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Virus classification e
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria

Riboviria is a realm of viruses that encompasses all RNA viruses and viroids that replicate by means of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.[1][2] Riboviria merges the Baltimore classification system with virus taxonomy, placing all Group III dsRNA viruses, Group IV positive-sense ssRNA viruses, and Group V negative-sense ssRNA viruses into a single clade. As a clade, Riboviria is monophyletic, meaning all viruses in the realm share a common ancestor.[1][2] Viruses belonging to Riboviria are very diverse genetically and infect both eukaryotes and prokaryotes.[2] Riboviria takes the first part of its name, ribo-, from ribonucleic acid, and the second part, -viria, is the suffix used for virus realms.[2] Riboviria is the first and only virus realm to be recognized, being officially recognized with the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses's 2018b taxonomy release.[3]


Riboviria consists of the phylum Negarnaviricota and multiple incertae sedis orders, families, and genera.[3]


  • Negarnaviricota

Incertae sedis orders[edit]

Incertae sedis families[edit]

Incertae sedis genera[edit]


Riboviria is a monophyletic clade, meaning that all members of the realm share a common ancestor. The realm contains all members of three Baltimore classification groups: double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses, Group III, positive-sense single-stranded RNA ((+)ssRNA) viruses, Group IV, and negative-sense single-stranged RNA ((-)ssRNA) viruses, Group V. (-)ssRNA viruses, while monophyletic, are only known to infect eukaryotes, which are younger than prokaryotes, suggesting that (-)ssRNA viruses emerged relatively recently. (+)ssRNA viruses and dsRNA viruses are both known to infect both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, dsRNA viruses appear to be polyphyletic, emerging at various times from (+)ssRNA viruses rather than having their own common ancestor. No evidence exists of (+)ssRNA viruses having multiple origins, implying that they are monophyletic and the most ancient lineage within Riboviria.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Walker PJ, Siddell SG, Lefkowitz EJ, Mushegian AR, Dempsey DM, Dutilh BE, Harrach B, Harrison RL, Hendrickson RC, Junglen S, Knowles NJ, Kropinski AM, Krupovic M, Kuhn JH, Nibert M, Rubino L, Sabanadzovic S, Simmonds P, Varsani A, Zerbini FM, Davison AJ (2019). "Changes to virus taxonomy and the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2019)". Archives of Virology. 164 (9): 2417–2429. doi:10.1007/s00705-019-04306-w. PMID 31187277. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d e Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Krupovic, Mart; Siddell, Stuart; Varsani, Arvind; Kuhn, Jens H. (15 October 2018). "Riboviria: establishing a single taxon that comprises RNA viruses at the basal rank of virus taxonomy" (docx). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  3. ^ a b "Virus Taxonomy: 2018 Release" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). October 2018. Retrieved 8 March 2019.

Further reading[edit]

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