The Technology poortal
A steam turbine
with the case opened. Such turbines produce most of the electricity used today. Electricity consumption and living standards are highly correlated. Electrification is believed to be the most important engineering achievement of the 20th century.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument [compensation ] of those who pursue them".
- Principle is a term defined current-day by Merriam-Webster as: "a comprehensive and fundamental law, doctrine, or assumption", "a primary source", "the laws or facts of nature underlying the working of an artificial device", "an ingredient (such as a chemical) that exhibits or imparts a characteristic quality".
- Process is a term defined current-day by the United States Patent Laws (United States Code Title 34 - Patents) published by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) as follows: "The term 'process' means process, art, or method, and includes a new use of a known process, machine, manufacture, composition of matter, or material."
- Nomenclature is term defined by Merriam-Webster as: "name, designation", "the act or process or an instance of naming", "a system or set of terms or symbols especially in a particular science, discipline, or art".
- Application of Science is a term defined current-day by the United States' National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine as: "...any use of scientific knowledge for a specific purpose, whether to do more science; to design a product, process, or medical treatment; to develop a new technology; or to predict the impacts of human actions."
The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the later Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, and the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale.
Technology has many effects. It has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions of the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics.
Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar reactionary movements criticize the pervasiveness of technology, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition.
The history of timekeeping devices
begins thousands of years ago with the invention of the sexagesimal system
of time measurement
in approximately 2000 BC, in Sumer
. The Ancient Egyptians
divided the day into two 12-hour periods and used large obelisks
to track the movement of the Sun. They also developed water clocks
, which were probably first used in the Precinct of Amun-Re
, and later outside Egypt as well. Other ancient timekeeping devices include the candle clock
, used in China, Japan, England, and Iraq
; the timestick
, used in India and Tibet
, as well as some parts of Europe; and the hourglass
, which functioned similarly to a water clock. The first clock with an escapement
, which transferred rotational energy into discrete motions, appeared in China in the 8th century, and Muslim engineers
clocks in the 11th century. Mechanical clocks were introduced to Europe at the turn of the 14th century, and became the standard timekeeping device until the 20th century. During the 20th century, quartz oscillators
were invented, followed by atomic clocks
. Atomic clocks are far more accurate than any previous timekeeping device, and are used to calibrate other clocks and to calculate the proper time
on Earth; a standardized civil system, Coordinated Universal Time
, is based on atomic time.
In this month
Did you know...
I. M. Pei
(born 1917) is a Chinese American
architect, often called a master of modern architecture
. Born in Guangzhou
, in 1935 he moved to the United States. While enrolled at Massachusetts Institute of Technology
, he became unhappy with the school's focus on Beaux-Arts architecture
, and spent his free time researching the emerging architects, especially Le Corbusier
. After graduating, he joined the Harvard Graduate School of Design
and formed a friendship with the Bauhaus
architects Walter Gropius
and Marcel Breuer
. Pei spent ten years working with New York real estate magnate William Zeckendorf
before establishing his own independent design firm that eventually became Pei Cobb Freed & Partners
. Among the early projects on which Pei took the lead were the L'Enfant Plaza Hotel
in Washington, DC, and the Green Building
at MIT. His first major recognition came with the National Center for Atmospheric Research
in Colorado; his new stature led to his selection as chief architect for the John F. Kennedy Library
in Massachusetts. He went on to design Dallas City Hall
and the East Building of the National Gallery of Art
. In the early 1980s, Pei was the focus of controversy when he designed a glass-and-steel pyramid
for the Louvre
museum in Paris. Pei has won a wide variety of prizes and awards in the field of architecture, including the 1983 Pritzker Prize
, sometimes called the Nobel Prize
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