History of the Syrian Civil War (2020–present)
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The Syrian government continued to launch major attacks on rebel groups in Northwestern Syria ("Greater Idlib"), with Russian air support. Continued operations have caused over 200,000 refugees to flee the area, with many fleeing to Turkey.
Ceasefire and new offensive
On 11 January, Russia announced that a ceasefire had been agreed to in the area of Idlib and Northwest Syria, between Russia, Syria, Syrian rebels and Turkey. This was due to requests by Turkey for a ceasefire, in order to stop the flow of Syrian refugees into Turkey. However, some regional news outlets reported that Syria launched further attacks near Idlib, in Ma'arrat al-Nu'man District and the villages of Maar Shoreen, Talmenes, and Maar Shamshah, even after the ceasefire had officially begun.
On 21 January, Russian warplanes targeted a farm on the outskirts of the Kafar Taal village, in western Aleppo province, killing nine civilians, among them six children, and also targeted areas in the southern and south-eastern countryside of Idlib, inflicting damage to property.
On 28 January, the Syrian Arab Army captured the strategic city of Ma'arrat al-Nu'man. A war monitor and government media added that the Syrian army went into the city under the protection of heavy air strikes.
On 18 January, 2020, U.S. troops blocked a Russian convoy from entering Rmelan, where the U.S. is protecting oil fields under SDF administration. Tension occurred between the two groups as U.S. soldiers asked the Russian soldiers to return to the Amuda district in northwest of Al-Hasakah Governorate.
The UN Security Council is currently having a major dispute over the re-authorization for border-crossing points into Syria to deliver aid. The existing authorization expired on January 10, 2020. In December 2019, China and Russia vetoed the current proposal to renew all four existing crossing points, which are located in Iraq, Jordan, and Turkey; they wish to eliminate all crossing points except the ones in Turkey. By January 2020, the dispute was ongoing.
Idlib and Aleppo
According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, by 6 February, the Syrian Army had captured 139 (including areas captured last year) towns, villages and hilltops, including the strategic city of Ma'arrat al-Nu'man, towns and villages of Al-Tah, Jarjnaz, Tell Mannas, Kafr Rumah, Khan al-Sabil, Hish, Sarmin and Afs and Turkish observation posts at Sarman, Maar Hattat, Tell Touqan, Rashidin in Western Aleppo and 4 posts inside the encircled Saraqib pocket. Humanitarian organizations called for a ceasefire in Idlib after 520,000 people had been displaced from their homes.
On 10 February, pro-Syrian government militias including Shabiha were filmed desecrating the graves and exhuming the bodies of opposition fighters and those affiliated with them, in a series of clips circulated on social media during the two days prior, in southern Idlib province, and holding skulls of opposition fighters and civilians and mocking them.
By 18 February, pro-government sources said that the Syrian Arab Army and its allies had captured 2,052 square kilometers of territory and more than 200 towns, villages and hilltops.[unreliable source?] The same day the UN human rights chief expressed her pressing concerns over the increase in fighting in northwest Syria and has also blamed the Syrian government and Russia for intentionally causing harm to civilians.
On 20 February, Turkish-backed rebels launched another counteroffensive on Nayrab with Turkish artillery support. Turkish commandos were also reported to have been operating alongside rebels in the assault on the town. A Russian UAV was reported to have been shot down during the initial shelling and rocket strikes. Russian planes provided air support to the pro-government forces and struck positions of the advancing rebels. Additional shelling on nearby towns on both the government-controlled and opposition-controlled sides of the frontline were reported, with both Russian and Turkish forces involved in air and artillery support roles respectively. During the battle, rebels reportedly attempted to shoot down a Russian Su-24 using Turkish-provided MANPADS.
After heavy fighting, the rebels managed to take full control of the town. However, Russian air support allowed the pro-government forces to eventually repel the rebel assault and recapture Nayrab. Russia contacted Turkish forces and told them to end artillery support to the rebels, which they did, according to Russia. The Turkish Ministry of Defense confirmed that two Turkish soldiers had been killed and five wounded due to an airstrike during the assault, while also claiming the Turkish-backed rebels killed 50 Syrian government forces during the battle. The Russian Ministry of Defence said Russian forces destroyed one tank, six armored vehicles, and five other vehicles all belonging to the rebels. As well as the two confirmed Turkish deaths, the SOHR said that about 28 rebels and 14 pro-government soldiers were killed and that some Syrian soldiers were beheaded by jihadist fighters.
On 27 February 2020, during the Syrian Army offensive on Idlib an airstrike against a Turkish Army convoy in Balyun, Idlib resulted in the deaths of at least 34 Turkish soldiers according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, while other sources close to Turkey gave tolls of 50–70 dead Turkish soldiers,  making it the single deadliest attack on Turkish forces since its involvement in the war. Between 36 and 60 soldiers were also wounded. At around 11 a.m. on 27 February 2020, two Russian Sukhoi Su-34 and two Syrian Su-22 fighter jets started intensive bombing raids of Turkish-backed rebel forces in the southern countryside of Syria's Idlib province. According to Russian sources, after 1 p.m., Turkish troops conducted more than 15 MANPADS attacks against the Russian and Syrian jets, with some Russian aircraft allegedly suffering damage while evading the fire.
At around 5 p.m., a 400-man Turkish mechanized infantry battalion traveling in a convoy was targeted by an airstrike on the road between al-Bara and Balyun, around five kilometers north of Kafr Nabl. A light airstrike by a Su-22s halted the convoy, after which more intense bombing forced the Turkish soldiers to take shelter in the nearby buildings. The Russian jets then reportedly dropped KAB-1500L laser-guided bombs on the Turkish positions, collapsing two buildings and leaving a number of soldiers under the rubble. Russia denied it carried out airstrikes in the area and stated it made attempts to ensure the Syrian military ceased firing to allow the evacuation of the Turkish troops, but noted the Turkish forces should not have been in the area, where "counter-terror operations" were taking place, and that Turkey failed to notify it about the soldiers' presence in advance.
On 28 February, the Defense Ministry of Turkey stated that a day after 33 of their soldiers were killed in the air strike, artillery fire was launched by Syrian forces in northwest Idlib province of Syria, which led to the killing of one Turkish soldier and two others injured. The Turkish military also continued to attack Syrian Government targets in the region as well, according to the defense ministry.  Turkey said it retaliated for Balyun strikes by striking 200 Syrian government targets and 309 soldiers. NATO and the US expressed support for Turkey and urged Russia to engage with UN ceasefire efforts, while the UN expressed concern at developments.
On 12 February, government supporters blocked and pelted a US military convoy passing through Qamishli town in northeastern Syria, which led to a clash with US troops, killing one civilian and injuring another. There is no certainty as to whether the civilian that got killed was armed or not, a monitoring group stated. Local sources and US officials said that pro-Syrian militia fighters were also part of the stand off. According to the coalition spokesman Col. Myles Caggins, the coalition troops were compelled to exchange fire in an act of self-defense and that the incident is under investigation. 
On 16 February, at least 55 vehicles of the US military convoy had been spotted entering Al-Hasakah province in northeastern Syria from Iraq, according to pro-Damascus sources.
After the attack in northwest Idlib on 27 February, which caused the death of dozens of Turkish soldiers, Turkey declared on 1 March, that it was starting a major counteroffensive against Bashar al-Assad’s government. The announcement was made by Turkey’s defense minister Hulusi Akar, after which he described the decision as an attempt to prevent the Syrian government from launching dangerous attacks against Syrians, as well as to ensure the establishment of an extensive ceasefire in the region. Two Syrian fighter jets were reported to have been shot down in Idlib province by a Turkish F-16, as the offensive against Syrian forces intensifies. The pilots managed to eject from the jets and land safely at the clash site between Syrian forces and Turkish troops in Idlib province, the BBC added. Also, the Syrian media confirmed that there were no casualties in the northwestern Idlib attack. The defense minister of Turkey maintained that in addition to the shooting down of the two Syrian military aircraft in the offensive known as Operation Spring Shield, he disclosed that Turkey had killed over 2,000 Syrian government troops.
On 1 March, the 2020 Daraa clashes began.
On 5 March, a meeting was held between Russian President Vladimir Putin and his Turkish counterpart Recep Tayyip Erdogan, after which both parties agreed to a military ceasefire in Idlib province of northwestern Syria. The meeting between the Turkish and Russian president which was held in Moscow, reportedly lasted for about six hours, according to CNN. According to the announcement by both President Putin and Erdogan, the ceasefire was scheduled to commence on Thursday evening at midnight, with the expectation that it would halt the violence in the area. In accordance with the ceasefire agreement, joint patrols and a security corridor were established along the vital M4 highway.
In order to fight the coronavirus outbreak, the UN special envoy for Syria on 24 March, urged for an instant ceasefire throughout the entire country which has been ravaged by war for the past decade. The International Committee of the Red Cross also called for a ceasefire, as they cannot simultaneously deal with the virus outbreak and cater for the displaced people of Syria, the ICRC regional director added.
On 31 March, the Shayrat Airbase in Syria came under an Israeli missile attack, during a meeting between high ranking officers of Syria and Iran. No casualties were reported in the attack, as the Syrian air defenses were able to successfully intercept the Israeli missiles. According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) based in the UK, eight missiles were believed to have been fired by the Israeli warplanes at the Al-Shayrat air base.
On 1 April, as the Syrian war enters its tenth year, the death toll recorded in March is reportedly the lowest, as there is a fall in the number of civilian casualties, according to the Observatory human rights group in Syria. A total of 103 civilians were said to have been killed, with 51 of them dying as a result of air strikes and shellings. The rights group added that the civilian death toll is less than half of the deaths recorded in February which was placed at 275, when a major government offensive in Syria’s last opposition stronghold was still active.
On 13 April, Turkish riot police dispersed dozens of Syrians participating in a sit-in on the M4 highway in the northwest linking the key cities of Saraqeb and Latakia; the incident showed a growing dissatisfaction toward the joint Russian-Turkish military presence in the area. In another story, the local sources including one from Quneitra confirmed to Arabi21 that Russia was exploiting the poverty under which people were living in Syria to recruit young people - with wages and the promise to settle the security situation - to fight in Libya alongside the forces of General Khalifa Haftar against the internationally recognized-Government of National Accord.
On 27 April, the SNHR reported that the Syrian government continued to commit multiple human rights violations in March and April, the same months seeing the rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, with 44 civilians including six children killed, and its forces arrested 156 people, and committed at least four attacks on vital civilian facilities, including two schools. The Syrian military blamed Israel for launching a missile attack on a military airfield close to Damascus. As a result of the attack, at least three civilian casualties were reported, leaving four more wounded, according to Al Jazeera. However, SANA added that the Syrian military was able to intercept the missiles, which they believe were fired from Lebanese airspace.
On 28 April, a bombing in Afrin killed 40 people, including 11 children. No group claimed responsibility. Turkey blamed the YPG for the attack. According to the head of the British-based Observatory for human rights in Syria, at least six pro-Turkish Syrian fighters were among those killed in the blast with a possibility of increase in the death toll. At least 47 people were reported injured, according to Al Jazeera. According to the governor of the neighbouring Hatay province, across the Turkish border, the explosion was believed to have been caused by the rigging of a fuel tanker with hand grenades. Many people, alongside those who got trapped in their cars were burnt to death as a result of the blast, Syrian activists disclosed.
In April 2020, it was reported that the Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi, Mohammed bin Zayed had been attempting to persuade the Syrian President Bashar al-Assad to break a ceasefire with Turkish-backed rebels in Idlib province. Mohammed bin Zayed offered Assad $3 billion in cash to push the offensive.
On 11 May, reports from Amnesty International suggested that 18 attacks were carried out on civilian facilities, including medical facilities, in northwestern Syria between May 5 2019 and February 25 2020, by the Syrian government. The report said that the Syrian military intentionally attacked civilian facilities such as schools and hospitals.
On 18 May, the UN envoy for Syria Geir Pedersen urged Russia and the US to take advantage of the partial cooling down of the situation in the region, and sue for peace so as to bring the conflict to an end. Pedersen said that the lack of dialogue between the two countries had left the people of Syria to pay the consequences. He also mentioned that Russia, Turkey and Iran, are all integral to the establishment of a ceasefire in the region. Pedersen is the fourth mediator serving in the capacity of UN envoy to Syria who has attempted to resolve the differences in the war-torn country.
On 27 May, pro-Syrian government militias destroyed and desecrated the grave of the eighth Umayyad Caliph Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz, located in the village of Deir Sharqi in the area of Ma'arrat al-Nu'man in the north-west province of Idlib, and with the contents exhumed and disappeared.
On 29 May, the Russian government proposed a dialogue with Assad’s government, in an attempt to increase its military facilities in the country. President Vladimir Putin ordered the defense and foreign ministries to oversee the negotiation with the Syrian government in having access to more facilities on both land and sea.
On 1 June, the Syrian Network for Human Rights (SNHR) reported that the death toll of civilians in the month of May in Syria had reached a total of 125. Out of 125 people that were killed, 26 children and 6 women were believed to be among the casualties. In addition, the group disclosed that eight people were killed as a result of torture, with seven of them killed by the Syrian government forces and another by the Syrian Democratic forces.
On 3 June, the last rebel stronghold/de-escalation zone was attacked by a series of airstrikes, carried out by Russian jets. Based on reports from the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR), the airstrikes were launched where the borders of Hama, Idlib, and Latakia provinces converge. According to the Daily Sabah, no casualties have been reported yet.
On 7 June, the towns of Manarah and Fatrah were captured by Hurras al-Din jihadists in Idlib Governorate, but after Russian airstrikes the Syrian Army managed to recapture the towns on the same day. The fighting left 22 rebels or jihadist and 19 government soldiers killed according to the Syrian Observatory of Human Rights.
On 20 June, In light of the increase in number of COVID-19 cases, activists urged for the release of political prisoners in Syria. Officials of the UN have shown concerns over the larger possibility of the virus spreading in prisons.
On 22 June, A Syrian doctor residing in Germany was detained on the allegation of committing crimes against humanity at a prison, back in Syria. Dr. Alaa Mousa, who was detained on Friday, is believed to be the third former Syrian official to be detained in Germany, according to The New York Times. When Mousa was working at a prison in Syria’s Homs in 2011, he reportedly engaged in beating a detainee that was assigned to him for treatment with a plastic pipe. According to the German prosecutors’ office, at the time of the incident, the detainee was said to be suffering from an epileptic seizure after being arrested for participating in a protest. The doctor was believed to have been summoned the next day to attend to the detainee, but came along with another doctor who also had a plastic pipe with him, as they continued beating and kicking the victim until he became unconscious and incapacitated.
The State news agency reported that Israeli missiles were launched in southern and eastern Syria on 23 June, killing at least two Syrian soldiers, leaving four others injured. According to Al Jazeera, the attacks are believed to be aimed at bases owned by Iranian-backed militias. Apart from the two Syrian soldiers killed in the southern province of Sweida, five members of the pro-Iranian militia were also killed, summing up the death toll to seven people, the Times of Israel reported. However, the Israeli army has not made any comments about the attack, despite the fact that Israeli military officials have stated that it would seek the overhaul of Iranian presence in Syria. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights disclosed that the Syrian air defenses responded to the attacks, while intercepting a huge number of missiles.
Continued economic crisis
In southwest Syria, several protesters gathered on the streets on Sunday, demanding for the removal of President Assad’s government amid worsening economic conditions. The protests erupted in Sweida, which had generally been regarded as a city that was supportive of Assad; however in this protest, groups of young men were chanting anti-government slogans.
The following day, hundreds of protesters gathered in front of the provincial governor's office regardless of the security forces that had been deployed in the area, calling for Syrian allies Iran and Russia to vacate the country. Also, in a video footage shown by Suwayda24, a local news outlet, women and children could be seen close to the building of the provincial governor, further rallying throughout the streets of the city and chanting anti-government slogans. However, the state media is yet to make mention of the anti-government protests, according to Straits Times.
In June 2020, the Syrian pound underwent a dramatic collapse. The US Government stated via US Envoy James Jeffrey that the collapse would be exacerbated due to sanctions, and offered to help President Bashar al-Assad if he agreed to meet certain conditions for political reform.
There were reports in June 2020 that American and Russian troops had faced each other in a standoff in Northeast Syria.
On 8 June, several towns in Syria’s northwest Idlib province were attacked by Russian jets, which led to the deaths of at least two civilians, according to Al Jazeera. Many others were wounded as a result of artillery shelling, according to the civil defense group, the White Helmets. The attack, which is reported to be the first since the ceasefire by Turkey and Russia was put in place three months ago, targeted a village in Jabal al-Zawiya and two other towns in west of Hama province, and forced hundreds of civilians to be displaced.
On 10 June, hundreds of protesters returned to the streets of Sweida for the fourth consecutive day, rallying against the collapse of the country’s economy, as the Syrian pound plummeted to 3,000 to the dollar within the past week.
On 11 June, Prime Minister Imad Khamis was dismissed by President Bashar al-Assad, amid anti-government protests over deteriorating economic conditions. The new lows for the Syrian currency, and the dramatic increase in sanctions, began to appear to raise new threats to the survival of the Assad government.
Some analysts began to raise concerns that Assad might be on the verge of losing power; but that any such collapse in the regime might cause conditions to worsen, as the result might be mass chaos, rather than an improvement in political or economic conditions. Russia continued to expand its influence and military role in the areas of Syria where the main military conflict was occurring.
On June 14, at a conference in Damascus between the Syrian government and business leaders, a number of business leaders agreed to a plan to reduce prices on important consumer staples and necessities, including food and clothing. Meanwhile, Syrian media outlets alleged that Turkish forces were imposing Turkish currency over areas of northern Syria.
Sanctions and international actions
Analysts noted that the upcoming implementation of new heavy sanctions under the US Caesar Act could devastate the Syrian economy, ruin any chances of recovery, destroy regional stability, and do nothing but destabilize the entire region. The first new sanctions will take effect on June 17th. there will be additional sanctions implemented in August, in three different groups. There are increasing reports that food is becoming difficult to find, the country's economy is under severe pressure, and the whole regime could collapse due to the sanctions. 
Some experts and some major Western media outlets noted the potential adverse effects on the population; e.g. the Associated Press noted that the sanctions could "be a heavy blow to a country where eight out of 10 people make less than $100 a month."  The sanctions are designed to discourage any organizations from providing aid to help in Syria's reconstruction. any international organizations and any foreign governments that sought to help the Syrian government in any way, economic or otherwise. Under this legislation, the Trump Administration can penalize any organization that invests in certain economic sectors of Syria, or that lends any money to the Syrian government. 
The provisions of the legislation specifically state the terms below, penalizing new areas and forms of aid to the Syrian government.
On and after the date that is 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the President shall impose the sanctions described in subsection (b) with respect to a foreign person if the President determines that the foreign person, on or after such date of enactment, knowingly engages in an activity described in paragraph (2).
(2) ACTIVITIES DESCRIBED.—A foreign person engages in an activity described in this paragraph if the foreign person—
(A) knowingly provides significant financial, material, or technological support to, or knowingly engages in a significant transaction with—
(i) the Government of Syria (including any entity owned or controlled by the Government of Syria) or a senior political figure of the Government of Syria;
(ii) a foreign person that is a military contractor, mercenary, or a paramilitary force knowingly operating in a military capacity inside Syria for or on behalf of the Government of Syria, the Government of the Russian Federation, or the Government of Iran; or
(iii) a foreign person subject to sanctions pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) with respect to Syria or any other provision of law that imposes sanctions with respect to Syria;
(B) knowingly sells or provides significant goods, services, technology, information, or other support that significantly facilitates the maintenance or expansion of the Government of Syria's domestic production of natural gas, petroleum, or petroleum products;
(C) knowingly sells or provides aircraft or spare aircraft parts that are used for military purposes in Syria for or on behalf of the Government of Syria to any foreign person operating in an area directly or indirectly controlled by the Government of Syria or foreign forces associated with the Government of Syria;
(D) knowingly provides significant goods or services associated with the operation of aircraft that are used for military purposes in Syria for or on behalf of the Government of Syria to any foreign person operating in an area described in subparagraph (C); or
(E) knowingly, directly or indirectly, provides significant construction or engineering services to the Government of Syria.
(3) SENSE OF CONGRESS.—It is the sense of Congress that, in implementing this section, the President should consider financial support under paragraph (2)(A) to include the provision of loans, credits, or export credits.
As early as January 2020, experts in Western countries were already noting the adverse effects the sanctions would have on ordinary Syrians, and questioned whether the sanctions would making any real impact on improving political conditions, or counteracting Syrian government excesses against human rights. Dr. Joshua Landis, director of the University of Oklahoma’s Center for Middle East Studies Program, stated “The act will severely delay the effort to rebuild after the war or to provide Syrians with electricity, heating, cooking gas, and other basic commodities needed for existence,....America’s sanctions are not smart, They go after entire industries and particularly those that are most essential to providing state services, such as energy.”
A leading analyst, Julien Barnes-Dacey, director of the Middle East and North Africa Programme at the European Council on Foreign Relations, said:
“Assad is absolutely the prime driver of Syria’s ongoing collapse. [But] the US position now appears to be fundamentally driven by great power politics and the goal of ensuring that Russia and Iran can’t claim a win. My fear is that Caesar will achieve the exact opposite of its stated goals, fuelling the worst impulses of the Syrian regime and wider conflict. The US self-declared maximum pressure campaign aims to bring the regime to its knees and force its backers to concede defeat but the regime knows how to brutally hold onto power and it’s clear that its key backers aren’t for moving.
“The Syrian people have been brutalised for a decade now and the country is devastated by conflict but we appear to be staring into the precipice of a dangerous new stage of the conflict … which risks a devastating new unravelling.”
Russia publicly stated that it would support the existing government of Syria.  Russia stepped in to provide mediation between Turkish and Syrian forces, to avert conflict between the two countries on the ground in Syria. Russian forces also carried out joint patrols with Turkish forces, creating a commonality of interest between the Syrian and Turkish governments. 
Russia and the United States continuously argued publicly over the role played by each country in Syrian politics. Russia noted that its military presence had the approval of Syria's government.  The Russian Ambassador, Alexander Yevimov, said that Russia would seek to help Syria to recover and to develop its economy positively. 
Some analysts said that Assad would need support from major Sunni countries to stay in power, and that he would need the US to facilitate such support. 
In Spain, the Director-General of Cooperation and Human Rights of the Regional Government of La Rioja, Mayra Moro-Coco said that Caesar act would massively increase the suffering of the Syrian population, and would not improve conditions or human rights at all. 
On 4 July, 20 Russian soldiers took control of Al-Ward, a major oil field in Abu Kamal countryside, after expelling the Syrian government military security personnel from it. Later, Russian forces deployed 15 military vehicles in the field, raised barricades and fortified its surroundings with heavy machine guns.
On 9 July, Russia and China failed in a second U.N. Security Council bid to cut aid access to Syria from Turkey, and the council would now vote on a last-ditch attempt to extend approval for cross-border aid deliveries before it expires on 10 July.
On 14 July, a joint Russian-Turkish patrol was attacked by a SVBIED, injuring several Russian and Turkish soldiers. Also, five civilians were believed to have been wounded during the explosion, according to civil defense groups. The Russians responded by carrying out several airstrikes against rebel positions in greater Idlib.
On 15 July, unknown aircraft, suspected to be Russian, carried out airstrikes on the city of al-Bab, controlled by the Syrian National Army and Turkey. An apartment complex was destroyed in the attack. One civilian was killed and at least 10 others were injured in the airstrikes. It was the first airstrike on the town since it was captured from ISIL in 2017.
On 16 July, an unknown UAV suspected to be Turkish carried out a strike against a Russian coordination point south of Al-Darbasiyah, which is controlled by the SDF but with Syrian Army and Russian military police forces present. Two Russian soldiers, one SAA member and two members of the Asayish were injured in the strike.
On 17 July, the Syrian National Army was put on high alert and reinforced checkpoints and frontlines amid flyovers by unknown jets.
On 19 July, a car bomb exploded in Azaz, leaving five dead and 43 wounded, according to Turkish state media. Among the wounded victims, 15 civilians who were in critical condition were reportedly rushed to Kilis, a city across the Turkish border, in order to receive medical attention.  Separately, in northwestern Syria’s Afrin, 13 people alongside children were said to have been wounded also in a terror attack. 
On 17 August, Syrian forces reportedly clashed with US troops in northern Syria close to the Turkish border, which resulted in the death of one Syrian. Two other Syrian soldiers were said to have been injured during the clash, state media added.
On 26 September a car bombing left at least 7 people dead and another 10 were injured.
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- "Turkey Declares Major Offensive Against Syrian Government".
- "Turkey announces major offensive against Syrian government forces".
- "Turkey downs two Syrian fighter jets as it intensifies Idlib attacks".
- "Syria war: Turkey intensifies Idlib onslaught after air strike".
- "Turkey shoots down two Syrian fighter jets over Idlib".
- "Why Turkey launched a major offensive against the Syrian government".
- "Erdogan, Putin announce Idlib ceasefire after Moscow meeting".
- "Turkey and Russia announce ceasefire in northwest Syria".
- "Russia and Turkey agree ceasefire in Syria's Idlib province".
- "Syria war: Russia and Turkey agree Idlib ceasefire".
- "UN calls for total ceasefire in Syria to focus on coronavirus".
- "Syrian Ceasefire Critical to Combating Coronavirus-U.N., Red Cross".
- "Israel targets senior Syrian and Iranian military officers meeting in Hama".
- "Israel 'strikes Syrian regime base' as campaign against Iran continues amid coronavirus".
- "Syria air defences down Israeli missiles over Homs: state media".
- "Syrian media says Israeli war planes attack near Homs".
- "Syria: Record drop in monthly death toll".
- "Syria war records lowest monthly death toll in 9 years".
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- Sources: Russia recruiting youth from southern Syria to fight in Libya. 14 April 2020. Middle East Monitor. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
- Assad regime violence continues despite coronavirus. AA. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
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- "Israel bombs Iran-backed forces near Syrian capital".
- "Bomb blast kills 40 people in Syria's Afrin: Turkey". Reuters.
- "Fuel truck bomb kills more than 40 in northern Syria".
- "Fuel truck bomb blast kills dozens in Syria's Afrin: Turkey".
- "Syria war: Dozens killed in truck bomb attack at Afrin market".
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- "Amnesty accuses Damascus, Moscow of 'war crimes' in Syria".
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- "UN Envoy Calls for Russia-US Talks to Help End Syria War".
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- "Russia eyeing expansion of military bases in Syria".
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- "125 civilians killed in Syria in May: Watchdog".
- "125 civilians killed in Syria in May, report finds".
- "125 Civilians Documented Killed in Syria in May 2020, including Eight Who Died Due to Torture, and One Massacre".
- "Russia hits targets in Syria de-escalation zone, delivers MiG-29s".
- "Russian Airstrikes Hit Syria's Rebel Bastion For First Time Since Ceasefire: Report".
- "Syrian activists: Russia continuing attacks in Idlib despite ceasefire".
- ""De-escalation zone" Nearly 30 Russian airstrikes pound rural Idlib and Hama, and regime forces shell the villages of Jabal al-Zawiya with artillery". Syrian Observatory of Human Rights. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
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- "Syria's war: Activists call for release of political prisoners".
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- "Syrian doctor arrested in Germany for alleged crimes against humanity".
- "German police arrest Syrian doctor for 'crimes against humanity'".
- "Two Syrian soldiers killed in Israeli aerial attacks: State media".
- "Syrian army says Israel hit several bases across country".
- "Israeli airstrikes reported against Iranian sites in Syria, killing 7".
- "Syrian air defences respond to Israeli attack on southern and eastern Syria".
- "Israel launches overnight airstrikes on Syria's military sites".
- "Protest in southwest Syria against faltering economy, corruption".
- "Anti-Assad demonstrations break out in southern Syria as currency collapses".
- "'Enough is enough': Syria anti-government protests in Sweida swell for second day".
- "Syria's economic crisis sparks rare anti-regime protests".
- "Protests hit Druze city in Syria for fourth day amid plunging currency".
- Sanctions on Syrian government also threaten Washington's Kurdish allies. While US and international sanctions aren't specifically targeted at Kurdish-ruled northeast Syria, the area is impacted all the same with trade practically halted and because of the sudden plunge of the Syrian pound. by Jared Szuba, June 9, 2020.
- US, Russian troops square off in northeast Syria as Kremlin eyes wider footprint. US-Russian standoff near Derik, Syria, blocks traffic for hours before Russians return to Qamishli. by Jared Szuba, June 3, 2020.
- "Two killed as Russian jets hit towns in Syria's Idlib after truce".
- "Russian airstrikes kill 3 civilians in violation of Idlib cease-fire".
- "Air Strikes Break Truce in Opposition Towns in Syria's Idlib".
- "Russian jets break truce in northern Syria, civilians flee".
- "Protests hit Druze city in Syria for fourth day".
- "Syria war: Assad sacks PM as economic crisis sparks protests".
- Syrian pound hits record low ahead of new U.S. sanctions: dealers. The Syrian pound sank to a new record low on Monday as investors scrambled for dollars ahead of new U.S. sanctions later this month, which many fear will tighten the noose around President Bashar al Assad’s government, dealers and bankers said. June 8, 2020, Reuters.
- Syrian currency collapse throws country into uncertainty The Syrian regime thought it was finally out of the woods in its almost decade-long civil war. By SETH J. FRANTZMAN JUNE 8, 2020, jpost. com.
- Syrian currency loses more value as sanctions hit June 11, 2020, Associated Press.
- Charting the dramatic collapse of Syria's national currency, by Hugo Goodridge, June 4, 2020. Despite fears of a spill over from Syria affecting neighbouring Lebanon, it was conversely the collapse of the Lebanese pound that plunged Syria deeper into its economic quagmire. Rising Lebanese debts and a lack of financial ability to pay off these debts, with a seeming absence of political will to find a solution, led to capital controls being imposed. Throughout the war in Syria, Lebanon had been used by Syrians as a reliable place to withdraw dollars. "Syrians, who bought a lot of their dollars in Lebanon, suddenly couldn't access dollars, the value of the Syrian pound started to collapse.
- Is Assad About to Fall? While the world wasn’t watching, Syria has edged toward collapse, and the dictator is in his weakest position ever. The U.S. now has a narrow chance to prevent a catastrophe. y CHARLES LISTER, 6/11/2020, politico.com.
- [https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/06/08/assad-faces-backlash-syria-economy-crashes/ Assad faces backlash in Syria as economy crashes Hundreds of protesters gather in the restive south of the country as the prices of everyday essentials sky-rocket], By Gareth Browne, 8 June 2020.
- Syria Insight: Syria's collapsing economy threatens Assad's rule, Syria has been hit by further economic instability Date of publication: 7 June, 2020, english.alaraby.co.uk
- Warm waters at last: Russia's expanding military footprint in the Middle East. Russia is increasing its presence in the wider Middle East and North Africa region through the deployment of its armed forces, the sale of arms and the establishment of new military bases. In recent weeks, it began negotiating the establishment of new concessions from the Syrian regime on its indefinite military presence in that country and has also become more directly involved in the civil war tearing Libya apart. June 9, 2020. alaraby.co.uk.
- Number of Damascus businessmen launch initiatives to reduce prices, Hazem Sabbagh, June 14, 2020, sana.sy.
- Turkey imposes its currency on the areas it occupied in northern Syria, June 14, 2020.
- https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jun/12/us-caesar-act-sanctions-and-could-devastate-syrias-flatlining-economy US ‘Caesar Act' sanctions could devastate Syria’s flatlining economy. Critics say legislation is being used for US strategy and could cause further problems for country and wider region. Martin Chulov, The Guardian, June 12, 2020.
- Syria economic meltdown presents new challenge for Assad, By BASSEM MROUE Associated Press Jun 12, 2020.
- Syria, wracked by years of war, about to be hit by punitive U.S. sanctions The Associated Press · Posted: Jun 12, 2020
- The Caesar Act: Impacts and Implementation, February 20, 2020, syriaaccountability.org
- Inflation, shortages worsen Syrian poverty on eve of new US sanctions. The price of a typical basket of food items increased 111 percent in a year], by Ben Parker Senior Editor, June 9, 2020.
- How Syria’s Economic Difficulties have Caused a Food Crisis, 10 JUNE 2020 Phoebe Sleet, Research Analyst, Global Food and Water Crises Research Programme.
- Text of H.R.31 - Caesar Syria Civilian Protection Act of 2019, congress.gov official website.
- The Caesar Act: The beginning or end of US Syria Policy? By Will Christou, Mohammad Abdulssattar Ibrahim, January 05, 2020, syriadirect.org.
- Yevimov: Syria and Russia will not be defeated by economic terrorism SANA,13th June 2020.
- Why do Russia’s patrols in Syria keep running into trouble? According to reports, there were tensions on June 2 when a Russian vehicle tried to enter some areas near Derik in eastern Syria. By SETH J. FRANTZMAN JUNE 4, 2020. The SDF still nominally controls much of eastern Syria. But an uneasy and bizarre peace reigns: Russia and Turkey do joint patrols in one area, while the US, supposedly a Turkish ally, patrols in another area. Turkey claims the SDF are terrorists, even though the SDF defeated ISIS. Russia also ended up doing patrols in Idlib because the Russian-backed Syrian regime launched an offensive in February that clashed with Turkish troops in Idlib. Russia stepped in to enforce a ceasefire. Russia is a sort of referee in Syria. But like all referees, it can’t be all things to everyone. Kurds are disappointed Russia didn’t do more to support them, and Syrian rebels despise Russia for aiding the Assad regime. The US doesn’t like the Russians. Only Turkey and Russia seem to get along well. After the June 2 incident near Derik, another incident developed on Thursday. Long lines of civilian cars were backed up as US and Russian soldiers squared off. Reports indicated the US stopped the Russians from entering Derik, and the Russians had to go back to Qamishli. Something else may be afoot. The Russians may be seeking to expand their presence and build a base near Qasir Dib, a village near Derik, according to Sirwan Kajjo of VOA news. The US may not want Russia expanding its footprint even more. The full details of what caused the standoff are still unclear. Meanwhile, Russian and Turkish soldiers carried out their 15th joint patrol near Idlib.
- Russian Embassy In Washington Dismisses US Accusations Over Role In Syria, By Vusala Abbasova June 8, 2020. The rivalry between Russia and the United States in the Middle East continues to escalate as the countries exchange tense remarks over military presence in the region. In a statement posted on its official Facebook page on Friday, the Russian embassy in Washington, DC. criticized the remarks of David Schenker, the State Department's top diplomat for the Middle East, who had said that Russia should leave Syria and described its role there as "destructive". "In response to Assistant Secretary of State David Schenker’s blatant call for Russia to 'go out of the Middle East' we would like to remind: Russian military is stationed in Syria at the invitation of its government," the Russian diplomatic mission said in its statement.
- Yevimov: Syria and Russia will not be defeated by economic terrorism, Gh.A.Hassoun, June 13, 2020.
- https://www.trtworld.com/magazine/how-new-protests-in-syria-are-pushing-assad-to-the-brink-37257 How new protests in Syria are pushing Assad to the brink], MURAT SOFUOGLU, June 14, 2020.
- Spanish province of La Rioja condemns Caesar Act and the Western sanctions against Syria, Sabbagh, June 14, 2020.
- Al-Jaafari calls for lifting coercive measures on Syria which hinder tackling coronavirus, achieving development, by Ruaa al-Jazaeri, June 3, 2020, sana.sy,
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