but issued by other local authorities are not offered any fare concession, with the exception of blind or visually impaired cardholders.
At the request of Lothian Buses, installation of 30 ticket machines at key bus stops began in 2007. Passengers had to purchase tickets before boarding the bus, reducing dwell times, but the machines were not popular with users and were scrapped in 2011. Consideration was given to installing similar on-street ticket machines, and new, advanced machines (capable of reading smartcards and accepting credit/debit cards) were installed in early 2014 at each tram stop. The new ticket machines are the Galexio-Plus type supplied by Flowbird Transport Ltd. however the option to accept banknotes or give change is not available. The minimum spend for a card transaction was originally £3 which was more than the cost for a single ticket. The minimum spend was scrapped in September 2019 following complaints from customers and negative press comments.
In May and June 2015 cyclists were allowed to board the trams with their bikes, during a trial period which was supported by cycle campaign groups Spokes and Pedal on Parliament. Following this, Edinburgh trams became the first light rail network in the UK to permit the carriage of bikes on a permanent basis, with up to two bicycles being allowed per tram outwith peak hours (7.30 am to 9.30 am, and 4 pm to 6.30 pm) and excluding the festival period (7−31 August) and other large events.
Ownership and structure
Edinburgh Trams Limited is a wholly owned subsidiary company of Transport for Edinburgh Limited. By virtue of its controlling interest in the parent's equity capital, the City of Edinburgh Council is the ultimate controlling party.
The key trends for Edinburgh Trams Limited since it commenced operations in May 2014 are (years ending 31 December):
|Operating profit (£m)||−0.45||−0.25||0.25||1.60||−9.40||−7.88|
|Net profit after tax (£m)||1.29||−7.62||−8.99|
|Number of employees (average)||130||163||189||210|
|Number of passengers (m)||2.95||5.20||5.59||6.67||7.30||7.45|
|Number of trams (at year end)||27||27||27||27||27||27|
Edinburgh Trams made a pre-tax profit of £252,000 for 2016, against a predicted loss of £170,000, which meant that profitability had been achieved two years ahead of schedule.
From 2018, Edinburgh Trams became responsible for operating, maintenance and infrastructure costs (instead of just the operating costs); without the extra costs, operating profit for 2018 would have been in excess of £3m.
Fifty-two ticket inspectors have been recruited to prevent fare dodging. Edinburgh Council is aiming for a 3% fare evasion rate, lower than any other tramway in Britain. Thirty-two drivers were employed, after passing psychological tests designed to eliminate risk-takers.
Accidents and incidents
Frequent accidents involving cyclists and the tramway have been reported since the opening of the system in 2014. These are typically caused by bicycle wheels getting stuck in the rails or by bikes skidding on the rails. A study published in 2018 found that, up to April 2016, 191 cyclists in Edinburgh had suffered tramway-related accidents serious enough to require hospital treatment. On 31 May 2017, a medical student was killed in Princes Street when she fell into the path of a minibus after her bike wheels got stuck in the tram rails.
On 11 September 2018, a pedestrian was killed by a tram on a crossing near Saughton tram stop. The Rail Accident Investigation Branch determined that the tram's warning bell was not loud enough, and that Edinburgh Trams should better monitor risks at crossings.
- "Edinburgh Trams statistics, annual from 2014/15" (downloadable .ods OpenDocument file). Department for Transport. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
- "New Edinburgh Gateway interchange opens in capital". BBC. 11 December 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2016.
- "ANNUAL ACCOUNTS". Edinburgh Trams. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- "Go-ahead given to tram scheme extension". 14 March 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- "History of Trams in Edinburgh". Archived from the original on 10 February 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- Mullay, Sandy (1996). The Edinburgh Encyclopedia. Mainstream Publishing. pp. 348–351. ISBN 1851587624.
- "Trams hit cost barrier". The Independent. 17 March 1996. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Capital on track to see return of the trams". The Herald. 4 June 1999. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
- "Scottish Light Rail : is it a "U" Turn?". Light Rail Transit Association. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
- "Tram Facts 8" (PDF). City of Edinburgh Council. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
- "Edinburgh trams Interim report". Auditor General for Scotland. February 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- "'French firm to be axed' in major Edinburgh tram savings drive". The Scotsman. 17 September 2009. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "Transdev loses Edinburgh tram contract as council seeks to scale down scheme's costs". Transport Xtra. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- "Edinburgh Tram (Line One) Act 2006". legislation.gov.uk. National Archives. 29 March 2006. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
- "Edinburgh Tram (Line Two) Act 2006". legislation.gov.uk. National Archives. 22 March 2006. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
- "Manifesto of the Scottish National Party" (PDF). Scottish National Party. p. 19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- Edinburgh transport projects review Audit Scotland June 2007
- "Climbdown after transport defeat". BBC News. 27 June 2007. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
- Macdonell, Hamish (28 June 2007). "Trams given green light". The Scotsman. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
- Docherty, Iain; Shaw, Jon (2008). Traffic jam: ten years of 'sustainable' transport in the UK. The Policy Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-84742-072-5.
- Marshall, Chris (13 May 2011). "Tram spend so far hits £440m". The Scotsman. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- "City chiefs give go-ahead to £498m tram line". The Scotsman. 25 October 2007. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
- Construction consortium for Edinburgh tram contract Archived 25 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine Builder & Engineer 23 October 2007
- "City leaders back the final case for trams". The Scotsman. 22 December 2007. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
- "Funding concerns for tram project". BBC News. 24 April 2009. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- Johnson, Simon (19 November 2008). "Edinburgh tram network falls victim to credit crunch". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- Henderson, Damien. "After eight years of chaos, city's £700m trams project is stopped in its tracks". The Herald. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- "£60m released for Edinburgh trams". BBC News. 16 March 2007. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
- "Work begins on city tram project". BBC News. 9 July 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- Rowson, Jessica (16 May 2008). "Final contracts awarded for Edinburgh Tram". New Civil Engineer. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
- "The tram service – About the service and the project". City of Edinburgh Council. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Edinburgh Tramway Depot". Barr Construction. 2011. Archived from the original on 28 April 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- Chapter Six - Land Use: Edinburgh Tram (Line One) Bill (PDF). Edinburgh: Scottish Parliament. 2004.
- "Edinburgh Tram (Line One) Bill Environmental Statement" (PDF). Scottish Parliament. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- "Prior Approval 12/00915/PA at York Place – Edinburgh". City of Edinburgh Council. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Tram wires on buildings keep the clutter down". The Scotsman. 10 August 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Tram work to close Princes Street". BBC News. 24 April 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Edinburgh Tram Info". Edinburgh Trams. Archived from the original on 31 August 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- Henderson, Damien (12 December 2009). "Edinburgh trams saga is far from over". The Herald. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- Company no SC451434 Edinburgh Trams Limited Companies House
- "Tram project 'could be delayed'". BBC News. 10 March 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
- "Edinburgh tram firm 'at risk of lacking skills'". BBC News. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- Cramb, Auslan (20 February 2009). "£512m Edinburgh tram project in disarray". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- "Business dispute slams brakes on Edinburgh trams". STV News. 21 February 2009. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- Winifred Robinson (5 March 2009). "Tram scheme hits hard times". You and Yours. BBC. Radio 4.
- McLaughlin, Mark (21 March 2009). "Princes Street works to start at last as deal ends tram row". The Scotsman. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- Gray, Sadie (14 August 2009). "Engineers face legal action over Edinburgh tram delay". The Times. Retrieved 13 January 2010.(subscription required)
- Wright, Robert (16 February 2010). "Extra cost of Edinburgh tram line fuels dispute". Financial Times. Retrieved 17 February 2010.(subscription required)
- Henderson, Damien (16 January 2010). "Council loses crucial trams dispute". The Herald. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- "City's first tram stop unveiled.. in Croydon". The Scotsman. 8 September 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
- "Scottish trams diverted to Croydon". This is Local London. 9 September 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
- Edinburgh Trams being tested in Germany. YouTube. 2010.
- Marshall, Chris (4 March 2010). "Trams shocker: Residents face window washing ban over electrocution fears". The Scotsman. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- "Transport chiefs 'want Edinburgh tram network'". BBC News. 4 March 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- "Trams firm faces axe as it reveals Edinburgh work may take until 2014". STV News. 10 March 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
- Leask, David (19 June 2010). "Tram chiefs admit: we have no idea what final bill will be". The Herald. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- Carrell, Severin (18 June 2010). "Edinburgh trams project in crisis as sacking of key contractor is considered". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- Ferguson, Brian (19 June 2010). "Soaring costs may force Edinburgh tram line to be cut short". The Scotsman. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- "Edinburgh trams project to be managed by new firm". BBC News. 18 August 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2011.
- Turner & Townsend to manage Edinburgh Tram New Civil Engineer 22 August 2011
- "Edinburgh trams: Council backs St Andrew Square option". BBC News. 2 September 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2011.
- "Exclusive: Trams set to stop at York Place". The Scotsman. 23 June 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Edinburgh trams: Councillors vote to continue project". BBC News. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
- "Running trams to Princes Street £60m cheaper". The Herald. 27 August 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
- "Ministers withhold Edinburgh trams funding". BBC News. 30 August 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Additional stop planned". The Herald. 29 November 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- "First tram arrives at Gogar depot in Edinburgh". BBC News. 17 October 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Edinburgh trams on track for test trials at Gogar". BBC News. 12 December 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "Depot handover marks major milestone for Edinburgh Trams". City of Edinburgh Council. 15 December 2011. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Full speed tram tests mark the end of successful 2012". City of Edinburgh Council. 19 December 2012. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Council to borrow £231m for Edinburgh trams project". BBC News. 19 August 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- "Traders create tram action group". BBC News. 29 April 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- "Traders unhappy as Shandwick Place to close for 18 months". The Scotsman. 22 December 2009. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- "Edinburgh tram lines throw cyclists off track". BBC News. 7 December 2009. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- "Tram repair crews out to fix 'botched' roadworks". The Scotsman. 9 March 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Edinburgh tram line repair works get under way". BBC News. 17 September 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
- "Trams: Shandwick Place stop renamed Princes Street". Archived from the original on 29 September 2013.
- "Edinburgh trams: Shandwick Place to reopen after works". BBC News. 18 October 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- "Latest tram works due to start as Mound reopens". City of Edinburgh Council. 1 March 2012. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- "Shandwick Place to reopen next month". The Scotsman. 13 September 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Line may be open for Christmas". The Scotsman. 3 July 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Section of track to be ripped up". The Scotsman. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Contractors admit concrete blunder". The Scotsman. 9 August 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Edinburgh wires go up". RailStaff. 21 June 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Call to give elderly free travel on city trams". The Scotsman. 14 January 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Free tram travel for the elderly". The Scotsman. 8 February 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Passengers to use one ticket for both Edinburgh trams and buses". STV News. 15 August 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Anger at Edinburgh trams ticket plans". The Scotsman. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- "Edinburgh trams: Services 'will be running by next May". BBC News. 17 September 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Tram wires power up". City of Edinburgh Council. 19 November 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- Miller, Dale (9 October 2013). "Slow tram test flanked by 21 contractors". Edinburgh Evening News. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
- McCann, David (17 September 2013). "Edinburgh trams on Princes Street by Christmas". Edinburgh Evening News. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- Ross, Shân (5 December 2013). "Edinburgh tram back on Princes St after 57 years". The Scotsman. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- "Edinburgh's trams roll into action". BBC News. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
- "Welcome on board". Edinburgh Trams. 31 May 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
- "Edinburgh tram inquiry announced". BBC News. 5 June 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "Edinburgh Tram Inquiry". news.scotland.gov.uk. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
- "City chiefs to get Leith prepared for tram line". Edinburgh Evening News. 17 March 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
- O'Leary, David (5 December 2014). "Council calls for Edinburgh tram extension report". The Scotsman. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- "Edinburgh Trams: Options for line extension revealed". Retrieved 18 June 2015.
- "Trams to Newhaven". Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- "Decision on city tram extension in 2018". 8 August 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- "Calls to tackle Edinburgh Bypass gridlock as tram system to Musselburgh mooted". East Lothian Courier. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
- Prior, Gareth (26 March 2020). "Trams to Newhaven construction work to be suspended". British Trams Online News. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
- "Trams to Newhaven Main Construction works to restart". City of Edinburgh Council. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
- "Edinburgh bus station to remain open during tram works". News centre. City of Edinburgh. 14 September 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Edinburgh Trams". Only in Edinburgh. Archived from the original on 4 September 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
- "Edinburgh Trams Map". OpenStreetMap. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
- "Edinburgh tramway opens". 30 May 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- "33.03 Project definition – EGIP – Edinburgh Gateway (Gogar) Intermodal Transport Interchange" (PDF). Network Rail CP4 Delivery Plan 2010 Enhancements programme: statement of scope, outputs. Network Rail. December 2010. p. 212. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 January 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- "Tramspotting Timetable" (PDF). Edinburgh Trams. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
- "Tram Facts" (PDF). Edinburgh Trams. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- "Surplus Edinburgh trams set to run in London instead". Railnews. 24 March 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- Henderson, Damien (26 March 2011). "Edinburgh's trams are on track for ... Croydon". The Herald. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- "Tram Facts". Edinburgh Trams. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
- "Edinburgh trams: The story so far". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "All aboard for a look at Edinburgh's first tram". The Scotsman. 28 April 2010. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- Marshall, Chris (24 November 2010). "Tram is carted off to Broxburn because Gogar depot not ready". The Scotsman. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Prior, Gareth (5 January 2013). "Final tram arrives in Edinburgh". British Trams Online News. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "New Wrapped Tram Takes To The Tracks". Edinburgh Trams. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
- "Edinburgh trams: Ticket prices confirmed". BBC News. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- "Fares and Tickets Information". Edinburgh Trams. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
- "Scottish Concession Cards". Edinburgh Trams. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- "A guide to your new tram service" (PDF). Edinburgh Trams. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- "Tickets". Edinburgh Trams. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- "On-street bus ticket machine plan". BBC News. 9 October 2006.
- Marshall, Chris (5 April 2011). "Lost track? Ticket machines for trams to be reinstalled". The Scotsman. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- "Edinburgh Tram project contracts Flowbird Transport Ltd". Rail Technology Magazine. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- O'Brien, Chris. "Ticket Vending Machines". Edinburgh Tram Info. Edinburgh Trams Club. Archived from the original on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
a bank note reader is available but not in use in Edinburgh. Coins or cards (card min £3.00 spend) only.
- "Fury as faulty Edinburgh tram ticket machines repaired nearly 1,500 times". Edinburgh Live. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- David, Bol. "Trams to stop minimum spend on card payments". The Edinburgh Reporter. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- Gourtsoyannis, Paris (30 June 2015). "Edinburgh trams to be first in UK to allow bikes". Edinburgh Evening News. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- "Financial Statements for the year ended 31 December 2018" (PDF). 26 April 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
- "Edinburgh Trams lost almost £450,000 in 2014". 14 August 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
- "Edinburgh Trams Limited". Companies House.
- "Financial Statements for the year ended 31 December 2019". 24 April 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
- "Edinburgh trams make a profit two years ahead of schedule". Edinburgh Evening News. 12 September 2017. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
- "Edinburgh tram drivers to take personality tests – The Scotsman". The Scotsman. 6 July 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- "Tramlines: take care & take action". Spokes The Lothian Cycle Campaign. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- Maempel, J. F.; Mackenzie, S. P.; Stirling, P. H. C.; McCann, C.; Oliver, C. W.; White, T. O. (1 May 2018). "Tram system related cycling injuries". Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery. 138 (5): 643–650. doi:10.1007/s00402-018-2890-4. ISSN 1434-3916.
- "Medical student killed on Princes Street was 'bright star'". Edinburgh Evening News. 2 June 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- Mitchell, Hilary (25 July 2019). "Tram bosses told to make horns louder and improve crossing signs after man dies". edinburghlive. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- "Report 09/2019: Fatal Collision between a Tram and a Pedestrian, near Saughton Tram Stop, Edinburgh, 11 September 2018". GOV.UK. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Edinburgh Trams.|