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Post-Keynesian economics is a school of economic thought with its origins in The General Theory of John Maynard Keynes, with subsequent development influenced to a large degree by Michał Kalecki, Joan Robinson, Nicholas Kaldor, Sidney Weintraub, Paul Davidson, Piero Sraffa and Jan Kregel. Historian Robert Skidelsky argues that the post-Keynesian school has remained closest to the spirit of Keynes' original work. It is a heterodox approach to economics.
The term "post-Keynesian" was first used to refer to a distinct school of economic thought by Eichner and Kregel (1975) and by the establishment of the Journal of Post Keynesian Economics in 1978. Prior to 1975, and occasionally in more recent work, post-Keynesian could simply mean economics carried out after 1936, the date of Keynes's General Theory.
Post-Keynesian economists are united in maintaining that Keynes' theory is seriously misrepresented by the two other principal Keynesian schools: neo-Keynesian economics, which was orthodox in the 1950s and 60s, and new Keynesian economics, which together with various strands of neoclassical economics has been dominant in mainstream macroeconomics since the 1980s. Post-Keynesian economics can be seen as an attempt to rebuild economic theory in the light of Keynes' ideas and insights. However, even in the early years, post-Keynesians such as Joan Robinson sought to distance themselves from Keynes, and much current post-Keynesian thought cannot be found in Keynes. Some post-Keynesians took a more progressive view than Keynes himself, with greater emphases on worker-friendly policies and redistribution. Robinson, Paul Davidson and Hyman Minsky emphasized the effects on the economy of practical differences between different types of investments, in contrast to Keynes' more abstract treatment.
The theoretical foundation of post-Keynesian economics is the principle of effective demand, that demand matters in the long as well as the short run, so that a competitive market economy has no natural or automatic tendency towards full employment. Contrary to the views of new Keynesian economists working in the neoclassical tradition, post-Keynesians do not accept that the theoretical basis of the market's failure to provide full employment is rigid or sticky prices or wages. Post-Keynesians typically reject the IS–LM model of John Hicks, which is very influential in neo-Keynesian economics, because they argue endogenous bank lending to be more significant than central banks' money supply for the interest rate.
The contribution of post-Keynesian economics has extended beyond the theory of aggregate employment to theories of income distribution, growth, trade and development in which money demand plays a key role, whereas in neoclassical economics these are determined by the forces of technology, preferences and endowment. In the field of monetary theory, post-Keynesian economists were among the first to emphasise that money supply responds to the demand for bank credit, so that a central bank cannot control the quantity of money, but only manage the interest rate by managing the quantity of monetary reserves.
This view has largely been incorporated into mainstream economics and monetary policy, which now targets the interest rate as an instrument, rather than attempting to accurately control the quantity of money. In the field of finance, Hyman Minsky put forward a theory of financial crisis based on financial fragility, which has received renewed attention.
There are a number of strands to post-Keynesian theory with different emphases. Joan Robinson regarded Michał Kalecki’s theory of effective demand to be superior to Keynes’ theories. Kalecki's theory is based on a class division between workers and capitalists and imperfect competition. Robinson also led the critique of the use of aggregate production functions based on homogeneous capital – the Cambridge capital controversy – winning the argument but not the battle. The writings of Piero Sraffa were a significant influence on the post-Keynesian position in this debate, though Sraffa and his neo-Ricardian followers drew more inspiration from David Ricardo than Keynes. Much of Nicholas Kaldor’s work was based on the ideas of increasing returns to scale, path dependence, and the key differences between the primary and industrial sectors.
Paul Davidson follows Keynes closely in placing time and uncertainty at the centre of theory, from which flow the nature of money and of a monetary economy. Monetary circuit theory, originally developed in continental Europe, places particular emphasis on the distinctive role of money as means of payment. Each of these strands continues to see further development by later generations of economists.
Modern Monetary Theory is a relatively recent offshoot influenced by the macroeconomic modelling of Wynne Godley and Hyman Minsky's ideas on the labour market, as well as chartalism and functional finance.
Recent work in post-Keynesian economics has attempted to provide micro-foundations for capacity underutilization as a coordination failure (economics), justifying government intervention in the form of aggregate demand stimulus. 
Much post-Keynesian research is published in the Review of Keynesian Economics (ROKE), the Journal of Post Keynesian Economics (founded by Sidney Weintraub and Paul Davidson), the Cambridge Journal of Economics, the Review of Political Economy, and the Journal of Economic Issues (JEI).
There is also a United Kingdom academic association, the Post Keynesian Economics Society (PKES). This was previously called the Post Keynesian Economics Study Group (PKSG) but changed its name in 2018. In the UK, post-Keynesian economists can be found in:
- SOAS University of London
- University of Greenwich
- University of Leeds
- Kingston University
- King's College London, International Political Economy
- Goldsmiths, University of London
- University of the West of England, Bristol
- University of Hertfordshire
- Cambridge University, Land Economy
- Birmingham City University
- University College London, Institute for Innovation and Public Purpose
- Open University
- University of Winchester
In the United States, there are several universities with a post-Keynesian bent:[further explanation needed]
- The New School, New York City
- The University of Massachusetts Amherst
- The University of Utah, Salt Lake City
- Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania
- Denison University, Granville, Ohio
- Levy Economics Institute at Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York
- University of Missouri–Kansas City
- University of Denver
- Colorado State University, Fort Collins
- The University of Massachusetts Boston
- John Jay College of Criminal Justice at City University of New York, New York City
- Erasmus University, Rotterdam
- International Institute of Social Studies, The Hague
- University of Groningen, Groningen
In Germany, post-Keynesianism is very strong at the Berlin School of Economics and Law and its master's degree course: International Economics [M.A.]. Many German Post-Keynesians are organized in the Forum Macroeconomics and Macroeconomic Policies.
University of Newcastle
Major post-Keynesian economists
Major post-Keynesian economists of the first and second generations after Keynes include:
- Victoria Chick
- Alfred Eichner
- James Crotty
- Paul Davidson
- Wynne Godley
- Geoff Harcourt
- Donald J. Harris
- Michael Hudson
- Nicholas Kaldor
- Michał Kalecki
- Frederic S. Lee
- Augusto Graziani
- Steve Keen
- Jan Kregel
- Marc Lavoie
- Paolo Leon
- Abba P. Lerner
- Hyman Minsky
- Basil Moore
- Edward J. Nell
- Luigi Pasinetti
- Joan Robinson
- George Shackle
- Anthony Thirlwall
- Fernando Vianello
- William Vickrey
- L. Randall Wray
- Dimitri B. Papadimitriou
- Sidney Weintraub
- Keynesian economics
- Neo-Keynesian economics
- New Keynesian economics
- Disequilibrium macroeconomics
- Endogenous money
- Skidelsky 2009, p. 42
- Financial markets, money and the real world, by Paul Davidson, pp. 88–89
- Lavoie, Marc (2006), "Post-Keynesian Heterodoxy", Introduction to Post-Keynesian Economics, Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 1–24, doi:10.1057/9780230626300_1, ISBN 9781349283378
- Dequech, David (2012). "Post Keynesianism, Heterodoxy and Mainstream Economics". Review of Political Economy. 24 (2): 353–368. doi:10.1080/09538259.2012.664364. ISSN 0953-8259.
- Eichner and Kregel 1975
- King 2002, p. 10 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFKing2002 (help)
- Hayes 2008 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHayes2008 (help)[page needed]
- Arestis 1996
- Palley, Thomas (1 January 2008). "Macroeconomics without the LM: A Post-Keynesian Perspective". PERI Working Papers.
- For a general introduction see Holt 2001
- Kaldor 1980
- Gregory Mankiw (2015) Macroeconomics 9th edition, pp. 93-99; and Martin Wolf (10th of April 2014), "Only the ignorant live in fear of hyperinflation", Financial Times, https://www.ft.com/content/46a1ce84-bf2a-11e3-a4af-00144feabdc0
- Palley, Thomas (April 2010). "The Limits of Minsky's Financial Instability Hypothesis as an Explanation of the Crisis". Monthly Review. 61.
- Minsky 1975[page needed]
- Robinson 1974
- Pasinetti 2007
- Harcourt 2006, Pasinetti 2007
- Davidson 2007
- Luke Petach; Daniele Tavani (September 2019). "No one is alone: Strategic complementarities, capacity utilization, growth, and distribution". Structural Change and Economic Dynamics (Volume 50). Elsevier. doi:10.1016/j.strueco.2019.07.001. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
- Daniele Tavani; Luke Petach (April 2021). "Firm beliefs and long-run demand effects in a labor-constrained model of growth and distribution". Journal of Evolutionary Economics (Volume 31). Springer. doi:10.1007/s00191-020-00680-w. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
- "HWR Berlin - Campus4U". campus4u.hwr-berlin.de.
- Hein, Eckhard; Priewe, Jan (2009). "Forum: The Research Network Macroeconomics and Macroeconomic Policies (FMM) – Past, present and future". European Journal of Economics and Economic Policies: Intervention. 6 (2): 166–173. doi:10.4337/ejeep.2009.02.04.
- Arestis, Philip (1996). "Post-Keynesian economics: towards coherence". Cambridge Journal of Economics. 20: 111–135. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.cje.a013604.
- Davidson, Paul (2007). John Maynard Keynes. Palgrave Macmillan.CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
- Eichner and Kregel (1975). "An Essay on Post-Keynesian Theory: A New Paradigm in Economics". Journal of Economic Literature. 13: 1293–1314.
- Harcourt, Geoff (2006). The Structure of Post-Keynesian Economics. Columbia University Press.CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
- Hayes, M.G. (2008). The Economics of Keynes: A New Guide to the General Theory. Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84844-056-2.
- Kaldor, Nicholas (1980). "Monetarism and UK economic policy". Cambridge Journal of Economics. 4 (3): 271–292. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.cje.a035457.
- King, J.E. (2002). A history of post Keynesian economics since 1936. Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84064-420-3.
- Minsky, Hyman (1975). John Maynard Keynes. Columbia University Press.
- Pasinetti, Luigi (2007). Keynes and the Cambridge Keynesians. Columbia University Press.CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
- Robinson, Joan; Eatwell, John (1974). An Introduction to Modern Economics (2 ed.). McGraw Hill.
- Skidelsky, Robert (2009). Keynes: The Return of the Master. Allen Lane. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-84614-258-1.CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
- Holt, Ric; Pressman, Steven (2001). A New Guide to Post Keynesian Economics. Routledge.
- Holt, Ric; Pressman, Steven (2006). Empirical Post Keynesian Economics: Looking at the Real World. M.E. Sharpe.
- Structure of Post Keynesian Economics-Geoff Harcourt
- William Vickrey -----Fifteen Fatal Fallacies of Financial Fundamentalism: A Disquisition on Demand Side Economics
- Presentation of post Keynesian economics Marc Lavoie
- Samuelson and the Keynes/Post Keynesian Revolution:by Paul Davidson
- Professor L. Randall Wray:Why The Federal Budget Is Not Like a Household Budget
- Post-Keynesian economics: towards coherence Cambridge Journal of Economics