Wireless

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Wireless communication is the transfer of information or power between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor. The most common wireless technologies use radio waves. With radio waves distances can be short, such as a few meters for Bluetooth or as far as millions of kilometers for deep-space radio communications. It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable applications, including two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking. Other examples of applications of radio wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers, wireless computer mouse, keyboards and headsets, headphones, radio receivers, satellite television, broadcast television and cordless telephones. Somewhat less common methods of achieving wireless communications include the use of other electromagnetic wireless technologies, such as light, magnetic, or electric fields or the use of sound.

The term wireless has been used twice in communications history, with slightly different meaning. It was initially used from about 1890 for the first radio transmitting and receiving technology, as in wireless telegraphy, until the new word radio replaced it around 1920. The term was revived in the 1980s and 1990s mainly to distinguish digital devices that communicate without wires, such as the examples listed in the previous paragraph, from those that require wires or cables. This became its primary usage in the 2000s, due to the advent of technologies such as mobile broadband, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth.

Wireless operations permit services, such as mobile and interplanetary communications, that are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g. radio transmitters and receivers, remote controls, etc.) which use some form of energy (e.g. radio waves, acoustic energy,) to transfer information without the use of wires.[1][2][3] Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances.

History[edit]

Photophone[edit]

Bell and Tainter's photophone, of 1880.

The first wireless telephone conversation occurred in 1880, when Alexander Graham Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter invented the photophone, a telephone that sent audio over a beam of light. The photophone required sunlight to operate, and a clear line of sight between transmitter and receiver. These factors greatly decreased the viability of the photophone in any practical use. It would be several decades before the photophone's principles found their first practical applications in military communications and later in fiber-optic communications.[4][5]

Electric wireless technology[edit]

Early wireless[edit]

A number of wireless electrical signaling schemes including sending electric currents through water and the ground using electrostatic and electromagnetic induction were investigated for telegraphy in the late 19th century before practical radio systems became available. These included a patented induction system by Thomas Edison allowing a telegraph on a running train to connect with telegraph wires running parallel to the tracks, a William Preece induction telegraph system for sending messages across bodies of water, and several operational and proposed telegraphy and voice earth conduction systems.

The Edison system was used by stranded trains during the Great Blizzard of 1888 and earth conductive systems found limited use between trenches during World War I but these systems were never successful economically.

Radio waves[edit]

Marconi transmitting the first radio signal across the Atlantic.

In 1894, Guglielmo Marconi began developing a wireless telegraph system using radio waves, which had been known about since proof of their existence in 1888 by Heinrich Hertz, but discounted as a communication format since they seemed, at the time, to be a short range phenomenon.[6] Marconi soon developed a system that was transmitting signals way beyond distances anyone could have predicted (due in part to the signals bouncing off the then unknown ionosphere). Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun were awarded the 1909 Nobel Prize for Physics for their contribution to this form of wireless telegraphy.

Millimetre wave communication was first investigated by Jagadish Chandra Bose during 1894–1896, when he reached an extremely high frequency of up to 60 GHz in his experiments.[7] He also introduced the use of semiconductor junctions to detect radio waves,[8] when he patented the radio crystal detector in 1901.[9][10]

Wireless revolution[edit]

Power MOSFETs, which are used in RF power amplifiers to boost radio frequency (RF) signals in long-distance wireless networks.

The wireless revolution began in the 1990s,[11][12][13] with the advent of digital wireless networks leading to a social revolution, and a paradigm shift from wired to wireless technology,[14] including the proliferation of commercial wireless technologies such as cell phones, mobile telephony, pagers, wireless computer networks,[11] cellular networks, the wireless Internet, and laptop and handheld computers with wireless connections.[15] The wireless revolution has been driven by advances in radio frequency (RF) and microwave engineering,[11] and the transition from analog to digital RF technology,[14][15] which enabled a substantial increase in voice traffic along with the delivery of digital data such as text messaging, images and streaming media.[14]

The core component of this revolution is the MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor, or MOS transistor).[14][16] Power MOSFETs such as LDMOS (lateral-diffused MOS) are used in RF power amplifiers to boost RF signals to a level that enables long-distance wireless network access for consumers,[14] while RF CMOS (radio frequency CMOS) circuits are used in radio transceivers to transmit and receive wireless signals at low cost and with low power consumption.[17][18][16] The MOSFET is the basic building block of modern wireless networks, including mobile networks such as 2G, 3G and 4G.[19][14] Most of the essential elements in modern wireless networks are built from MOSFETs, including the base station modules, routers,[19] RF circuits, radio transceivers,[17] transmitters,[11] and RF power amplifiers.[14] MOSFET scaling is also the primary factor behind rapidly increasing wireless network bandwidth, which has been doubling every 18 months,[14] as noted by Edholm's law.[20]

The MOSFET was invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959.[21] Its very large-scale integration (VLSI) capability led to wide adoption for digital integrated circuit chips by the early 1970s,[22] but it was initially not the most effective transistor for analog RF technology where the older bipolar junction transistor (BJT) remained dominant up until the 1980s.[14] A gradual shift began with the emergence of power MOSFETs, which are discrete MOS power devices designed for power electronic applications,[21] including the vertical power MOSFET by Hitachi in 1969,[23][24] the VDMOS (vertical-diffused MOS) by John Moll's research team at HP Labs in 1977,[24] and the LDMOS by Hitachi in 1977.[25] MOSFETs began to be used for RF applications in the 1970s.[11] RF CMOS, which are RF circuits that use mixed-signal (digital and analog) MOS integrated circuit technology and are fabricated using the CMOS process, was later developed by Asad Abidi at UCLA in the late 1980s.[17]

By the early 1990s, the MOSFET had replaced the BJT as the core component of RF technology, leading to a revolution in wireless technology.[14] There was a rapid growth of the wireless telecommunications industry towards the end of the 20th century, primarily due to the introduction of digital signal processing in wireless communications, driven by the development of low-cost, very large-scale integration (VLSI) RF CMOS technology.[16] Power MOSFET devices, particularly the LDMOS, also became the standard RF power amplifier technology, which led to the development and proliferation of digital wireless networks.[14][19]

RF CMOS integrated circuits enabled sophisticated, low-cost and portable end-user terminals, and gave rise to small, low-cost, low-power and portable units for a wide range of wireless communication systems. This enabled "anytime, anywhere" communication and helped bring about the wireless revolution, leading to the rapid growth of the wireless industry.[18] RF CMOS is used in the radio transceivers of all modern wireless networking devices and mobile phones,[17] and is widely used to transmit and receive wireless signals in a variety of applications, such as satellite technology (e.g. GPS), bluetooth, Wi-Fi, near-field communication (NFC), mobile networks (e.g. 3G and 4G), terrestrial broadcast, and automotive radar applications, among other uses.[26]

In recent years, an important contribution to the growth of wireless communication networks has been interference alignment, which was discovered by Syed Ali Jafar at the University of California, Irvine.[27] According to Paul Horn, this has "revolutionized our understanding of the capacity limits of wireless networks" and "demonstrated the astounding result that each user in a wireless network can access half of the spectrum without interference from other users, regardless of how many users are sharing the spectrum."[27]

Modes[edit]

Wireless communications can be via:

Radio[edit]

Radio and microwave communication carry information by modulating properties of electromagnetic waves transmitted through space.

Free-space optical[edit]

An 8-beam free space optics laser link, rated for 1 Gbit/s at a distance of approximately 2 km. The receptor is the large disc in the middle, the transmitters the smaller ones. To the top and right corner a monocular for assisting the alignment of the two heads.

Free-space optical communication (FSO) is an optical communication technology that uses light propagating in free space to transmit wirelessly data for telecommunications or computer networking. "Free space" means the light beams travel through the open air or outer space. This contrasts with other communication technologies that use light beams traveling through transmission lines such as optical fiber or dielectric "light pipes".

The technology is useful where physical connections are impractical due to high costs or other considerations. For example, free space optical links are used in cities between office buildings which are not wired for networking, where the cost of running cable through the building and under the street would be prohibitive. Another widely used example is consumer IR devices such as remote controls and IrDA (Infrared Data Association) networking, which is used as an alternative to WiFi networking to allow laptops, PDAs, printers, and digital cameras to exchange data.

Sonic[edit]

Sonic, especially ultrasonic short range communication involves the transmission and reception of sound.

Electromagnetic induction[edit]

Electromagnetic induction only allows short-range communication and power transmission. It has been used in biomedical situations such as pacemakers, as well as for short-range RFID tags.

Services[edit]

Common examples of wireless equipment include:[28][29]

Electromagnetic spectrum[edit]

AM and FM radios and other electronic devices make use of the electromagnetic spectrum. The frequencies of the radio spectrum that are available for use for communication are treated as a public resource and are regulated by organizations such as the American Federal Communications Commission, Ofcom in the United Kingdom, the international ITU-R or the European ETSI. Their regulations determine which frequency ranges can be used for what purpose and by whom. In the absence of such control or alternative arrangements such as a privatized electromagnetic spectrum, chaos might result if, for example, airlines did not have specific frequencies to work under and an amateur radio operator was interfering with a pilot's ability to land an aircraft. Wireless communication spans the spectrum from 9 kHz to 300 GHz.[citation needed]

Applications[edit]

Mobile telephones[edit]

One of the best-known examples of wireless technology is the mobile phone, also known as a cellular phone, with more than 6.6 billion mobile cellular subscriptions worldwide as of the end of 2010.[31] These wireless phones use radio waves from signal-transmission towers to enable their users to make phone calls from many locations worldwide. They can be used within range of the mobile telephone site used to house the equipment required to transmit and receive the radio signals from these instruments.[32]

Data communications[edit]

Wireless data communications allows wireless networking between desktop computers, laptops, tablet computers, cell phones and other related devices. The various available technologies differ in local availability, coverage range and performance,[33][34] and in some circumstances users employ multiple connection types and switch between them using connection manager software[35][36] or a mobile VPN to handle the multiple connections as a secure, single virtual network.[37] Supporting technologies include:

Wi-Fi is a wireless local area network that enables portable computing devices to connect easily with other devices, peripheries, and the Internet.[38] Standardized as IEEE 802.11 a, b, g, n, ac, ax, Wi-Fi has link speeds similar to older standards of wired Ethernet. Wi-Fi has become the de facto standard for access in private homes, within offices, and at public hotspots.[39] Some businesses charge customers a monthly fee for service, while others have begun offering it free in an effort to increase the sales of their goods.[40]
Cellular data service offers coverage within a range of 10-15 miles from the nearest cell site.[33] Speeds have increased as technologies have evolved, from earlier technologies such as GSM, CDMA and GPRS, through 3G, to 4G networks such as W-CDMA, EDGE or CDMA2000.[41][42] As of 2018, the proposed next generation is 5G.
Low-power wide-area networks (LPWAN) bridge the gap between Wi-Fi and Cellular for low bitrate Internet of things (IoT) applications.
Mobile-satellite communications may be used where other wireless connections are unavailable, such as in largely rural areas[43] or remote locations.[33] Satellite communications are especially important for transportation, aviation, maritime and military use.[44]
Wireless sensor networks are responsible for sensing noise, interference, and activity in data collection networks. This allows us to detect relevant quantities, monitor and collect data, formulate clear user displays, and to perform decision-making functions[45]

Wireless data communications are used to span a distance beyond the capabilities of typical cabling in point-to-point communication and point-to-multipoint communication, to provide a backup communications link in case of normal network failure, to link portable or temporary workstations, to overcome situations where normal cabling is difficult or financially impractical, or to remotely connect mobile users or networks.

Peripherals[edit]

Peripheral devices in computing can also be connected wirelessly, as part of a Wi-Fi network or directly via an optical or radio-frequency (RF) peripheral interface. Originally these units used bulky, highly local transceivers to mediate between a computer and a keyboard and mouse; however, more recent generations have used smaller, higher-performance devices. Radio-frequency interfaces, such as Bluetooth or Wireless USB, provide greater ranges of efficient use, usually up to 10 feet, but distance, physical obstacles, competing signals, and even human bodies can all degrade the signal quality.[46] Concerns about the security of wireless keyboards arose at the end of 2007, when it was revealed that Microsoft's implementation of encryption in some of its 27 MHz models was highly insecure.[47]

Energy transfer[edit]

Wireless energy transfer is a process whereby electrical energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load that does not have a built-in power source, without the use of interconnecting wires. There are two different fundamental methods for wireless energy transfer. Energy can be transferred using either far-field methods that involve beaming power/lasers, radio or microwave transmissions or near-field using electromagnetic induction.[48] Wireless energy transfer may be combined with wireless information transmission in what is known as Wireless Powered Communication.[49]

Medical technologies[edit]

New wireless technologies, such as mobile body area networks (MBAN), have the capability to monitor blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen level and body temperature. The MBAN works by sending low powered wireless signals to receivers that feed into nursing stations or monitoring sites. This technology helps with the intentional and unintentional risk of infection or disconnection that arise from wired connections.[50]

Categories of implementations, devices and standards[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

  • Geier, Jim (2001). Wireless LANs. Sams. ISBN 0-672-32058-4.
  • Goldsmith, Andrea (2005). Wireless Communications. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-83716-2.
  • Larsson, Erik; Stoica, Petre (2003). Space-Time Block Coding For Wireless Communications. Cambridge University Press.
  • Molisch, Andreas (2005). Wireless Communications. Wiley-IEEE Press. ISBN 0-470-84888-X.
  • Pahlavan, Kaveh; Levesque, Allen H (1995). Wireless Information Networks. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-10607-0.
  • Pahlavan, Kaveh; Krishnamurthy, Prashant (2002). Principles of Wireless Networks – a Unified Approach. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-093003-2.
  • Rappaport, Theodore (2002). Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-042232-0.
  • Rhoton, John (2001). The Wireless Internet Explained. Digital Press. ISBN 1-55558-257-5.
  • Tse, David; Viswanath, Pramod (2005). Fundamentals of Wireless Communication. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-84527-0.

External links[edit]



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