# Turing Award

From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

ACM Turing Award | |
---|---|

Awarded for | Outstanding contributions in computer science |

Country | United States |

Presented by | Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) |

Reward(s) | US $1,000,000^{[1]} |

First awarded | 1966 |

Last awarded | 2019 |

Website | amturing |

The **ACM A. M. Turing Award** is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) for contributions "of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field".^{[2]} It is generally recognized as the highest distinction in computer science, or the "Nobel Prize of Computing".^{[3]}^{[4]}^{[5]}^{[6]}

The award is named after Alan Turing, who was a British mathematician and reader in mathematics at the University of Manchester. Turing is often credited as being the key founder of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.^{[7]} From 2007 to 2013, the award was accompanied by an additional prize of US$250,000, with financial support provided by Intel and Google.^{[2]} Since 2014, the award has been accompanied by a prize of US$1 million, with financial support provided by Google.^{[1]}^{[8]}

The first recipient, in 1966, was Alan Perlis, of Carnegie Mellon University. The first female recipient was Frances E. Allen of IBM in 2006.^{[9]}

## Recipients[edit]

Year | Recipient | Photo | Nationality^{[10]} | Rationale |
---|---|---|---|---|

1966 | Alan Perlis | United States | For his influence in the area of advanced computer programming techniques and compiler construction.^{[11]} | |

1967 | Maurice Wilkes | United Kingdom | Wilkes is best known as the builder and designer of the EDSAC, the first computer with an internally stored program. Built in 1949, the EDSAC used a mercury delay line memory. He is also known as the author, with Wheeler and Gill, of a volume on "Preparation of Programs for Electronic Digital Computers" in 1951, in which program libraries were effectively introduced.^{[12]} | |

1968 | Richard Hamming | United States | For his work on numerical methods, automatic coding systems, and error-detecting and error-correcting codes.^{[13]} | |

1969 | Marvin Minsky | United States | For his central role in creating, shaping, promoting, and advancing the field of artificial intelligence.^{[14]} | |

1970 | James H. Wilkinson | United Kingdom | For his research in numerical analysis to facilitate the use of the high-speed digital computer, having received special recognition for his work in computations in linear algebra and "backward" error analysis.^{[15]} | |

1971 | John McCarthy | United States | McCarthy's lecture "The Present State of Research on Artificial Intelligence" is a topic that covers the area in which he has achieved considerable recognition for his work.^{[16]} | |

1972 | Edsger W. Dijkstra | Netherlands | Edsger Dijkstra was a principal contributor in the late 1950s to the development of the ALGOL, a high level programming language which has become a model of clarity and mathematical rigor. He is one of the principal proponents of the science and art of programming languages in general, and has greatly contributed to our understanding of their structure, representation, and implementation. His fifteen years of publications extend from theoretical articles on graph theory to basic manuals, expository texts, and philosophical contemplations in the field of programming languages.^{[17]} | |

1973 | Charles Bachman | United States | For his outstanding contributions to database technology.^{[18]} | |

1974 | Donald Knuth | United States | For his major contributions to the analysis of algorithms and the design of programming languages, and in particular for his contributions to "The Art of Computer Programming" through his well-known books in a continuous series by this title.^{[19]} | |

1975 | Allen Newell | United States | In joint scientific efforts extending over twenty years, initially in collaboration with J. C. Shaw at the RAND Corporation, and subsequently with numerous faculty and student colleagues at Carnegie Mellon University, they have made basic contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing.^{[20]} | |

Herbert A. Simon | United States | |||

1976 | Michael O. Rabin | United States (born in Germany) | For their joint paper "Finite Automata and Their Decision Problem,"^{[21]} which introduced the idea of nondeterministic machines, which has proved to be an enormously valuable concept. Their (Scott & Rabin) classic paper has been a continuous source of inspiration for subsequent work in this field.^{[22]}^{[23]} | |

Dana Scott | United States | |||

1977 | John Backus | United States | For profound, influential, and lasting contributions to the design of practical high-level programming systems, notably through his work on FORTRAN, and for seminal publication of formal procedures for the specification of programming languages.^{[24]} | |

1978 | Robert W. Floyd | United States | For having a clear influence on methodologies for the creation of efficient and reliable software, and for helping to found the following important subfields of computer science: the theory of parsing, the semantics of programming languages, automatic program verification, automatic program synthesis, and analysis of algorithms.^{[25]} | |

1979 | Kenneth E. Iverson | United States (born in Canada) | For his pioneering effort in programming languages and mathematical notation resulting in what the computing field now knows as APL, for his contributions to the implementation of interactive systems, to educational uses of APL, and to programming language theory and practice.^{[26]} | |

1980 | Tony Hoare | United Kingdom (born in Sri Lanka) | For his fundamental contributions to the definition and design of programming languages.^{[27]} | |

1981 | Edgar F. Codd | United States (born in United Kingdom) | For his fundamental and continuing contributions to the theory and practice of database management systems, esp. relational databases.^{[28]} | |

1982 | Stephen Cook | Canada (born in United States) | For his advancement of our understanding of the complexity of computation in a significant and profound way.^{[29]} | |

1983 | Ken Thompson | United States | For their development of generic operating systems theory and specifically for the implementation of the UNIX operating system.^{[30]}^{[31]} | |

Dennis Ritchie | United States | |||

1984 | Niklaus Wirth | Switzerland | For developing a sequence of innovative computer languages, EULER, ALGOL-W, MODULA and Pascal. | |

1985 | Richard M. Karp | United States | For his continuing contributions to the theory of algorithms including the development of efficient algorithms for network flow and other combinatorial optimization problems, the identification of polynomial-time computability with the intuitive notion of algorithmic efficiency, and, most notably, contributions to the theory of NP-completeness. | |

1986 | John Hopcroft | United States | For fundamental achievements in the design and analysis of algorithms and data structures. | |

Robert Tarjan | United States | |||

1987 | John Cocke | United States | For significant contributions in the design and theory of compilers, the architecture of large systems and the development of reduced instruction set computers (RISC). | |

1988 | Ivan Sutherland | United States | For his pioneering and visionary contributions to computer graphics, starting with Sketchpad, and continuing after. | |

1989 | William Kahan | United States (born in Canada) | For his fundamental contributions to numerical analysis. One of the foremost experts on floating-point computations. Kahan has dedicated himself to "making the world safe for numerical computations." | |

1990 | Fernando J. Corbató | United States | For his pioneering work organizing the concepts and leading the development of the general-purpose, large-scale, time-sharing and resource-sharing computer systems, CTSS and Multics. | |

1991 | Robin Milner | United Kingdom | For three distinct and complete achievements: 1) LCF, the mechanization of Scott's Logic of Computable Functions, probably the first theoretically based yet practical tool for machine assisted proof construction; 2) ML, the first language to include polymorphic type inference together with a type-safe exception-handling mechanism; 3) CCS, a general theory of concurrency. In addition, he formulated and strongly advanced full abstraction, the study of the relationship between operational and denotational semantics.^{[32]} | |

1992 | Butler W. Lampson | United States | For contributions to the development of distributed, personal computing environments and the technology for their implementation: workstations, networks, operating systems, programming systems, displays, security and document publishing. | |

1993 | Juris Hartmanis | United States (born in Latvia) | In recognition of their seminal paper which established the foundations for the field of computational complexity theory.^{[33]} | |

Richard E. Stearns | United States | |||

1994 | Edward Feigenbaum | United States | For pioneering the design and construction of large scale artificial intelligence systems, demonstrating the practical importance and potential commercial impact of artificial intelligence technology.^{[34]} | |

Raj Reddy | United States (born in India) | |||

1995 | Manuel Blum | United States (born in Venezuela) | In recognition of his contributions to the foundations of computational complexity theory and its application to cryptography and program checking.^{[35]} | |

1996 | Amir Pnueli | United States (born in Israel) | For seminal work introducing temporal logic into computing science and for outstanding contributions to program and systems verification.^{[36]} | |

1997 | Douglas Engelbart | United States | For an inspiring vision of the future of interactive computing and the invention of key technologies to help realize this vision.^{[37]} | |

1998 | Jim Gray | United States | For seminal contributions to database and transaction processing research and technical leadership in system implementation. | |

1999 | Frederick P. Brooks | United States | For landmark contributions to computer architecture, operating systems, and software engineering. | |

2000 | Andrew Yao | China | In recognition of his fundamental contributions to the theory of computation, including the complexity-based theory of pseudorandom number generation, cryptography, and communication complexity. | |

2001 | Ole-Johan Dahl | Norway | For ideas fundamental to the emergence of object-oriented programming, through their design of the programming languages Simula I and Simula 67. | |

Kristen Nygaard | Norway | |||

2002 | Ron Rivest | United States | For their ingenious contribution for making public-key cryptography useful in practice. | |

Adi Shamir | Israel | |||

Leonard Adleman | United States | |||

2003 | Alan Kay | United States | For pioneering many of the ideas at the root of contemporary object-oriented programming languages, leading the team that developed Smalltalk, and for fundamental contributions to personal computing. | |

2004 | Vint Cerf | United States | For pioneering work on internetworking, including the design and implementation of the Internet's basic communications protocols, TCP/IP, and for inspired leadership in networking. | |

Bob Kahn | United States | |||

2005 | Peter Naur | Denmark | For fundamental contributions to programming language design and the definition of ALGOL 60, to compiler design, and to the art and practice of computer programming. | |

2006 | Frances E. Allen | United States | For pioneering contributions to the theory and practice of optimizing compiler techniques that laid the foundation for modern optimizing compilers and automatic parallel execution. | |

2007 | Edmund M. Clarke | United States | For their roles in developing model checking into a highly effective verification technology, widely adopted in the hardware and software industries.^{[38]} | |

E. Allen Emerson | United States | |||

Joseph Sifakis | France (born in Greece) | |||

2008 | Barbara Liskov | United States | For contributions to practical and theoretical foundations of programming language and system design, especially related to data abstraction, fault tolerance, and distributed computing. | |

2009 | Charles P. Thacker | United States | For his pioneering design and realization of the Xerox Alto, the first modern personal computer, and in addition for his contributions to the Ethernet and the Tablet PC. | |

2010 | Leslie Valiant | United States (born in Hungary) | For transformative contributions to the theory of computation, including the theory of probably approximately correct (PAC) learning, the complexity of enumeration and of algebraic computation, and the theory of parallel and distributed computing. | |

2011 | Judea Pearl^{[39]} | United States (born in Israel) | For fundamental contributions to artificial intelligence through the development of a calculus for probabilistic and causal reasoning.^{[40]} | |

2012 | Silvio Micali | United States (born in Italy) | For transformative work that laid the complexity-theoretic foundations for the science of cryptography and in the process pioneered new methods for efficient verification of mathematical proofs in complexity theory.^{[41]} | |

Shafi Goldwasser | United States and Israel | |||

2013 | Leslie Lamport | United States | For fundamental contributions to the theory and practice of distributed and concurrent systems, notably the invention of concepts such as causality and logical clocks, safety and liveness, replicated state machines, and sequential consistency.^{[42]}^{[43]} | |

2014 | Michael Stonebraker | United States | For fundamental contributions to the concepts and practices underlying modern database systems.^{[44]} | |

2015 | Whitfield Diffie | United States | For fundamental contributions to modern cryptography. Diffie and Hellman's groundbreaking 1976 paper, "New Directions in Cryptography,"^{[45]} introduced the ideas of public-key cryptography and digital signatures, which are the foundation for most regularly-used security protocols on the Internet today.^{[46]} | |

Martin Hellman | United States | |||

2016 | Tim Berners-Lee | United Kingdom | For inventing the World Wide Web, the first web browser, and the fundamental protocols and algorithms allowing the Web to scale.^{[47]} | |

2017 | John L. Hennessy | United States | For pioneering a systematic, quantitative approach to the design and evaluation of computer architectures with enduring impact on the microprocessor industry.^{[48]} | |

David Patterson | United States | |||

2018 | Yoshua Bengio | Canada (born in France) | For conceptual and engineering breakthroughs that have made deep neural networks a critical component of computing.^{[49]} | |

Geoffrey Hinton | Canada (born in United Kingdom) | |||

Yann LeCun | United States (born in France) | |||

2019 | Edwin Catmull | United States | For fundamental contributions to 3-D computer graphics, and the revolutionary impact of these techniques on computer-generated imagery (CGI) in filmmaking and other applications.^{[50]} | |

Pat Hanrahan | United States |

## See also[edit]

- List of ACM Awards
- List of computer science awards
- List of prizes known as the Nobel of a field
- List of prizes named after people
- IEEE John von Neumann Medal
- Turing Lecture
- Nobel Prize
- Schock Prize
- Nevanlinna Prize
- Kanellakis Award
- Millennium Technology Prize

## References[edit]

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^{a}^{b}"A. M. Turing Award". ACM. Archived from the original on 2009-12-12. Retrieved 2007-11-05. **^**Dasgupta, Sanjoy; Papadimitriou, Christos; Vazirani, Umesh (2008).*Algorithms*. McGraw-Hill. p. 317. ISBN 978-0-07-352340-8.**^**Bibliography of Turing Award lectures, DBLP**^**Geringer, Steven (27 July 2007). "ACM'S Turing Award Prize Raised To $250,000". ACM press release. Archived from the original on 30 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-16.**^**See also: Brown, Bob (June 6, 2011). "Why there's no Nobel Prize in Computing".*Network World*. Retrieved June 3, 2015.**^**Homer, Steven and Alan L. (2001).*Computability and Complexity Theory*. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-387-95055-6. Retrieved 2007-11-05.**^**"ACM's Turing Award Prize Raised to $1 Million". ACM. Archived from the original on 2015-11-23. Retrieved 2014-11-13.**^**"First Woman to Receive ACM Turing Award" (Press release). The Association for Computing Machinery. February 21, 2007. Archived from the original on July 2, 2007. 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