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Sir Roger Scruton
Roger Vernon Scruton
27 February 1944
|Residence||Brinkworth, Wiltshire, England|
|Education||BA (philosophy, 1962–1965),[a] PhD (aesthetics, 1967–1972), Jesus College, Cambridge|
|Known for||Traditionalist conservatism|
|The Meaning of Conservatism (1980); Sexual Desire (1986); The Aesthetics of Music (1997); How to Be a Conservative (2014)|
|Television||Why Beauty Matters (BBC Two, 2009)|
|Parent(s)||John Scruton; Beryl Claris Scruton (née Haynes)|
|Awards||Medal of Merit (First Class) of the Czech Republic, October 1998|
|Aesthetics, political philosophy, ethics|
Sir Roger Vernon Scruton FBA FRSL (//; born 27 February 1944) is an English philosopher and writer who specialises in aesthetics and political philosophy, particularly in the furtherance of traditionalist conservative views.
Editor from 1982 to 2001 of The Salisbury Review, a conservative political journal, Scruton has written over 50 books on philosophy, art, music, politics, literature, culture, sexuality, and religion; he has also written novels and two operas. His most notable publications include The Meaning of Conservatism (1980), Sexual Desire (1986), The Aesthetics of Music (1997), and How to Be a Conservative (2014). He has been a regular contributor to the popular media, including The Times, The Spectator, and the New Statesman.
Scruton embraced conservatism after witnessing the May 1968 student protests in France. From 1971 to 1992 he was a lecturer and professor of aesthetics at Birkbeck College, London, after which he held several part-time academic positions at the University of Oxford, the University of St Andrews, as well as the position of Senior Fellow at the Ethics and Public Policy Center in the United States. He became known in the 1980s for helping to establish underground academic networks in Soviet-controlled Eastern Europe, for which he was awarded the Czech Republic's Medal of Merit (First Class) by President Václav Havel in 1998.
- 1 Early life
- 2 1970s–1980s
- 3 1990s–2000s
- 4 2010s: Academic posts, knighthood
- 5 Philosophical and political views
- 6 Selected works
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
Scruton was born in Buslingthorpe, Lincolnshire to John "Jack" Scruton, a teacher from Manchester, and his wife, Beryl Claris Scruton (née Haynes), and was raised with his two sisters in Marlow and High Wycombe. The Scruton surname had been acquired relatively recently. Jack's father's birth certificate showed him as Matthew Lowe, after Matthew's mother, Margaret Lowe (Scruton's great grandmother); the document made no mention of a father. However, Margaret had decided, for reasons unknown, to raise her son as Matthew Scruton instead. Scruton wondered whether she had been employed at the former Scruton Hall in Scruton, Yorkshire, and whether that was where her child had been conceived.
Jack was raised in a back-to-back on Upper Cyrus Street, Ancoats, an inner-city area of Manchester, and won a scholarship to Manchester High School, a grammar school. Scruton told The Guardian that Jack hated the upper classes and loved the countryside, while Beryl was fond of romantic fiction and entertaining "blue-rinsed friends". He described his mother as "cherishing an ideal of gentlemanly conduct and social distinction that ... [his] father set out with considerable relish to destroy".
Scruton lived with his parents, two sisters, and Sam the dog, in a pebbledashed semi-detached house in Hammersley Lane, High Wycombe. Although his parents had been brought up as Christians, they regarded themselves as humanists, so home was a "religion-free zone". Scruton's, indeed the whole family's, relationship with his father was difficult. He wrote in Gentle Regrets: "Friends come and go, hobbies and holidays dabble the soulscape like fleeting sunlight in a summer wind, and the hunger for affection is cut off at every point by the fear of judgement."
After passing his 11-plus, he attended the Royal Grammar School High Wycombe from 1954 to 1962. He left school with three A-levels, in pure and applied mathematics, physics and chemistry, which he passed with distinction. The results won him an open scholarship in natural sciences to Jesus College, Cambridge, as well as a state scholarship. Scruton writes that he was expelled from the school shortly afterwards, when the headmaster found the school stage on fire, and a half-naked girl putting out the flames, during one of Scruton's plays. When he told his family he had won a place at Cambridge, his father stopped speaking to him.
Having intended to study natural sciences at Cambridge—where he felt "although socially estranged (like virtually every grammar-school boy), spiritually at home"—Scruton switched on the first day to moral sciences (philosophy). He graduated in 1965, then spent time overseas, some of it teaching at the University of Pau and Pays de l'Adour in Pau, France, where he met his first wife, Danielle Laffitte.
In 1967 he began studying for his PhD at Jesus, then became a research fellow at Peterhouse, Cambridge (1969–1971), where he lived with Laffitte when she was not in France. It was while visiting her during the May 1968 student protests in France that Scruton first embraced conservatism. He was in the Latin Quarter in Paris, watching students overturn cars, smash windows and tear up cobblestones, and for the first time in his life "felt a surge of political anger":
I suddenly realised I was on the other side. What I saw was an unruly mob of self-indulgent middle-class hooligans. When I asked my friends what they wanted, what were they trying to achieve, all I got back was this ludicrous Marxist gobbledegook. I was disgusted by it, and thought there must be a way back to the defence of western civilization against these things. That's when I became a conservative. I knew I wanted to conserve things rather than pull them down.
Birkbeck, first marriage
Scruton was awarded his PhD in January 1973 for a thesis entitled "Art and imagination, a study in the philosophy of mind", supervised by Michael Tanner and Elizabeth Anscombe. The thesis was the basis of his first book, Art and Imagination (1974), which was followed by The Aesthetics of Architecture (1979). From 1971 he taught philosophy at Birkbeck College, London, a college that specializes in adult education and holds its classes in the evening. Laffitte taught French at Putney High School, and they lived together in a Harley Street apartment previously occupied by Delia Smith. The couple married in 1972 but divorced in 1979.
Working at Birkbeck left Scruton's days free, so he used the time to study law at the Inns of Court School of Law (1974–1976) and was called to the Bar in 1978; he never practised because he was unable to take a year off work to complete a pupillage.
Birkbeck was known for its embrace of left-wing politics. Scruton has said he was the only conservative there, except for the woman who served meals in the Senior Common Room. In 1974, along with Hugh Fraser, Jonathan Aitken and John Casey, he became a founding member of the Conservative Philosophy Group dining club, which aimed to develop an intellectual basis for conservatism. The historian Hugh Thomas and the philosopher Anthony Quinton attended meetings, as did Margaret Thatcher before she became prime minister. She reportedly said during one meeting in 1975: "The other side have got an ideology they can test their policies against. We must have one as well."
Scruton's academic career at Birkbeck was blighted by his conservatism, particularly by his third book, The Meaning of Conservatism (1980), and later by his editorship of the conservative Salisbury Review. He told The Guardian that his colleagues at Birkbeck vilified him over the book. The Marxist philosopher G. A. Cohen of University College London reportedly refused to teach a seminar with Scruton, although they later became friends. He continued teaching at Birkbeck until 1992, first as a lecturer, by 1980 as reader, and then as professor of aesthetics.
The Salisbury Review
In 1982 Scruton became founding editor of The Salisbury Review, a journal championing traditional conservatism in opposition to Thatcherism, which he edited until 2001. The Review was set up by a group of Tories known as the Salisbury Group—founded in 1978 by Diana Spearman and Robert Gascoyne-Cecil—with the involvement of the Peterhouse Right. The latter were conservatives associated with the Cambridge college, including Maurice Cowling, David Watkin and the mathematician Adrian Mathias.
Scruton wrote that editing The Salisbury Review effectively ended his academic career in the United Kingdom. The magazine sought to provide an intellectual basis for conservatism, and was highly critical of key issues of the period, including the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, egalitarianism, feminism, foreign aid, multiculturalism and modernism. To begin with, Scruton had to write most of the articles himself, using pseudonyms: "I had to make it look as though there was something there in order that there should be something there!" He believes that the Review "helped a new generation of conservative intellectuals to emerge. At last it was possible to be a conservative and also to the left of something, to say 'Of course, the Salisbury Review is beyond the pale; but ...'"
In 1984 the Review published a controversial article by Ray Honeyford, a headmaster in Bradford, questioning the benefits of multicultural education. Honeyford was forced to retire because of the article and had to live for a time under police protection. The British Association for the Advancement of Science accused the Review of scientific racism, and the University of Glasgow philosophy department boycotted a talk Scruton had been invited to deliver to its philosophy society. Scruton believed that the incidents made his position as a university professor untenable, although he also maintained that "it was worth sacrificing your chances of becoming a fellow of the British Academy, a vice-chancellor or an emeritus professor for the sheer relief of uttering the truth". (Scruton was in fact elected a fellow of the British Academy in 2008). In 2002 he described the effect of the editorship on his life:
It cost me many thousand hours of unpaid labour, a hideous character assassination in Private Eye, three lawsuits, two interrogations, one expulsion, the loss of a university career in Britain, unendingly contemptuous reviews, Tory suspicion, and the hatred of decent liberals everywhere. And it was worth it.
The 1980s established Scruton as a prolific writer. Thirteen of his non-fiction works appeared between 1980 and 1989, as did first novel, Fortnight's Anger (1981). The most contentious publication was Thinkers of the New Left (1985), a collection of his essays from The Salisbury Review, which criticized 14 prominent intellectuals, including E. P. Thompson, Michel Foucault and Jean-Paul Sartre.[b] According to The Guardian, the book was remaindered after being greeted with "derision and outrage". Scruton said he became very depressed by the criticism. In 1987 he founded his own publisher, The Claridge Press, which he sold to the Continuum International Publishing Group in 2002.
From 1983 to 1986 he wrote a weekly column for The Times. Topics included music, wine and motorbike repair, but others were contentious. The features editor, Peter Stothard, said that no one he had ever commissioned had "provoked more rage". Scruton made fun of anti-racism and the peace movement, and his support for Margaret Thatcher while she was prime minister was regarded, he wrote, as an "act of betrayal for a university teacher". His first column, "The Virtue of Irrelevance", argued that universities were destroying education "by making it relevant": "Replace pure by applied mathematics, logic by computer programming, architecture by engineering, history by sociology: the result will be a new generation of well-informed philistines, whose charmlessness will undo every advantage which their learning might otherwise have conferred." Scruton was also one of the rare individuals to call for a resumption of covert CIA funding of intellectual and cultural activities, deploring in 1985 the fact that "the CIA is now utterly intimidated, refusing to engage even in its most honorable occupation--the support of those publications which tell the truth about the modern world."
Activism in Central Europe
From 1979 to 1989, Scruton was an active supporter of dissidents in Czechoslovakia under Communist Party rule, forging links between the country's dissident academics and their counterparts in Western universities. As part of the Jan Hus Educational Foundation, he and other academics visited Prague and Brno, now in the Czech Republic, in support of an underground education network started by the Czech dissident Julius Tomin, smuggling in books, organizing lectures, and eventually arranging for students to study for a Cambridge external degree in theology (the only faculty that responded to the request for help). There were structured courses, samizdat translations, books were printed, and people sat exams in a cellar with papers smuggled out through the diplomatic bag.
Scruton was detained in 1985 in Brno before being expelled from the country. The Czech dissident Bronislava Müllerová watched him walk across the border with Austria: "There was this broad empty space between the two border posts, absolutely empty, not a single human being in sight except for one soldier, and across that broad empty space trudged an English philosopher, Roger Scruton, with his little bag into Austria." On 17 June that year, he was placed on the Index of Undesirable Persons. He writes that he was also followed during visits to Poland and Hungary.
For his work in supporting dissidents, Scruton was awarded the First of June Prize in 1993 by the Czech city of Plzeň, and in 1998 he was awarded the Czech Republic's Medal of Merit (First Class) by President Václav Havel. Scruton has been strongly critical of figures in the West—in particular Eric Hobsbawm—who "chose to exonerate" former communist regimes' crimes and atrocities. His experience of dissident intellectual life in 1980s Communist Prague is recorded in fictional form in his novel Notes from Underground (2014).
Farm purchase, second marriage
Scruton took a year's sabbatical from Birkbeck in 1990 and spent it working in Brno in the Czech Republic. That year he registered Central European Consulting, established to offer business advice in post-communist Central Europe. He had been living in an apartment in Notting Hill Gate, which he sold, and when he returned to England rented a cottage in Stanton Fitzwarren, Swindon, from the Moonies and an apartment in the Albany building on Piccadilly, London, from Alan Clark (it had been Clark's servants' quarters).
From 1992 to 1995 he lived in Boston, Massachusetts, teaching an elementary philosophy course and a graduate course on the philosophy of music for one semester a year, as professor of philosophy at Boston University. Two of his books grew out of these courses: Modern Philosophy: An Introduction and Survey (1994) and The Aesthetics of Music (1997). In 1993 he bought Sunday Hill Farm in Brinkworth, Wiltshire—35 acres, later increased to 100, and a 250-year-old farmhouse—where he lived after returning from the United States.
While in Boston, Scruton had flown back to England every weekend to indulge his passion for fox hunting, and it was during a meet of the Beaufort Hunt that he met Sophie Jeffreys, an architectural historian. They married in 1996 and set up home on Sunday Hill Farm. Their two children were born in 1998 and 2000. Scruton set up Horsells Farm Enterprises Ltd in 1999, a PR firm that included Japan Tobacco International and Somerfield Stores as clients. He and his publisher were successfully sued for libel that year by the Pet Shop Boys for suggesting that their songs were in large part the work of sound engineers; the group settled for undisclosed damages.
Tobacco company funding
Scruton was criticized in 2002 for having written articles about smoking without disclosing that he was receiving a regular fee from Japan Tobacco International (JTI) (formerly R. J. Reynolds). In 1999 he and his wife—as part of their consultancy work for Horshells Farm Enterprises—began producing a quarterly briefing paper, The Risk of Freedom Briefing (1999–2007), about the state's control of risk. Distributed to journalists, the paper included discussions about drugs, alcohol and tobacco, and was sponsored by JTI. Scruton wrote several articles in defence of smoking around this time, including one for The Times, three for The Wall Street Journal, one for City Journal, and a 65-page pamphlet for the Institute of Economic Affairs, WHO, What, and Why: Trans-national Government, Legitimacy and the World Health Organisation (2000). The latter criticized the World Health Organization's campaign against smoking, arguing that transnational bodies should not seek to influence domestic legislation because they are not answerable to the electorate.
The Guardian reported in 2002 that Scruton had been writing about these issues while failing to disclose that he was receiving £54,000 a year from JTI. The payments came to light when a September 2001 email from the Scrutons to JTI was leaked to The Guardian. Signed by Scruton's wife, it asked the company to increase their £4,500 monthly fee to £5,500, in exchange for which Scruton would "aim to place an article every two months" in The Wall Street Journal, Times, Telegraph, Spectator, Financial Times, Economist, Independent or New Statesman. Scruton, who said the email had been stolen, replied that he had never concealed his connection with JTI. In response to The Guardian article, The Financial Times ended his contract as a columnist, The Wall Street Journal suspended his contributions, and the Institute for Economic Affairs said it would introduce an author-declaration policy. Chatto & Windus withdrew from negotiations for a book, and Birkbeck removed his visiting-professor privileges.
Move to the United States
The tobacco controversy damaged Scruton's consultancy business in England. In part because of that, and because the Hunting Act 2004 had banned fox hunting in England and Wales, the Scrutons considered moving to the United States permanently, and in 2004 they purchased Montpelier, an 18th-century plantation house near Sperryville, Virginia. Scruton set up a company, Montpelier Strategy LLC, to promote the house as a venue for weddings and similar. The couple lived there while retaining Sunday Hill Farm, but decided in 2009 against a permanent move to the United States and sold the house.
Scruton held several part-time academic positions during this period. From 2005 to 2009 he was research professor at the Institute for the Psychological Sciences in Arlington, Virginia, a graduate school of Divine Mercy University, and in 2009 he worked at the American Enterprise Institute in Washington, D.C., where he wrote his book Green Philosophy (2011).
From 2001 to 2009 Scruton wrote a wine column for the New Statesman, and made contributions to The World of Fine Wine and Questions of Taste: The Philosophy of Wine (2007), with his essay "The Philosophy of Wine". His book I Drink Therefore I am: A Philosopher's Guide to Wine (2009) in part comprises material from his New Statesman column.
Scruton has also written three libretti, two set to music. The first is a one-act chamber, The Minister, and the second a two-act opera, Violet. The latter, based on the life of the British harpsichordist Violet Gordon-Woodhouse, was performed twice at the Guildhall School of Music in London in 2005.
2010s: Academic posts, knighthood
The Scrutons returned from the United States to make their home again at Sunday Hill Farm in Wiltshire. Scruton took an unpaid research professorship at Buckingham University, and in 2010 was awarded an unpaid visiting professorship at the University of Oxford to teach graduate classes on aesthetics. He is a senior research fellow at Blackfriars Hall, Oxford. In 2010 he delivered the Scottish Gifford Lectures at the University of St Andrews on "The Face of God", and the following year he took up a quarter-time professorial fellowship at St Andrews in moral philosophy.
Two novels appeared during this period: Notes from Underground (2014) is based on his experiences in Czechoslovakia and The Disappeared (2015) deals with child trafficking in a Yorkshire town. Scruton was knighted in the 2016 Birthday Honours for "services to philosophy, teaching and public education". He sits on the editorial board of the British Journal of Aesthetics, and on the board of visitors of Ralston College, and is as well a senior fellow of the Ethics and Public Policy Center.
In November 2018, Scruton was appointed to head the British Government's new Building Better, Building Beautiful commission. The commission was established to "promote better design and style of homes, villages, towns and high streets". Shortly after being appointed to the role, Scruton faced calls to quit because of a number of controversial comments that he had made in the past.
Philosophical and political views
Scruton has specialised in aesthetics throughout his career. From 1971 to 1992 he taught aesthetics at Birkbeck College. His PhD thesis formed the basis of his first book, Art and Imagination (1974), in which he argued that "what demarcates aesthetic interest from other sorts is that it involves the appreciation of something for its own sake".
Since then Scruton has published The Aesthetics of Architecture (1979), The Aesthetic Understanding (1983 and 1997), The Aesthetics of Music (1997), and Beauty (2010). In 2008 a two-day conference was held at Durham University to assess his impact in the field, and in 2012 a collection of essays, Scruton's Aesthetics, was published by Palgrave Macmillan.
In an Intelligence Squared debate in March 2009, Scruton (seconding historian David Starkey) proposed the motion: "Britain has become indifferent to beauty" by holding an image of Botticelli's The Birth of Venus next to one of the supermodel Kate Moss. Later that year Scruton wrote and presented a BBC Two documentary, Why Beauty Matters, in which he argued that beauty should be restored to its traditional position in art, architecture and music. He wrote that he had received "more than 500 e-mails from viewers, all but one saying, 'Thank Heavens someone is saying what needs to be said'".
Scruton has argued that a belief in God makes for more beautiful architecture. He wrote "Who can doubt, on visiting Venice, that this abundant flower of aesthetic endeavour was rooted in faith and watered by penitential tears? Surely, if we want to build settlements today we should heed the lesson of Venice. We should begin with an act of consecration, since we thereby put down the real roots of a community."
Arguments for conservatism
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Scruton is best known for his writing in support of conservatism. His second book, The Meaning of Conservatism (1980)—which he called "a somewhat Hegelian defence of Tory values in the face of their betrayal by the free marketeers"—was responsible, he said, for blighting his academic career.
He wrote in Gentle Regrets (2005) that he found several of Edmund Burke's arguments in Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) persuasive. Although Burke was writing about revolution, not socialism, Scruton was persuaded that, as he put it, the utopian promises of socialism are accompanied by an abstract vision of the mind that bears little relation to the way most people think. Burke also convinced him that there is no direction to history, no moral or spiritual progress; that people think collectively toward a common goal only during crises such as war, and that trying to organize society this way requires a real or imagined enemy; hence, Scruton wrote, the strident tone of socialist literature.
Scruton further argued, following Burke, that society is held together by authority and the rule of law, in the sense of the right to obedience, not by the imagined rights of citizens. Obedience, he wrote, is "the prime virtue of political beings, the disposition that makes it possible to govern them, and without which societies crumble into 'the dust and powder of individuality'". Real freedom, Scruton wrote, does not stand in conflict with obedience, but is its other side. He was also persuaded by Burke's arguments about the social contract, including that most parties to the contract are either dead or not yet born. To forget this, he wrote—to throw away customs and institutions—is to "place the present members of society in a dictatorial dominance over those who went before, and those who came after them".
Scruton argued that beliefs that appear to be examples of prejudice may be useful and important: "our most necessary beliefs may be both unjustified and unjustifiable, from our own perspective, and the attempt to justify them will merely lead to their loss." A prejudice in favour of modesty in women and chivalry in men, for example, may aid the stability of sexual relationships and the raising of children, although these are not offered as reasons in support of the prejudice. It may therefore be easy to show the prejudice as irrational, but there will be a loss nonetheless if it is discarded. Scruton has been critical of the contemporary feminist movement, while reserving praise for suffragists such as Mary Wollstonecraft. However, he has also praised Germaine Greer, saying that she has "cast an awful lot of light on our literary tradition" by showing men as the dominant gender. He also defended her against criticism for using the word "sex" to describe the difference between men and women, rather than "gender", which Scruton called "politically correct". He also refused to use "gender", and instead said "sex".
In Arguments for Conservatism (2006), he marked out the areas in which philosophical thinking is required if conservatism is to be intellectually persuasive. He argued that human beings are creatures of limited and local affections. Territorial loyalty is at the root of all forms of government where law and liberty reign supreme; every expansion of jurisdiction beyond the frontiers of the nation state leads to a decline in accountability.
He opposed elevating the "nation" above its people, which would threaten rather than facilitate citizenship and peace. "Conservatism and conservation" are two aspects of a single policy, that of husbanding resources, including the social capital embodied in laws, customs and institutions, and the material capital contained in the environment. He argued further that the law should not be used as a weapon to advance special interests. People impatient for reform—for example in the areas of euthanasia or abortion—are reluctant to accept what may be "glaringly obvious to others—that the law exists precisely to impede their ambitions".
He defined post-modernism as the claim that there are no grounds for truth, objectivity, and meaning, and therefore conflicts between views are nothing more than contests of power, and argued that, while the West is required to judge other cultures in their own terms, Western culture is adversely judged as ethnocentric and racist. He wrote: "The very reasoning which sets out to destroy the ideas of objective truth and absolute value imposes political correctness as absolutely binding, and cultural relativism as objectively true."
Religion and totalitarianism
Scruton contends, following Immanuel Kant, that human beings have a transcendental dimension, a sacred core exhibited in their capacity for self-reflection. He argues that we are in an era of secularization without precedent in the history of the world; writers and artists such as Rainer Maria Rilke, T. S. Eliot, Edward Hopper and Arnold Schoenberg "devoted much energy to recuperating the experience of the sacred—but as a private rather than a public form of consciousness." Because these thinkers directed their art at the few, he writes, it has never appealed to the many.
He defines totalitarianism as the absence of any constraint on central authority, with every aspect of life the concern of government. Advocates of totalitarianism feed on resentment, Scruton argues, and having seized power they proceed to abolish institutions—such as the law, property, and religion—that create authorities. Scruton writes, "To the resentful it is these institutions that are the cause of inequality, and therefore the cause of their humiliations and failures." He argues that revolutions are not conducted from below by the people, but from above, in the name of the people, by an aspiring elite.
Scruton suggests that the importance of Newspeak in totalitarian societies is that the power of language to describe reality is replaced by language whose purpose is to avoid encounters with realities. He agrees with Alain Besançon that the totalitarian society envisaged by George Orwell in Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949) can be only understood in theological terms, as a society founded on a transcendental negation. In accordance with T. S. Eliot, Scruton believes that true originality is only possible within a tradition, and that it is precisely in modern conditions—conditions of fragmentation, heresy, and unbelief—that the conservative project acquires its sense.
Scruton considers that religion plays a basic function in "endarkening" human minds. "Endarkenment" is Scruton's way of describing the process of socialization through which certain behaviours and choices are closed off and forbidden to the subject, which he considers necessary to curb socially damaging impulses and behaviour. Scruton himself is an Anglican, who authored Our Church: A Personal History of the Church of England, defending the relevance of the Church of England.
On the matter of evidence of God's existence, Scruton has said, "Rational argument can get us just so far...It can help us to understand the real difference between a faith that commands us to forgive our enemies, and one that commands us to slaughter them. But the leap of faith itself — this placing of your life at God's service — is a leap over reason's edge. This does not make it irrational, any more than falling in love is irrational." However, despite claiming that belief alone is sufficiently rational, he has advocated a form of the argument from beauty: he has said that when we take the beauty in the natural world around us as a gift, we are able to openly understand God. The beauty speaks to us, he claims, and from it we can understand God's presence around us.
Scruton's Sexual Desire (1986) has been described as "the most interesting and insightful philosophical account of sexual desire" produced within analytic philosophy, and a challenge to the conventional boundaries of that discipline. The book has influenced subsequent discussions of sexual ethics. The philosopher Martha Nussbaum credited Scruton with providing "the most interesting philosophical attempt as yet to work through the moral issues involved in our treatment of persons as sex partners. The social theorist Jonathan Dollimore writes that Scruton bases a conservative sexual ethic on the Hegelian proposition that "the final end of every rational being is the building of the self", which involves recognizing the other as an end in itself.
In the essay, "Sexual morality and the liberal consensus" (1989), Scruton argues that homosexuality is a perversion because the body of the homosexual's lover belongs to the same category as his own. Scruton argued further that gays have no children and consequently no interest in creating a socially stable future. He therefore considered it justified to "instil in our children feelings of revulsion" towards homosexuality, and in 2007 he challenged the idea that gays should have the right to adopt. Scruton told The Guardian in 2010 that he would no longer defend the view that revulsion against homosexuality can be justified.
Scruton argues that rights imply obligations. Every legal privilege, he writes, imposes a burden on the one who does not possess that privilege: that is, "your right may be my duty." Scruton therefore regards the emergence of the animal rights movement as "the strangest cultural shift within the liberal worldview", because the idea of rights and responsibilities is, he argues, distinctive to the human condition, and it makes no sense to spread them beyond our own species.
He accuses animal rights advocates of "pre-scientific" anthropomorphism, attributing traits to animals that are, he says, Beatrix Potter-like, where "only man is vile." It is within this fiction that the appeal of animal rights lies, he argues. The world of animals is non-judgmental, filled with dogs who return our affection almost no matter what we do to them, and cats who pretend to be affectionate when, in fact, they care only about themselves. It is, he argues, a fantasy, a world of escape.
Scruton singled out Peter Singer, a prominent Australian philosopher and animal-rights activist, for criticism. He wrote that Singer's works, including Animal Liberation (1975), "contain little or no philosophical argument. They derive their radical moral conclusions from a vacuous utilitarianism that counts the pain and pleasure of all living things as equally significant and that ignores just about everything that has been said in our philosophical tradition about the real distinction between persons and animals."
Scruton supports English independence because he believes that it would uphold friendship between England, Scotland, Wales; Northern Ireland and because the English would have a say in all matters.
- Art And Imagination: A Study in the Philosophy of Mind (1974)
- The Aesthetics of Architecture (1979)
- The Meaning of Conservatism (1980)
- The Politics of Culture and Other Essays (1981)
- A Short History of Modern Philosophy (1982)
- A Dictionary of Political Thought (1982)
- The Aesthetic Understanding: Essays in the Philosophy of Art and Culture (1983)
- Kant (1982)
- Untimely Tracts (1985)
- Thinkers of the New Left (1985)
- Sexual Desire: A Moral Philosophy of the Erotic (1986)
- Spinoza (1987)
- A Land Held Hostage: Lebanon and the West (1987)
- Conservative Thinkers: Essays from The Salisbury Review (1988)
- Conservative Thoughts: Essays from The Salisbury Review (1988)
- The Philosopher on Dover Beach: Essays (1990)
- Conservative Texts: An Anthology (ed.) (1992)
- Modern Philosophy: An Introduction and Survey (1994)
- The Classical Vernacular: Architectural Principles in an Age of Nihilism (1995)
- An Intelligent Person's Guide to Philosophy (1996); republished as Philosophy: Principles and Problems (2005)
- The Aesthetics of Music (1997)
- On Hunting (1998)
- An Intelligent Person's Guide to Modern Culture (1998); republished as Modern Culture (2005)
- Spinoza (1998)
- England: An Elegy (2001)
- The West and the Rest: Globalisation and the Terrorist Threat (2002)
- Death-Devoted Heart: Sex and the Sacred in Wagner's Tristan und Isolde (Oxford University Press, 2004)
- News From Somewhere: On Settling (2004)
- The Need for Nations (2004)
- Gentle Regrets: Thoughts from a Life (Continuum, 2005)
- Animal Rights and Wrongs (2006)
- A Political Philosophy: Arguments for Conservatism (2006)
- Immigration, Multiculturalism and the Need to Defend the Nation State (2006)
- Culture Counts: Faith and Feeling in a World Besieged (Encounter Books, 2007)
- Beauty (2009)
- I Drink Therefore I Am: A Philosopher's Guide to Wine (2009)
- Understanding Music (2009)
- The Uses of Pessimism: And the Danger of False Hope (2010)
- Liberty and Civilization: The Western Heritage (2010)
- Green Philosophy: How to Think Seriously About the Planet (2011); revised and republished as How to Think Seriously About the Planet: The Case for an Environmental Conservatism (2012)
- The Face of God: The Gifford Lectures (2012)
- Our Church: A Personal History of the Church of England (2012)
- The Soul of the World (2014)
- How to Be a Conservative (2014)
- Fools, Frauds and Firebrands: Thinkers of the New Left (2015)
- The Ring of Truth: The Wisdom of Wagner's Ring of the Nibelung (2016)
- Conversations with Roger Scruton (2016)
- Where We Are (2017)
- Confessions of a Heretic: Selected Essays (2017)
- On Human Nature (2017)
- Fortnight's Anger: a novel (1981)
- Francesca: a novel (1991)
- A Dove Descending and Other Stories (1991)
- Xanthippic Dialogues (1993)
- Perictione in Colophon: Reflections of the Aesthetic Way of Life (2000)
- Notes from Underground (2014)
- The Disappeared (2015)
- Souls in the Twilight: Stories of Loss (2018)
- The Minister (1994).
- Violet (2005)
- Why Beauty Matters (BBC Two, 2009)
- His BA was incepted as an MA in 1967.
- The subjects of Thinkers of the New Left are E. P. Thompson, Ronald Dworkin, Michel Foucault, R. D. Laing, Raymond Williams, Rudolf Bahro, Antonio Gramsci, Louis Althusser, Immanuel Wallerstein, Jürgen Habermas, Perry Anderson, György Lukács, John Kenneth Galbraith and Jean-Paul Sartre.
- "Roger Scruton". A Point of View. 11 August 2013. BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
- Cowling, Maurice. Mill and Liberalism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990, xxix.
- Garnett, Mark; Hickson, Kevin. Conservative thinkers: The key contributors to the political thought of the modern Conservative Party, Oxford University Press, 2013, 113–115.
- See Roger Scruton bibliography.
- "About", roger-scruton.com, archived 31 August 2010.
- Day, Barbara. The Velvet Philosophers, London: The Claridge Press, 1999, 281–282.
- "No. 61608". The London Gazette (Supplement). 11 June 2016. p. B2..
"The 2016 Queen's Bithday Honours List" (PDF). www.gov.uk. 10 June 2016.
- Cumming, Naomi. "Scruton, Roger", Grove Music Online, January 2001.
- Wroe, Nicholas. "Thinking for England", The Guardian, 28 October 2000.
- Scruton, Roger. England: An Elegy, A&C Black, 2001, 139–140.
- England: An Elegy, 141.
- Scruton, Roger. Gentle Regrets: Thoughts From a Life. Continuum, 2005, 11.
- Gentle Regrets, 89.
- Scruton, Roger. "The New Humanism", American Spectator, March 2009.
- Gentle Regrets, 94.
- England: An Elegy, 25.
- "Examination successes, 1961–62", Wycombiensian, 13(6), September 1962, 328–330.
- Gentle Regrets, 34.
- Edemariam, Aida. "Roger Scruton: A pessimist's guide to life", The Guardian, 5 June 2010.
- For the quote, Gentle Regrets, 34.
- Scruton, Roger; Dooley, Mark. Conversations with Roger Scruton. London & New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2016, 18, 35.
- Scruton and Dooley 2016, 18, 35.
- Gentle Regrets, 37.
- "Art and imagination, a study in the philosophy of mind", Apollo, University of Cambridge repository.
- Gentle Regrets, 39.
- Scruton and Dooley 2016, 41.
- Gentle Regrets, 57; Scruton and Dooley 2016, 39.
- Gentle Regrets, 45; Scruton and Dooley 2016, 46–47.
- Young, Hugo. One of Us, London: Pan Macmillan, 2013, 221.
- Scruton, Roger. The Meaning of Conservatism, London: The Macmillan Press, and Totowa, NJ: Barnes & Noble Books, 1980.
- Goss, Maxwell. "The Joy of Conservatism: An Interview with Roger Scruton", New Pantagruel (courtesy of orthodoxytoday.org), January 2006.
- Gentle Regrets, 51; Scruton and Dooley 2016, 46.
- Scruton and Dooley 2016, 46.
- Scruton and Dooley 2016, 39.
- Scruton, Roger. "My life beyond the pale", The Spectator, 21 September 2002.
- Scruton, Roger. Conservative Thoughts: Essays from the Salisbury Review, London: The Claridge Press, 1988.
- Cowling 1990, xxix.
- For the Peterhouse Right (he calls it the Peterhouse Group) and The Salisbury Review, see Haseler, Stephen. The battle for Britain: Thatcher and the New Liberals, London: I.B. Tauris, 1989, 138; Gentle Regrets, 51.
- Scruton and Dooley 2016, 47.
- Gentle Regrets, 59.
- Honeyford, Ray. "Education and Race—an Alternative View", The Daily Telegraph, 27 August 2006 (reprint of Honeyford's 1984 article).
- Scruton, Roger. "Let's face it – Ray Honeyford got it right on Islam and education", The Spectator, 5 July 2014.
- "Ray Honeyford", The Daily Telegraph, 8 February 2012. For background on the Honeyford controversy, see Miller, Kathryn. "Headteacher who never taught again after daring to criticise multiculturalism", The Daily Telegraph, 27 August 2006.
Halstead, Mark. Education, Justice, and Cultural Diversity: An Examination of the Honeyford Affair, 1984–85. Barcombe: Falmer Press, 1988.
- Gentle Regrets, 77.
- "Elections to the Fellowship 2008 – British Academy". britac.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 30 September 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
- Adams, Tim. "Roger Scruton: 'Funnily enough, my father looked very like Jeremy Corbyn'", The Guardian, 4 October 2015.
- "The Claridge Press and Continuum", The Salisbury Review, 21–22, 2002, 56: "The Continuum International Publishing Group is delighted to announce the acquisition of the small, independent publishing house Claridge Press from its proprietor, the philosopher, Professor Roger Scruton."
- "Roger Scruton", American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 9 July 2009.
- Scruton and Dooley 2016, 50–52.
- Stothard, Peter. "Michael Jackson, man of 'the stagnant crowd', and two other men", The Times Literary Supplement, 29 June 2009.
- Coleman, Peter (1989). The Liberal Conspiracy. New York: The Free Press. p. 247.
- Vaughan, David. "Roger Scruton and a special relationship", Radio Prague, 31 October 2010.
- Hanley, Seán. The New Right in the New Europe: Czech Transformation and Right-wing politics, 1989–2006, Routledge, 2008, 47.
- For the Jan Hus Educational Foundation, see Day 1999, 124ff.
- Day 1999, 255.
- Day 1999, 281–282; Gentle Regrets, 142.
- Scruton, Roger (18 February 1987). "The Day of Reckoning for the Apologists: Western collaborators with Soviet communism must be held accountable". Los Angeles Times.
- Scruton and Dooley 2016, 109–112.
- "Company interests", roger-scruton.com, accessed 2 September 2010.
- Scruton and Dooley 2016.
- Ross, Deborah. "Interview: Roger Scruton", The Independent, 13 December 1998.
- On Hunting, 1998; Scruton and Dooley 2016, 116.
- Gentle Regrets, 106.
- "About us", Horsells Farm Enterprises.
- "Libel damages for Pet Shop Boys", BBC News, 21 December 1999.
- Gilmore, Anna and McKee, Martin. "Tobacco-control policy in the European Union", in Eric A. Feldman and Ronald Bayer (eds.), Unfiltered: Conflicts over Tobacco Policy and Public Health', Harvard University Press, 2004, 254.
- Scruton, Roger. "A puff for the Scrutons", The Guardian, 28 January 2002.
- The Risk of Freedom Briefing, 2000–2006, accessed 11 September 2010.
- Scruton and Dooley 2016, 140–143.
- Scruton, Roger (16 February 2002). "Smoke Without Fire". The Spectator.
- Scruton, Roger. "A Snort of Derision at Society", The Times, 19 October 1998; Giles, Jim. "Anti-smoking academics 'funded by tobacco firms'", New Scientist, 197(2643), 16 February 2008, 11. doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(08)60385-1
- Scruton, Roger. "A Mad World Is Assaulting Us Smokers", The Wall Street Journal, 2 February 1998. Scruton, Roger. "Anything Goes—Except Smoking," The Wall Street Journal, 9 February 1998.
Scruton, Roger. "The Risks of being Risk-free", The Wall Street Journal, 7 January 2000.
- Scruton, Roger. "What Is Acceptable Risk?", 'City Journal, Winter 2001.
- Scruton, Roger. WHO, What, and Why: Trans-national government, Legitimacy and the World Health Organisation, London: Institute of Economic Affairs, May 2000, 9–14.
- Maguire, Kevin and Borger, Julian. "Scruton in media plot to push the sale of cigarettes", The Guardian, 24 January 2002.
- Stille, Alexander. "Advocating Tobacco, On the Payroll Of Tobacco", The New York Times, 23 March 2002.
- Timmins, Nicholas and Williams, Frances. "Writer Failed to Declare Tobacco Interest," Financial Times, 24 January 2002; Maguire, Kevin. "Scruton faces sack from FT over tobacco retainer", The Guardian, 25 January 2002.
- Allison, Rebecca. "Wall Street Journal drops Scruton over tobacco cash", The Guardian, 5 February 2002; Woolf, Marie. "Scruton sacked by second newspaper for tobacco links", The Independent, 5 February 2002.
- Kmietowicz, Zosia; Ferriman, Annabel. "Pro-tobacco writer admits he should have declared an interest", British Medical Journal, 2 February 2002. doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7332.257 PMID 11823350
- Scruton and Dooley 2016, 192–193; "Welcome to Montpelier in Rappahannock County, Virginia", web.mac.com/rogerandsophie.
- Scruton and Dooley 2016, 181, 192–193.
- Scruton and Dooley 2016, 183.
- Anthony Quinn (20 December 2009). "I Drink Therefore I Am by Roger Scruton". The Guardian.
- "Roger Scruton". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- Scruton, Roger. "The Minister. A one-act opera in six scenes", OpenBU, Boston University Libraries.
- "Title of Visiting Professor conferred on Roger Scruton" Archived 10 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Philosophy Faculty, University of Oxford, accessed 27 December 2010.
- "Academic staff", Blackfriars.
- "The Face of God", University of St Andrews Gifford Lectures, 25 March 2010.
- "Roger Scruton appointed as quarter-time professorial fellow", School of Philosophical, Anthropological and Film Studies, University of St Andrews, accessed 27 December 2010.
- For the latter, Murray, Douglas. "'The truth is hard': an interview with Roger Scruton", The Spectator, 4 April 2015.
- "Editorial board", British Journal of Aesthetics, accessed 6 December 2010.
- "Ralston College". Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- "Roger Scruton". Ethics and Public Policy Center. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
- "Traditionalist Roger Scruton to chair government's new 'beauty' watchdog". Architects Journal. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
- "Academic Scruton's housing role defended". BBC News. 2018-11-12. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
- Samuel Todd, Cain (April 2004). "Imagination, Attitude and Experience in Aesthetic Judgement". Postgraduate Journal of Aesthetics.
- "Scruton's Aesthetics", Department of Philosophy, Durham University, 6 November 2012; Hamilton, Andy; Zangwill, Nick. Scruton's Aesthetics, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.
- Bayley, Stephen. "Has Britain become indifferent to beauty?, The Guardian, 22 March 2009.
- "Why Beauty Matters". BBC. 28 November 2009.
- Scruton, Roger (May 2010). "On Defending Beauty". The American Spectator. Archived from the original on 19 May 2010.
- "Only religion could have inspired the beauties of Venice | Catholic Herald". Catholic Herald. 2018-11-17. Retrieved 2018-11-19.
- Freeman, Samuel. "The Enemies of Roger Scruton", New York Review of Books, 21 April 2016.
- Gentle Regrets, 51.
- Norman, Jesse. "Passion, authority and the odd mini-rant: Scruton’s conservative vision", The Spectator, 27 September 2014.
- Gentle Regrets, 40–41.
- Gentle Regrets, 43.
- Gentle Regrets, 42.
- Scruton, Roger. A Political Philosophy: Arguments for Conservatism, London: Bloomsbury, 2006, 3, 19.
- Arguments for Conservatism, 15, 34, 69.
- Arguments for Conservatism, 106, 115, 117.
- Dooley, Mark. Roger Scruton: The Philosopher on Dover Beach. Continuum, 2009, 12, 42.
- Arguments for Conservatism, 142–143, 146–147, 150–153.
- Arguments for Conservatism, 162–163, 182, 194.
- Ireland, P. "Endarkening the mind: Roger Scruton and the power of law", Social & Legal Studies, 6(1), 1997, 51.
- Stafford, J. Martin. "The two minds of Roger Scruton", Studies in Philosophy and Education, 11(2), 1991, 187–193. doi:10.1007/BF00372432
- [dead link]
- Vernon, Mark (17 March 2012). "Roger Scruton and the kindly atheists - Mark Vernon". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 December 2018 – via www.theguardian.com.
- Hamilton, Christopher; Soble, Alan, Editor; Power, Nicholas P., Editor (2008). The Philosophy of Sex: Contemporary Readings, Fifth Edition. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 101. ISBN 978-0742547988.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- Janaway, Christopher; Honderich, Ted, Editor (1995). The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 816. ISBN 978-0-19-866132-0.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- Barnhill, Anne; Crasnow, Sharon L., Editor; Superson, Anita M., Editor (2012). Out from the Shadows: Analytical Feminist Contributions to Traditional Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 115–116. ISBN 978-0199855476.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- Plaxton, Michael (2015). Implied Consent and Sexual Assault: Intimate Relationships, Autonomy, and Voice. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 221, 223. ISBN 978-0773546202.
- Nussbaum, Martha; Soble, Alan, Editor (1997). The Philosophy of Sex, Contemporary Readings, Third Edition. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 293. ISBN 978-0-8476-8481-6.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- Dollimore, Jonathan. Sexual Dissidence: Augustine to Wilde, Freud to Foucault. Oxford University Press, 1991, 260–261.
- Scruton, Roger. The Philosopher on Dover Beach. Carcanet Press Limited, 1990, 268.
- Scruton, Roger. "This 'right' for gays is an injustice to children", The Daily Telegraph, 28 January 2007.
- Scruton, Roger. "Animal Rights", City Journal, summer 2000.
- Scruton (1998).
- "A Point of View: Should the English have a say on Scottish independence?". BBC News. 23 February 2014.
I would vote for English independence, as a step towards strengthening the friendship between our countries.
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- Roger Scruton's wine articles, New Statesman, October 2005 – August 2009.
- Dooley, Mark, The Roger Scruton Reader, London & New York: Continuum, 2009.
- Billings, Joshua. "A Joy Forever?", review of Scruton's Beauty, Oxonian Review, 11 May 2009.
- Kimball, Roger. "An Assault on Mush", The New York Times, 17 February 1991.
- Kimball, Roger. "Saving the Appearances: Roger Scruton on Philosophy", The New Criterion, June 1994.
- Scruton, Roger. "The Case against Feminism," The Observer, 22 May 1983.
- Morrison, Blake. "In Defence of Feminism," The Observer, 29 May 1983.
- Scruton, Roger. "Her Virtue Was Thatcher's Downfall", Los Angeles Times, 25 November 1990.
- Scruton, Roger. "The Great Swindle," Aeon Magazine, 17 December 2012.