Battle of Deir ez-Zor (2014–2017)
From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia
|Battle of Deir ez-Zor|
|Part of the Deir ez-Zor Governorate campaign of the Syrian civil war|
Syrian Republican Guard T-72 tank in Deir ez-Zor
Russia (Sep 2015–Nov 2017)
|Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)|
|Commanders and leaders|
| Issam Zahreddine|
(104th Airborne Brigade)
(17th Division; since July 2016)
(17th Division; until July 2016 & returned Jan. 2017)
Omar al-Alawi (WIA)
(Head of Deir ez-Zor NDF)
(Military Intelligence militia commander)
(Russian forces commander)
Valery Asapov †
(Syrian 5th Corps commander)
| Gulmurod Khalimov †|
(ISIL war minister)
(Emir of Deir ez-Zor)
Abu Khadijah al-Masri †
(ISIL Governor of Deir ez-Zor)
Amer al-Rafdan †
(ISIL leader of Deir ez-Zor)
Abu Hamza al-Ansari †
(ISIL Deir ez-Zor emir)
Abu al Faruq †
(ISIL Deir ez-Zor commander)
Abu Jandal al-Kuwaiti †
(ISIL top commander)
Abu Hadhefah al-Maghrabi †
(ISIL field commander)
| || |
| 4,000–5,000 (Besieged, pro-gov. claim)|
10,000-15,000 (Relief force, Syrian Army claim)
|5,000–15,000 (Syrian Army claim)|
|Casualties and losses|
|460–970+ killed||1,430–1,970+ killed|
|329–500+ civilians killed, ~400 kidnapped|
The Battle of Deir ez-Zor was a large-scale siege imposed by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) against several districts in the city of Deir ez-Zor held by the Syrian Army, in an attempt to capture the city and secure full control of the Deir ez-Zor Governorate. The ISIL siege of the city lasted for almost 3 years and 2 months, after which the Syrian Army launched a successful offensive that fully recaptured the city nine weeks later.
In April 2014, ISIL launched a large-scale offensive against Syrian rebel forces in Deir ez-Zor province. This resulted in the total defeat of rebel groups in the area, and ISIL gained control of almost all of Deir ez-Zor Governorate in July 2014. Syrian Government forces remained besieged in the pocket of territory they continued to control. On 10 September 2017, the siege was fully broken by Government forces. After another two months of fighting, the Syrian Army fully recaptured the ISIL-held parts of Deir ez-Zor city and its environs, by 17 November 2017.
Since the end of 2013, rebel forces surrounded Deir ez-Zor and captured half of the city and almost the entire province. ISIL became increasingly involved in the battle. The following rebel infighting in and near the city resulted in ISIL retreating from Deir ez-Zor in February 2014.
In April 2014, following their defeat at the hands of the rebels, ISIL returned and launched a large-scale offensive against the Syrian rebel groups in the Deir ez-Zor Province, expelling them from the area, and allowing ISIL to gain control of most of the Deir ez-Zor Governorate and besiege the remaining Syrian Government forces, in July 2014.
2014: Offensives and counter-offensives
From early to mid-September 2014, ISIL made several unsuccessful attempts to breach the Deir ez-Zor military air base. During the fighting on 15 September 2014, the Siasiyya Bridge that links the rural countryside and the city was destroyed. It was unclear who destroyed it.
In late October 2014, the Army launched an offensive on the Sakr Island and within days made several advances, capturing 90 percent of the island, with ISIL forces left in control of only its northern part. One month later, the Army resumed its offensive on the island.
In early December 2014, ISIL launched an offensive in the direction of the Deir ez-Zor military air base. During three days of fighting, 68–200 militants and 43–51 soldiers were reported killed. Despite ISIL managing to penetrate the air base, as well as seize the mountain overlooking the city and two nearby villages, the Army eventually pushed ISIL's forces back and repelled the offensive.
2015: The siege continues
By May 2015, fierce back-and-forth fighting raged in the city, with the Syrian Army and ISIL launching a series of attacks and counterattacks against each other. Early that month, ISIL forces captured Sakr Island. Two weeks later, the Syrian Army claimed that it was able to recapture most of it. However, it was confirmed that the island was still under ISIL control. At this point, due to ISIL's capture of the city of Palmyra, rumors started circulating that Syrian Government forces were preparing to abandon Deir ez-Zor.
In September 2015, ISIL started regularly to shell the airbase, severing the air bridge that had supplied the city with food and other goods.
In early November 2015, a new ISIL attack on the airbase was repelled.
2016: ISIL advances
On 16 January 2016, ISIL launched an offensive on Deir ez-Zor. Several assaults were conducted during the day, which included six ISIL suicide bombers in attempts to break into military positions. After a few days of heavy fighting, ISIL overran the Baghiliya and Ayyash neighborhoods, after which pro-government fighters and their families were among those targeted in the seized areas. The Syrian government and state media said that 250–300 people were killed, including some by beheading; the British-based SOHR had differing numbers, reporting 135 fatalities, of which 85 were civilians and 50 soldiers. ISIL also captured an Army weapons depot and seized tanks. SOHR added that ISIL kidnapped about 400 civilians from families of pro-government fighters. Subsequently, ISIL forces captured areas south and west of Baghiliya. Overall, according to SOHR, about 440 people were killed in the five-day ISIL offensive, including: 200 soldiers, 110 ISIL fighters and 127 civilians. 30 of the ISIL militants were suicide-bombers, while 85 civilians and 48 soldiers were executed by ISIL. 42 civilians died in government air-strikes and shelling.
In mid-March 2016, the Army launched an attack toward the Thayyem Oil Fields, south of Deir ez-Zor. On the first day of their assault, government forces captured Tharda Mountain. After four days of fighting, the military managed to capture the oil fields.
Between April and May 2016, back-and-forth fighting took place as ISIL attempted to advance against government troops in the Industrial and al-Sina'ah districts of Deir ez-Zor city. The Army eventually managed to retain their positions.
In June 2016, Hezbollah sent elite reinforcements to help protect the provincial capital of Deir Ezzor. Later on the same month, the Thayyem Oil Fields were once again under ISIL control and the militants were positioned alongside the government-held Tharda Mountain. Late that month, a two-day long ISIL attack on the mountain was repelled. In July 2016, heavy Russian air-strikes against ISIL managed to relieve the pressure on Syrian Army troops stationed on the mountain.
On 17 September 2016, a series of 37 U.S.-led Coalition airstrikes near the Deir ez-Zor Airport, lasting from 3:55 to 4:56 p.m. (Damascus time), killed 90 Syrian Army soldiers and wounded 110 more. The attack triggered "a diplomatic firestorm" with Russia calling a (then rare) emergency United Nations Security Council meeting as well as leading to the Syrian government calling off a nationwide ceasefire that had been the result of months of intense diplomatic efforts by the U.S. and Russian governments. The Syrian Army positions that were struck were on the Tharda Mountain and at a nearby artillery base. The airstrikes led to ISIL capturing the Tharda Mountain. Initially, the US Armed Forces did not outright admit that Coalition planes hit Syrian troops, but later the Coalition admitted their planes and drones carried out the attack. The US stated that they halted the strikes as soon as they became aware of the Syrian Army's presence and regretted the unintentional loss of life.
2017: New assaults on besieged areas
In mid-January 2017, a new ISIL offensive was launched with the aim to cut the road between Deir ez-Zor Airport and the city. After two days of fighting, ISIL succeeded in cutting the road linking the air base to the city, leaving the government enclave split in two. During their advances, ISIL captured multiple positions, including the Sakan al-Jahiziya neighborhood on the highway between the city and Damascus, and a strategic mountain overlooking the city. Back-and-forth fighting continued for one month with the Army unsuccessfully attempting to reopen the supply line between the airport and the city. The clashes left more than 470 dead, including: 241 ISIL militants, 127 soldiers and 105 civilians.
As the siege of Deir ez-Zor intensified, fears rose that ISIL would commit a large massacre if it ever captured the city. ISIL attempts to breach the Army defenses of the Deir ez-Zor Airport continued well into March 2017. Also, late that month, ISIL conducted a tank assault on the government-held Al-Fourat university, located on the N7 Highway leading to the provincial capital. The same day, ISIL seized a large amount of ammunition and weapons that was intended for the Syrian Army but miss-dropped into ISIL territory by the Russian Air Force.
In early April, the Syrian Army made multiple attempts to reopen the supply line between the city and the airport. The fighting was primarily concentrated on the Cemetery Area. Towards the end of May, Army forces were still staving off attacks by ISIL fighters, while 100,000 civilians were surrounded and living without adequate food, services or safety. The UN's World Food Programme, in conjunction with the Syrian government and the Syrian Arab Red Crescent, regularly airdropped food and aid to the encircled pockets. Frequent fighting was also taking place in the Cemetery Area.
On 3 June, ISIL advanced near Deir ez-Zor. Heavy fighting continued the next day for control of two hilltops at the southern entrance to the city. On 5 June, ISIL managed to capture one of the hills, but were forced to withdraw due to heavy airstrikes. Later that night, a new ISIL attack against the Panorama roundabout was launched that was preceded by a suicide car-bomber. ISIL managed to capture several checkpoints near the roundabout, forcing Army units to withdraw to their second line of defense. ISIL attacks against the two hills also continued, but without any gains. The following evening, ISIL made another push but were repelled. Between 9 and 13 June, ISIL conducted waves of attacks on a daily basis, which were ultimately all repelled.
Between 7 and 11 July, a new series of ISIL attacks on Syrian Army positions around the city were repelled. One week later, Syrian Army troops themselves conducted attacks against ISIL positions. At the end of the month, another ISIL attack on Army positions was repelled. At the start of August, after managing to capture a 280 meter long ditch, the Army managed to impose fire-control over ISIL's supply line leading from Tharda Mountain through the Cemetery Area into ISIL-held suburbs of the city. This was followed by several new unsuccessful attempts by ISIL to breach Army lines between 6 and 12 August.
Summer 2017: Breaking the siege
During May and June 2017, the Syrian Arab Army established control over most of the southern part of Raqqa province, as well as the Eastern Qalamoun Mountains. In mid-July, Syrian forces launched a campaign in Central Syria targeting ISIL strongholds in the provinces of Homs and Hama. On 27 August, the Army launched a major offensive along the Sukhnah-Deir ez-Zor highway. The next day, the Army, with the help of Russian air strikes, came within 66 kilometers of the surrounded city. In the morning of 29 August, the Syrian forces launched a surprise attack in the western part of Deir ez-Zor, targeting ISIL's positions in the strategic Panorama area. On 31 August, the Syrian Arab Army established full control over the strategic mountain of Bishiri, west of Deir ez-Zor city. The offensive was accompanied by Russian air strikes on ISIL positions. Syrian and Russian aviation carried out a joint air attack on an ISIL command center in the al-Rashdiyah district of Deir Ezzor. By 31 August, the Syrian Army, headed by elite Tiger Forces, had advanced to within 50 kilometers of Deir ez-Zor from Sukhna in the east.
During the first days of September 2017, the Syrian Army and its allies had reached the 137th Brigade base and were battling to reach the troops besieged inside. It was later reported that they had come within 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) of reaching the nearest Army positions around the base. The siege was broken on 5 September 2017, at around 14:00 local time, when government forces met with elements of the 137th Brigade. The Deir ez-Zor airport continued to be besieged until it was relieved four days later, on 9 September.
The breaking of the ISIL siege of the city was met with scenes of celebration as civilians exchanged congratulations and fired celebratory gunshots into the air. According to one resident, people would "prefer the regime over Daesh" in the hopes that breaking of the siege could mean the gradual return of life to Deir ez-Zor, and along with it basic supplies.
Aftermath – Battle for Deir ez-Zor city
On 14 September 2017, the Syrian Army launched an offensive to recapture the remaining ISIL-held districts of Deir ez-Zor city, capturing the district of Al-Baghiliyah. On 17 October, the Syrian Army secured a perimeter surrounding the ISIL-controlled half of the city, encircling the remaining ISIL forces in eastern Deir ez-Zor. Subsequently, the Syrian Army launched an operation to recapture the entire city from ISIL. On 3 November 2017, the Syrian Army fully recaptured Deir ez-Zor city and its surroundings from ISIL. On 17 November, Syrian Government forces captured Hawijat Kati Island, to the north of Deir ez-Zor city, fully bringing the rest of Deir ez-Zor and its outskirts under their control.
Impact on civilians
During the siege, ISIL cut off the power supply to the city. In February 2016, around 200,000 people resided in Deir ez-Zor. The siege resulted in widespread malnutrition and starvation of the civilians in the city. In response, the United Nations' World Food Programme has conducted 177 airdrops of food and other humanitarian aid to the besieged districts of the city since April 2016. 110,000–120,000 civilians remained as of January 2017, when an ISIL offensive on the airport forced the airdrops to be suspended. In November 2017, the UN estimated that at the start of the siege, around 200,000 civilians were besieged in the Syrian Government-held districts of Deir ez-Zor, which decreased to 90,000 near the end of the siege, with most of those civilians escaping or being smuggled out of the city during ISIL's siege.
As a result of the cut in electricity, only one electric generator-powered water pump was available, and the water was not treated. The Syrian Arab Red Crescent has installed several water tanks in response.
Between February 2015 and March 2016, more than 63 civilians were killed by ISIL bombardment on government-held neighbourhoods in Deir ez-Zor, in addition to 32 civilians who died of malnutrition and related diseases.
- Battle of Damascus (2012)
- Battle of Aleppo (2012–2016)
- Siege of Nubl and al-Zahraa
- Deir ez-Zor clashes
- 2014 Eastern Syria offensive
- Siege of al-Fu'ah and Kafriya
- Palmyra offensive (May 2015)
- Palmyra offensive (March 2016)
- Palmyra offensive (December 2016)
- Palmyra offensive (2017)
- Siege of Kobanî
- Raqqa campaign (2016–2017)
- The Qalamoun Shield Forces in Deir ez-Zor were eventually fully incorporated into the Republican Guard's 104th Brigade.
- Fadel, Leith (18 June 2016). "Hezbollah sends elite forces to Deir Ezzor". Al-Masdar News.
- "Syrian army, allies break Islamic State siege in eastern city". 5 September 2017 – via www.reuters.com.
- "Syria war: Army breaks IS siege of Deir al-Zour". 5 September 2017.
- "Breaking: Syrian Army lifts the siege on Deir Ezzor". 5 September 2017.
- "Syria war: Army breaks IS siege of Deir al-Zour". 5 September 2017 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- Leith Fadel (9 December 2014). "Syrian Army Downs an ISIS Drone at Deir Ezzor Military Airport". Al-Masdar News.
- Fadel, Leith (14 July 2016). "Syrian Army replaces top commander in east Syria".
- Leith Fadel (18 January 2017). "High-ranking Syrian general arrives in Deir Ezzor". Al-Masdar News.
- Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (4 February 2019). "The Arab Socialist Movement: Interview". Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (3 September 2016). "Quwat Dir' Al-Amn Al-Askari: A Latakia Military Intelligence Militia". Syria Comment. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
- "ISIS shell kills Russian commander of Syrian Euphrates crossing". Debkafile.
- "Russia says general killed in Syria held senior post in Assad's army". 27 September 2017. Retrieved 2 October 2017 – via Reuters.
- "IS 'minister of war' killed in Syria air attack, claims Russia". Middle East Eye. 8 September 2017. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
- "ISIS governor of Deir ez-Zor killed in fighting with Syrian army troops". ARA News. 23 March 2016.
- Abdallah Suleiman Ali (31 March 2014). "War between ISIS, Jabhat al-Nusra splits Deir Ez-Zor tribes". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
- Leith Fadel (2 September 2014). "The Battle for Deir ez-Zor Military Airport is Under Way; Scores of Islamic State Militants Killed". al-Masdar News. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
- "Two Islamic State leaders killed in Syria air strike - Observatory". Reuters. 13 July 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
- Leith Fadel (17 January 2016). "Top ISIS commander in Deir Ezzor killed by the Syrian Army". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
- sohranas. "Islamic State appoints a new Wali for the city of Deir Ezzor". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- "Romain Caillet on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
- "IS members arrested in Kuwait, warrants issued for others – Suspects accused of funding, promoting, fighting with radical group". Kuwait Times. 17 September 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
- "ISIS offensive in northwestern Deir Ezzor fails again". Al-Masdar. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
- Kheder Khaddour (5 November 2018). "Syria's Troublesome Militias". Carnegie. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (18 March 2021). "The Qamr Bani Hashim Division". Retrieved 20 June 2021.
- Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (2 April 2017). "Quwat Muqatili al-Asha'ir: Tribal Auxiliary Forces of the Military Intelligence". Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- Leith Fadel (15 May 2017). "Pro-government Assyrian forces arrive in Deir Ezzor for offensive". al-Masdar News. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
- "Sectarian militias brought by the regime to fight in Deir al-Zour". El-Dorar Al-Shamia. 15 May 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
- Fadel, Leith. Syrian Army, Hezbollah plan to liberate Deir Ezzor after Palmyra. Al-Masdar News. 12 March 2016.
- Republican Guard reinforcements arrive in Palmyra to aid Deir Ezzor liberation offensive, Al-Masdar News
- Antonopoulos, Paul (16 January 2017). "ISIS successfully splits Deir Ezzor enclave in two".
- "Deir Ezzor: ISIS Suffers Significant Losses Near the Military Airport". 6 December 2014.
- "111 killed in 3 days of violent clashes between regime forces and ISIS in Der-Ezzor • The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights". 6 December 2014.
- "About 440 killed and executed during the past 5 days in Der-Ezzor • The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights". 21 January 2016.
- "164 killed yesterday 17/09/2016 • The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights". 18 September 2016.
- "US Coalition knew they were bombing the Syrian Army in Deir Ezzor". 27 September 2016.
- [bare URL]
- 20–60 killed (2–3 Sep 2014), 29 killed (13–15 Sep 2014), 175 killed (22–25 Oct 2014), 44 killed (28 Oct 2014), 51 killed (29–31 Oct 2014), 640 killed (17–20 Nov 2014), 17 killed (24–28 Nov 2014), 68–200 killed (3–6 Dec 2014), 110 killed (16–21 Jan 2016), 241–500 killed (14 Jan–14 Feb 2017), total of 830–1,269 reported killed
- "Islamic State abducts 400 civilians in Syria, monitor says". SMH. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- "About 440 killed and executed during the past 5 days in Der-Ezzor". Retrieved 21 January 2016.
- Kamal Sheikho (6 May 2016). "After Madaya, Deir ez-Zor now faces humanitarian catastrophe". Al-Monitor.
- "أكثر من 470 مدني وعنصر استشهدوا وقتلوا خلال أول شهر من الهجوم الأعنف على دير الزور وقوات النظام تفشل في التقدم وفك الحصارين عنها".
- "Islamic State expels rivals from Syria's Deir al-Zor – activists". Reuters. 14 July 2014. Archived from the original on 24 July 2014.
- "Syrian Army liberates important Deir Ezzor district in Euphrates River Valley". AMN - Al-Masdar News | المصدر نيوز. 14 September 2017. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
- "Isis dealt twin blows with loss of Deir ez-Zor and key Iraq border post". TheGuardian. 3 November 2017. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
- "ISIS mass surrenders large Deir Ezzor island, 250+ terrorists captured". AMN News. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- Fadel, Leith (3 September 2014). "Deir ez-Zor Erupts in Violence; Firefights Ongoing at the Deir ez-Zor Military Airport". Retrieved 5 March 2017.
- Fadel, Leith (15 September 2014). "ISIS Halts Offensive at Deir Ezzor Military Airport; Siasiyya Bridge Destroyed". Retrieved 5 March 2017.
- Fadel, Leith (25 October 2014). "Over 175 ISIS Fighters Killed in Deir Ezzor; SAA Advances at Sakr Island". Retrieved 5 March 2017.
- Fadel, Leith (31 October 2014). "ISIS Suffers Heavy Casualties in Deir Ezzor; Syrian Army Destroys 2 Tunnels". Retrieved 5 March 2017.
- Fadel, Leith (28 November 2014). "Deir Ezzor: The Republican Guard Continues Their Offensive at Sakr Island". Retrieved 5 March 2017.
- "Regime forces use Chlorine gas to stop ISIS advances in Der-Ezzor military airport". SOHR. 6 December 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- "Deir Ezzor: ISIS Suffers Significant Losses Near the Military Airport". Al-Masdar. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- "111 killed in 3 days of violent clashes between regime forces and ISIS in Der-Ezzor". SOHR. 6 December 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- "ISIS seizes part of Syria's Deir Ezzor air base: monitor". 6 December 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- "ISIS takes control on al-Jafra village and kills no less than 30 soldiers in regime forces". SOHR. 5 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
- "Elijah J. Magnier on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- "Syrian army regains control of Deir ez-Zor airport". Al-Monitor. 9 December 2014.
- "420 days of siege laid on Deir Ezzor: The De Facto Reality of the Besieged Neighborhoods with Numbers" (PDF). Justice for Life Observatory in Deir Ezzor. February 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2017.
- "Syria regime prepares Deir Ezzor evacuation".
- Fadel, Leith (18 May 2015). "Syrian Army Asserts Fire-Control Over Sakr Island in Deir Ezzor".
- "After Palmyra: Military and Economic Targets of the Islamic State". Carnegie Middle East Center.
- "Agathocle de Syracuse - Syria areas of control (1 June 2015)". www.agathocledesyracuse.com.
- "Pivotal point in eastern Syria as Assad breaks key Islamic State siege". The New Humanitarian. 4 September 2017.
- "Islamic State kills dozens in Syria's Deir al-Zor city". 17 January 2016 – via Reuters.
- "Islamic State kills dozens in Syria's Deir al-Zor city - monitor and a source". Reuters. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- "Syria conflict: Conflicting accounts of Deir al-Zour attack". BBC News. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- "Deir Ezzor: Hundreds may be dead after ISIS abductions - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "ISIS Captures Government-Held Ground in Eastern Syria". The New York Times. 19 January 2016.
- Fadel, Leith (15 March 2016). "Syrian Army liberates Jabal Thardeh and advances to Thayyem Oil Fields in Deir Ezzor".
- Fadel, Leith (19 March 2016). "Syrian Army liberates the Thayyem Oil Fields in Deir Ezzor".
- Tomson, Chris (3 May 2016). "Syrian Army turns the tables on ISIS in Deir Ezzor - Map update".
- Fadel, Leith (22 June 2016). "ISIS suffers over 20 casualties in failed Deir Ezzor offensive".
- Fadel, Leith (24 June 2016). "Syrian Army liberates Jabal Thardeh in Deir Ezzor after failed ISIS offensive".
- Fadel, Leith (7 December 2016). "Russian jets pulverize ISIS positions inside Deir Ezzor".
- Fadel, Leith (25 July 2016). "Russian airstrikes crush ISIL's hopes in southwest Deir Ezzor".
- Steve Almasy; Barbara Starr; Richard Roth. "Russia: Coalition strike kills Syrian forces". CNN. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
- Richard Coe; et al. (2 November 2016). "Memorandum for USAFCENT/CC" (PDF).
- "Syria ceasefire under threat after US-led strikes kill regime troops, Russia says". CNN. 18 September 2016. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
- Leith Fadel (19 September 2016). "[Breaking] Syrian Army command declares ceasefire over". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
- "News, Sports, Jobs - News and Sentinel". www.newsandsentinel.com.
- Charkatli, Izat (18 September 2016). "Video: ISIS militants cheer atop Syrian soldiers killed by US air strikes". almasdarnews.com. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
- Yuhas, Alan; agencies (17 September 2016). "UN security council to hold emergency meeting on US air strikes in Syria". Retrieved 18 September 2016 – via The Guardian.
- "Syria conflict: US air strikes 'kill dozens of government troops'". 18 September 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2016 – via www.bbc.com.
- Youssef, Nancy A. (18 September 2016). "U.S. Admits It Bombed Syrian Troops". thedailybeast.com. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
- "Islamic State assault on east Syria city of Deir Ezzor leaves 30 dead". Middle East Eye. 14 January 2017. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- Josie Ensor (16 January 2017). "Islamic State launches major offensive to take Syrian city". The Telegraph. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- Raydan, Noam; Alakraa, Nour (17 January 2017). "Islamic State Gains in Remote Syria Outpost" – via Wall Street Journal.
- "ISIS captures new areas in Deir ez-Zor amidst Syrian Army retreat". ARA News. 14 January 2017. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- "The "Islamic State" organization controls a mountain overlooks Deir Ezzor city and gets closer to cutting its airbase's supply • The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights". 15 January 2017.
- "Residents of Syria's Deir ez-Zor fear IS massacre". 24 February 2017.
- Tomson, Chris (16 March 2017). "Islamic State launches fresh suicidal attacks on Deir Ezzor Airbase - Map update".
- Fadel, Leith (17 March 2017). "ISIS suffers heavy losses in failed Deir Ezzor offensive".
- Tomson, Chris (25 March 2017). "VIDEO: ISIS attacks Deir Ezzor university, seizes Syrian Army weapons stockpile".
- Tomson, Chris (5 April 2017). "Syrian Army inches from lifting ISIS siege on Deir Ezzor Airbase - full report".
- Fadel, Leith (6 April 2017). "Deir Ezzor Airport siege nears its end as Syrian Army troops liberate several points".
- Adra, Zen (11 April 2017). "In Video: Syrian Army fights back ISIS in Deir Ezzor".
- "'I don't know how we are still alive': In Deir e-Zor city, regime districts survive on airdropped rations while surrounded by Islamic State". Syria Direct. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "The "Islamic State" organization advance in the vicinity of Deir Ezzor city and aerial bombardment on the countryside of Homs". syriahr.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "Battle for Deir Ezzor reaches tipping point as ISIL breaks through Syrian Army lines". almasdarnews.com. 5 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "Deir Ezzor update: Syrian Army holds strong amid a massive push by ISIL". almasdarnews.com. 5 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "ISIL's late night assault endangers key Deir Ezzor base". almasdarnews.com. 6 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "Battle for Deir Ezzor reaches critical stages as ISIL makes another push". almasdarnews.com. 7 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "ISIL terrorists litter battlefield in Deir Ezzor as Syrian Army troops hold strong". almasdarnews.com. 10 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "In pictures: ISIS throws all its military power against the Syrian Army in besieged Deir Ezzor". almasdarnews.com. 11 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "VIDEO: Syrian Army fights off second day of massive ISIS attack in Deir Ezzor". almasdarnews.com. 13 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "Syrian Army, Russian Air Force spoil ISIS plans to overrun Deir Ezzor city". almasdarnews.com. 14 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "ISIL takes a huge hit in Deir Ezzor after another desperate offensive". 7 July 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- "ISIL suffers heavy casualties in another daring Deir Ezzor offensive". 9 July 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- "Syrian Army makes ISIS pay heavy price for upholding Deir Ezzor siege". 11 July 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- "Syrian Army strikes back against ISIL in Deir Ezzor". 19 July 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- "Syrian forces deliver powerful blow to ISIL terrorists in Deir Ezzor". 28 July 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- "ISIS trapped in Deir Ezzor death zone after Syrian Army cuts jihadist supply line - Map update". 1 August 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- "Syrian Army cuts off key ISIL supply line in Deir Ezzor". 3 August 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- "In pictures: ISIS kicks off do-or-die offensive to capture Deir Ezzor city". 6 August 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- "ISIS launches failed offensive in Deir Ezzor after losing key stronghold in east Homs". 7 August 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- "ISIL suffers heavy casualties in failed Deir Ezzor assault". 12 August 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- "New offensive puts the Syrian Army 66km away from lifting the siege on Deir Ezzor". 29 August 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- "Syrian Army launches surprise assault in Deir Ezzor, liberates large area". 29 August 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- "Syrian Army takes over strategic mountain en route to Deir Ezzor". 31 August 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- "VIDEO: Syrian airpower flattens ISIS command base in Deir Ezzor". 31 August 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- "BREAKING: Syrian forces within 50 km of Deir Ezzor city". 31 August 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- "Syria army nears city besieged by Daesh". Agence-France Presse. Geo TV.
- "BREAKING: Syrian Army now 3 km from ending Deir Ezzor siege". Al-Masdar News.
- "Syrian army breaks three-year siege of Deir ez-Zor". www.teletrader.com.
- "Syrian army, allies reach airbase besieged by Islamic State in eastern Syria: commander". 9 September 2017 – via www.reuters.com.
- "Regime 'breaks' three-year Islamic State siege of Deir e-Zor city: SAA source".
- "Deir Ezzor update: Syrian Army advances along western bank of Euphrates River". AMN - Al-Masdar News | المصدر نيوز. 14 September 2017. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
- "Syrian Army liberates three districts in Deir Ezzor City". Al-Masdar news. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
- "Breaking of Islamic State siege on Deir al-Zour supports Russian and Iranian strategic objectives in eastern Syria". Janes 360. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
- "After an undisclosed agreement, the regime forces imposes their control over Hwyjet Katea' and tens of ISIS members surrender, the fate of about 150 civilians in it is unknown • The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights". 17 November 2017.
- Conal Urquhart (11 June 2015). "Besieged by ISIS: Photographs From Inside the Syrian City of Deir ez-Zor". Time.
- "Syria's forgotten war: The silent slaughter of Deir Ezzor". Middle East Eye. 18 February 2016.
- "Syria: Heavy fighting forces UN food relief agency to suspend airdrops in Deir ez-Zor". United Nations. 17 January 2017.
- Anne Barnard and Margaret Coker (3 November 2017). "ISIS, Squeezed on Two Sides, Loses Syrian City and Border Crossing". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 November 2017.