From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia
Planetary boundaries is a concept involving Earth system processes that contain environmental boundaries. It was proposed in 2009 by a group of Earth system and environmental scientists, led by Johan Rockström from the Stockholm Resilience Centre and Will Steffen from the Australian National University. The group wanted to define a "safe operating space for humanity" for the international community, including governments at all levels, international organizations, civil society, the scientific community and the private sector, as a precondition for sustainable development. The framework is based on scientific evidence that human actions since the Industrial Revolution have become the main driver of global environmental change.
According to the paradigm, "transgressing one or more planetary boundaries may be deleterious or even catastrophic due to the risk of crossing thresholds that will trigger non-linear, abrupt environmental change within continental-scale to planetary-scale systems." The Earth system process boundaries mark the safe zone for the planet to the extent that they are not crossed. As of 2009, two boundaries have already been crossed, while others are in imminent danger of being crossed.
History of the framework
In 2009, a group of Earth System and environmental scientists led by Johan Rockström from the Stockholm Resilience Centre and Will Steffen from the Australian National University collaborated with 26 leading academics, including Nobel laureate Paul Crutzen, Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate scientist James Hansen and the German Chancellor's chief climate adviser Hans Joachim Schellnhuber and identified nine "planetary life support systems" essential for human survival, attempting to quantify how far seven of these systems had been pushed already. They estimated how much further humans can go before planetary habitability is threatened. Estimates indicated that three of these boundaries—climate change, biodiversity loss, and the biogeochemical flow boundary—appear to have been crossed. The boundaries were "rough, first estimates only, surrounded by large uncertainties and knowledge gaps" which interact in complex ways that are not yet well understood. Boundaries were defined to help define a "safe space for human development", which was an improvement on approaches aiming at minimizing human impacts on the planet. The 2009 report was presented to the General Assembly of the Club of Rome in Amsterdam. An edited summary of the report was published as the featured article in a special 2009 edition of Nature alongside invited critical commentary from leading academics like Nobel laureate Mario J. Molina and biologist Cristián Samper.
In 2015, a second paper was published in Science to update the Planetary Boundaries concept including regional boundaries and findings were presented at the World Economic Forum in Davos, January 2015.
A 2018 study, co-authored by Rockström, calls into question the international agreement to limit warming to 2 degrees above pre-industrial temperatures set forth in the Paris Agreement. The scientists raise the possibility that even if greenhouse gas emissions are substantially reduced to limit warming to 2 degrees, that might be the "threshold" at which self-reinforcing climate feedbacks add additional warming until the climate system stabilizes in a hothouse climate state. This would make parts of the world uninhabitable, raise sea levels by up to 60 metres (200 ft), and raise temperatures by 4–5 °C (7.2–9.0 °F) to levels that are higher than any interglacial period in the past 1.2 million years. Rockström notes that whether this would occur "is one of the most existential questions in science." Study author Katherine Richardson stresses, "We note that the Earth has never in its history had a quasi-stable state that is around 2 °C warmer than the preindustrial and suggest that there is substantial risk that the system, itself, will ‘want’ to continue warming because of all of these other processes – even if we stop emissions. This implies not only reducing emissions but much more.”
The idea that our planet has limits, including the burden placed upon it by human activities, has been around for some time. In 1972, The Limits to Growth was published. It presented a model in which five variables: world population, industrialization, pollution, food production, and resources depletion, are examined, and considered to grow exponentially, whereas the ability of technology to increase resources availability is only linear. Subsequently, the report was widely dismissed, particularly by economists and businessmen, and it has often been claimed that history has proved the projections to be incorrect. In 2008, Graham Turner from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) published "A comparison of The Limits to Growth with thirty years of reality". Turner found that the observed historical data from 1970 to 2000 closely matches the simulated results of the "standard run" limits of growth model for almost all the outputs reported. "The comparison is well within uncertainty bounds of nearly all the data in terms of both magnitude and the trends over time." Turner also examined a number of reports, particularly by economists, which over the years have purported to discredit the limits-to-growth model. Turner says these reports are flawed, and reflect misunderstandings about the model. In 2010, Nørgård, Peet and Ragnarsdóttir called the book a "pioneering report", and said that it "has withstood the test of time and, indeed, has only become more relevant."
Our Common Future was published in 1987 by United Nations' World Commission on Environment and Development. It tried to recapture the spirit of the Stockholm Conference. Its aim was to interlock the concepts of development and environment for future political discussions. It introduced the famous definition for sustainable development:
"Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."
Of a different kind is the approach made by James Lovelock. In the 1970s he and microbiologist Lynn Margulis presented the Gaia theory or hypothesis, that states that all organisms and their inorganic surroundings on Earth are integrated into a single self-regulating system. The system has the ability to react to perturbations or deviations, much like a living organism adjusts its regulation mechanisms to accommodate environmental changes such as temperature (homeostasis). Nevertheless, this capacity has limits. For instance, when a living organism is subjected to a temperature that is lower or higher than its living range, it can perish because its regulating mechanism cannot make the necessary adjustments. Similarly the Earth may not be able to react to large deviations in critical parameters. In his book The Revenge of Gaia, he affirms that the destruction of rainforests and biodiversity, compounded with the increase of greenhouse gases made by humans, is producing global warming.
From Holocene to Anthropocene
The Holocene began about 10,000 years ago. It is the current interglacial period, and it has proven to be a relatively stable environment of the Earth. There have been natural environmental fluctuations during the Holocene, but the key atmospheric and biogeochemical parameters have been relatively stable. This stability and resilience has allowed agriculture to develop and complex societies to thrive. According to Rockström et al., we "have now become so dependent on those investments for our way of life, and how we have organized society, technologies, and economies around them, that we must take the range within which Earth System processes varied in the Holocene as a scientific reference point for a desirable planetary state."
| The last glacial cycle of δ18O indicative of the stability of the Holocene over the last 10,000 years|
– Adapted from Young & Steffen (2009)
Since the industrial revolution, according to Paul Crutzen, Will Steffen and others, the planet has entered a new epoch, the Anthropocene. In the Anthropocene, humans have become the main agents of not only change to the Earth System  but also the driver of Earth System rupture, disruption of the Earth System's ability to be resilient and recover from that change. There have been well publicized scientific warnings about risks in the areas of climate change and stratospheric ozone. However, other biophysical Earth System processes are also important and have limits which are being exceeded. For example, since the advent of the Anthropocene, the rate at which species are being extinguished has increased over 100 times, and humans are now the driving force altering global river flows as well as water vapor flows from the land surface. Continuing pressure on the Earth System from human activities raises the possibility that further pressure could be destabilizing, and precipitate sudden or irreversible responses by the Earth System, shunting it towards a variation or mode that is dangerous to life including to human society, for example a Hothouse Earth mode. According to Rockström et al., "Up to 30% of all mammal, bird, and amphibian species will be threatened with extinction this century." It is difficult to restore a 'safe operating space' for humanity that is described by the planetary boundary concept, because the predominant paradigms of social and economic development are largely indifferent to the looming possibilities of large scale environmental disasters triggered by humans. Legal boundaries can help keep human activities in check, but are only as effective as the political will to make and enforce them.
Thresholds and boundaries
The threshold, or tipping point, is the value at which a very small increment for the control variable (like CO2) triggers a larger, possibly catastrophic, change in the response variable (global warming) through feedbacks in the natural Earth System itself.
The threshold points are difficult to locate, because the Earth System is very complex. Instead of defining the threshold value, the study establishes a range, and the threshold is supposed to lie inside it. The lower end of that range is defined as the boundary. Therefore, it defines a 'safe operating space', in the sense that as long as we are below the boundary, we are below the threshold value. If the boundary is crossed, we enter into a danger zone.
|Earth-system process||Control variable||Boundary |
|1. Climate change||Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (ppm by volume)|
|Alternatively: Increase in radiative forcing (W/m2) since the start of the industrial revolution (~1750)|
|2. Biodiversity loss||Extinction rate (number of species per million per year)|
|3. Biogeochemical||(a) anthropogenic nitrogen removed from the atmosphere (millions of tonnes per year)|
|(b) anthropogenic phosphorus going into the oceans (millions of tonnes per year)|
|4. Ocean acidification||Global mean saturation state of calcium carbonate in surface seawater (omega units)|
|5. Land use||Land surface converted to cropland (percent)|
|6. Freshwater||Global human consumption of water (km3/yr)|
|7. Ozone depletion||Stratospheric ozone concentration (Dobson units)|
|8. Atmospheric aerosols||Overall particulate concentration in the atmosphere, on a regional basis|
|9. Chemical pollution||Concentration of toxic substances, plastics, endocrine disruptors, heavy metals, and radioactive contamination into the environment|
The proposed framework lays the groundwork for shifting approach to governance and management, away from the essentially sectoral analyses of limits to growth aimed at minimizing negative externalities, toward the estimation of the safe space for human development. Planetary boundaries define, as it were, the boundaries of the "planetary playing field" for humanity if major human-induced environmental change on a global scale is to be avoided
Transgressing one or more planetary boundaries may be highly damaging or even catastrophic, due to the risk of crossing thresholds that trigger non-linear, abrupt environmental change within continental- to planetary-scale systems. The 2009 study identified nine planetary boundaries and, drawing on current scientific understanding, the researchers proposed quantifications for seven of them. These seven are climate change (CO2 concentration in the atmosphere < 350 ppm and/or a maximum change of +1 W/m2 in radiative forcing); ocean acidification (mean surface seawater saturation state with respect to aragonite ≥ 80% of pre-industrial levels); stratospheric ozone (less than 5% reduction in total atmospheric O3 from a pre-industrial level of 290 Dobson Units); biogeochemical nitrogen (N) cycle (limit industrial and agricultural fixation of N2 to 35 Tg N/yr) and phosphorus (P) cycle (annual P inflow to oceans not to exceed 10 times the natural background weathering of P); global freshwater use (< 4000 km3/yr of consumptive use of runoff resources); land system change (< 15% of the ice-free land surface under cropland); and the rate at which biological diversity is lost (annual rate of < 10 extinctions per million species). The two additional planetary boundaries for which the group had not yet been able to determine a global boundary level are chemical pollution and atmospheric aerosol loading.
Subsequent work on planetary boundaries begins to relate these thresholds at the regional scale.
On the framework
Christopher Field, director of the Carnegie Institution's Department of Global Ecology, is impressed: "This kind of work is critically important. Overall, this is an impressive attempt to define a safety zone." But the conservation biologist Stuart Pimm is not impressed: "I don’t think this is in any way a useful way of thinking about things... The notion of a single boundary is just devoid of serious content. In what way is an extinction rate 10 times the background rate acceptable?" and the environmental policy analyst Bill Clark thinks: "Tipping points in the earth system are dense, unpredictable... and unlikely to be avoidable through early warning indicators. It follows that... 'safe operating spaces' and 'planetary boundaries' are thus highly suspect and potentially the new 'opiates'."
The biogeochemist William Schlesinger queries whether thresholds are a good idea for pollutions at all. He thinks waiting until we near some suggested limit will just permit us to continue to a point where it is too late. "Management based on thresholds, although attractive in its simplicity, allows pernicious, slow and diffuse degradation to persist nearly indefinitely."
The hydrologist David Molden thinks planetary boundaries are a welcome new approach in the 'limits to growth' debate. "As a scientific organizing principle, the concept has many strengths ... the numbers are important because they provide targets for policymakers, giving a clear indication of the magnitude and direction of change. They also provide benchmarks and direction for science. As we improve our understanding of Earth processes and complex inter-relationships, these benchmarks can and will be updated ... we now have a tool we can use to help us think more deeply—and urgently—about planetary limits and the critical actions we have to take."
The ocean chemist Peter Brewer queries whether it is "truly useful to create a list of environmental limits without serious plans for how they may be achieved ... they may become just another stick to beat citizens with. Disruption of the global nitrogen cycle is one clear example: it is likely that a large fraction of people on Earth would not be alive today without the artificial production of fertilizer. How can such ethical and economic issues be matched with a simple call to set limits? ... food is not optional."
The environment advisor Steve Bass says the "description of planetary boundaries is a sound idea. We need to know how to live within the unusually stable conditions of our present Holocene period and not do anything that causes irreversible environmental change ... Their paper has profound implications for future governance systems, offering some of the 'wiring' needed to link governance of national and global economies with governance of the environment and natural resources. The planetary boundaries concept should enable policymakers to understand more clearly that, like human rights and representative government, environmental change knows no borders."
The climate change policy advisor Adele Morris thinks that price-based policies are also needed to avoid political and economic thresholds. "Staying within a 'safe operating space' will require staying within all the relevant boundaries, including the electorate’s willingness to pay."
In 2011, at their second meeting, the High-level Panel on Global Sustainability of the United Nations had incorporated the concept of planetary boundaries into their framework, stating that their goal was: "To eradicate poverty and reduce inequality, make growth inclusive, and production and consumption more sustainable while combating climate change and respecting the range of other planetary boundaries."
Elsewhere in their proceedings, panel members have expressed reservations about the political effectiveness of using the concept of "planetary boundaries": "Planetary boundaries are still an evolving concept that should be used with caution [...] The planetary boundaries question can be divisive as it can be perceived as a tool of the "North" to tell the "South" not to follow the resource intensive and environmentally destructive development pathway that rich countries took themselves... This language is unacceptable to most of the developing countries as they fear that an emphasis on boundaries would place unacceptable brakes on poor countries."
However, the concept is routinely used in the proceedings of the United Nations, and in the UN Daily News. For example, the UNEP Executive Director Achim Steiner states that the challenge of agriculture is to "feed a growing global population without pushing humanity's footprint beyond planetary boundaries." The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Yearbook 2010 also repeated Rockström's message, conceptually linking it with ecosystem management and environmental governance indicators.
The planetary boundaries concept is also used in proceedings by the European Commission, and was referred to in the European Environment Agency synthesis report The European environment – state and outlook 2010.
In their 2012 report entitled "Resilient People, Resilient Planet: A future worth choosing", The High-level Panel on Global Sustainability called for bold global efforts, "including launching a major global scientific initiative, to strengthen the interface between science and policy. We must define, through science, what scientists refer to as "planetary boundaries", "environmental thresholds" and "tipping points"."
Radiative forcing is a measure of the difference between the incoming radiation energy and the outgoing radiation energy acting across the boundary of the earth. Positive radiative forcing results in warming. From the start of the industrial revolution in 1750 to 2005, the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide has led to a positive radiative forcing, averaging about 1.66 W/m².
The climate scientist Myles Allen thinks setting "a limit on long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations merely distracts from the much more immediate challenge of limiting warming to 2 °C." He says the concentration of carbon dioxide is not a control variable we can "meaningfully claim to control", and he questions whether keeping carbon dioxide levels below 350 ppm will avoid more than 2 °C of warming.
Adele Morris, policy director, Climate and Energy Economics Project, Brookings Institution, makes a criticism from the economical-political point of view. She puts emphasis in choosing policies that minimize costs and preserve consensus. She favors a system of green-house gas emissions tax, and emissions trading, as ways to prevent global warming. She thinks that too-ambitious objectives, like the boundary limit on CO2, may discourage such actions.
According to the biologist Cristián Samper, a " boundary that expresses the probability of families of species disappearing over time would better reflect our potential impacts on the future of life on Earth."
Since the industrial revolution, the Earth's nitrogen cycle has been disturbed even more than the carbon cycle. "Human activities now convert more nitrogen from the atmosphere into reactive forms than all of the Earth´s terrestrial processes combined. Much of this new reactive nitrogen pollutes waterways and coastal zones, is emitted back to the atmosphere in changed forms, or accumulates in the terrestrial biosphere." Only a small part of the fertilizers applied in agriculture is used by plants. Most of the nitrogen and phosphorus ends up in rivers, lakes and the sea, where excess amounts stress aquatic ecosystems. For example, fertilizer which discharges from rivers into the Gulf of Mexico has damaged shrimp fisheries because of hypoxia.
The biogeochemist William Schlesinger thinks waiting until we near some suggested limit for nitrogen deposition and other pollutions will just permit us to continue to a point where it is too late. He says the boundary suggested for phosphorus is not sustainable, and would exhaust the known phosphorus reserves in less than 200 years.
Peak phosphorus is a concept to describe the point in time at which the maximum global phosphorus production rate is reached. Phosphorus is a scarce finite resource on earth and means of production other than mining are unavailable because of its non-gaseous environmental cycle. According to some researchers, Earth's phosphorus reserves are expected to be completely depleted in 50–100 years and peak phosphorus to be reached in approximately 2030.
Surface ocean acidity has increased thirty percent since the industrial revolution. About one quarter of the additional carbon dioxide generated by humans is dissolved in the oceans, where it forms carbonic acid. This acidity inhibits the ability of corals, shellfish and plankton to build shells and skeletons. Knock-on effects could have serious consequences for fish stocks. This boundary is clearly interconnected with the climate change boundaries, since the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is also the underlying control variable for the ocean acidification boundary.
The ocean chemist Peter Brewer thinks "ocean acidification has impacts other than simple changes in pH, and these may need boundaries too."
The environment advisor Steve Bass says research tells us that "the sustainability of land use depends less on percentages and more on other factors. For example, the environmental impact of 15 per cent coverage by intensively farmed cropland in large blocks will be significantly different from that of 15 per cent of land farmed in more sustainable ways, integrated into the landscape. The boundary of 15 per cent land-use change is, in practice, a premature policy guideline that dilutes the authors' overall scientific proposition. Instead, the authors might want to consider a limit on soil degradation or soil loss. This would be a more valid and useful indicator of the state of terrestrial health."
Human pressures on global freshwater systems are having dramatic effects. The freshwater cycle is another boundary significantly affected by climate change. Freshwater resources, such as lakes and aquifers, are usually renewable resources which naturally recharge (the term fossil water is sometimes used to describe aquifers which don't recharge). Overexploitation occurs if a water resource is mined or extracted at a rate that exceeds the recharge rate. Recharge usually comes from area streams, rivers and lakes. Forests enhance the recharge of aquifers in some locales, although generally forests are a major source of aquifer depletion. Depleted aquifers can become polluted with contaminants such as nitrates, or permanently damaged through subsidence or through saline intrusion from the ocean. This turns much of the world's underground water and lakes into finite resources with peak usage debates similar to oil. Though Hubbert's original analysis did not apply to renewable resources, their overexploitation can result in a Hubbert-like peak. A modified Hubbert curve applies to any resource that can be harvested faster than it can be replaced.
The hydrologist David Molden says "a global limit on water consumption is necessary, but the suggested planetary boundary of 4,000 cubic kilometres per year is too generous."
The stratospheric ozone layer protectively filters ultraviolet radiation (UV) from the Sun, which would otherwise damage biological systems. The actions taken after the Montreal Protocol appeared to be keeping the planet within a safe boundary. However, in 2011, according to a paper published in Nature, the boundary was unexpectedly pushed in the Arctic; "... the fraction of the Arctic vortex in March with total ozone less than 275 Dobson units (DU) is typically near zero, but reached nearly 45%".
Aerosol particles in the atmosphere impact the health of humans and influence monsoon and global atmospheric circulation systems. Some aerosols produce clouds which cool the Earth by reflecting sunlight back to space, while others, like soot, produce thin clouds in the upper stratosphere which behave like a greenhouse, warming the Earth. On balance, anthropogenic aerosols probably produce a net negative radiative forcing (cooling influence). Worldwide each year, aerosol particles result in about 800,000 premature deaths. Aerosol loading is sufficiently important to be included among the planetary boundaries, but it is not yet clear whether an appropriate safe threshold measure can be identified.
Some chemicals, such as persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals and radionuclides, have potentially irreversible additive and synergic effects on biological organisms, reducing fertility and resulting in permanent genetic damage. Sublethal uptakes are drastically reducing marine bird and mammal populations. This boundary seems important, although it is hard to quantify.
A Bayesian emulator for persistent organic pollutants has been developed which can potentially be used to quantify the boundaries for chemical pollution. To date, critical exposure levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) above which mass mortality events of marine mammals are likely to occur, have been proposed as a chemical pollution planetary boundary.
Interaction among boundaries
A planetary boundary may interact in a manner that changes the safe operating level of other boundaries. Rockström et al. 2009 did not analyze such interactions, but they suggested that many of these interactions will reduce rather than expand the proposed boundary levels.
For example, the land use boundary could shift downward if the freshwater boundary is breached, causing lands to become arid and unavailable for agriculture. At a regional level, water resources may decline in Asia if deforestation continues in the Amazon. Such considerations suggest the need for "extreme caution in approaching or transgressing any individual planetary boundaries."
Another example has to do with coral reefs and marine ecosystems. In 2009, De'Ath, Lough & Fabricius (2009) showed that, since 1990, calcification in the reefs of the Great Barrier that they examined decreased at a rate unprecedented over the last 400 years (14% in less than 20 years). Their evidence suggests that the increasing temperature stress and the declining ocean saturation state of aragonite is making it difficult for reef corals to deposit calcium carbonate. Bellwood & others (2004) explored how multiple stressors, such as increased nutrient loads and fishing pressure, move corals into less desirable ecosystem states. Guinotte & Fabry (2008) showed that ocean acidification will significantly change the distribution and abundance of a whole range of marine life, particularly species "that build skeletons, shells, and tests of biogenic calcium carbonate. "Increasing temperatures, surface UV radiation levels and ocean acidity all stress marine biota, and the combination of these stresses may well cause perturbations in the abundance and diversity of marine biological systems that go well beyond the effects of a single stressor acting alone."
In 2012 Kate Raworth from Oxfam noted the Rockstrom concept does not take human population growth into account. She suggested social boundaries should be incorporated into the planetary boundary structure, such as jobs, education, food, access to water, health services and energy and to accommodate an environmentally safe space compatible with poverty eradication and "rights for all". Within planetary limits and an equitable social foundation lies a doughnut shaped area which is the area where there is a "safe and just space for humanity to thrive in".
An empirical application of the doughnut model by O'Neill et al. showed that so far across 150 countries not a single country satisfies its citizens' basic needs while maintaining a globally sustainable level of resource use.
National environmental footprints
Several studies assessed environmental footprints of nations based on planetary boundaries: for Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, the European Union  as well as for the world’s most important economies. While the metrics and allocation approaches applied varied, there is a converging outcome that resource use of wealthier nations – if extrapolated to world population – is not compatible with planetary boundaries.
In 2012, Steven Running suggested a tenth boundary, the annual net global primary production of all terrestrial plants, as an easily determinable measure integrating many variables that will give "a clear signal about the health of ecosystems".
Not yet endorsed by United Nations
The United Nations secretary general Ban Ki-moon endorsed the concept of planetary boundaries on 16 March 2012, when he presented the key points of the report of his High Level Panel on Global Sustainability to an informal plenary of the UN General Assembly. Ban stated: "The Panel’s vision is to eradicate poverty and reduce inequality, to make growth inclusive and production and consumption more sustainable, while combating climate change and respecting a range of other planetary boundaries." The concept was incorporated into the so-called "zero draft" of the outcome of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development to be convened in Rio de Janeiro 20–22 June 2012. However, the use of the concept was subsequently withdrawn from the text of the conference, "partly due to concerns from some poorer countries that its adoption could lead to the sidelining of poverty reduction and economic development. It is also, say observers, because the idea is simply too new to be officially adopted, and needed to be challenged, weathered and chewed over to test its robustness before standing a chance of being internationally accepted at UN negotiations."
The planetary boundary framework was updated in 2015. It was suggested that three of the boundaries (including climate change) might push the Earth system into a new state if crossed; these also strongly influence the remaining boundaries. In the paper, the framework is developed to make it more applicable at the regional scale.
Human activities related to agriculture and nutrition globally contribute to the transgression of four out of nine planetary boundaries. Surplus nutrient flows (N, P) into aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are of highest importance, followed by excessive land-system change and biodiversity loss. Whereas in the case of biodiversity loss, P cycle and land-system change, the transgression is in the zone of uncertainty—indicating an increasing risk (yellow circle in the figure), the N boundary related to agriculture is more than 200% transgressed—indicating a high risk (red marked circle in the figure). Here, nutrition includes food processing and trade as well as food consumption (preparation of food in households and gastronomy). Consumption-related environmental impacts are not quantified at the global level for the planetary boundaries of freshwater use, atmospheric aerosol loading (air pollution) and stratospheric ozone depletion.
- Rockström & 28 others 2009.
- Nature 2009.
- Rockström 2009.
- Rockström, Steffen & 27 others 2009.
- Molina 2009.
- Steffen et al. 2015.
- Steffen et al. 2018.
- Watts, Jonathan (7 August 2018). "Domino-effect of climate events could push Earth into a 'hothouse' state". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
- Meadows & others 1972.
- Meyer & Nørgård 2010.
- van Vuuren & Faber 2009, p. 23
- Turner 2008, p. 37.
- Nørgård, Peet & Ragnarsdóttir 2010.
- Also known as the Brundtland Report 1987.
- Lovelock 1972; Lovelock & Margulis 1974.
- Dansgaard & others1993; Petit & others 1999; Rioual & others 2001.
- van der Leeuw 2008.
- Crutzen 2002; Steffen, Crutzen & McNeill 2007; Zalasiewicz & others 2010.
- Hamilton, Clive (2017). Defiant earth: the fate of humans in the anthropocene. Polity. ISBN 9781509519743. OCLC 1027177323.
- IPCC AR4 WG2 2007.
- World Meteorological Organization 2011.
- Mace, Masundire & Baillie 2005; Folke & others 2004; Gordon, Peterson & Bennett 2008.
- Mace, Masundire & Baillie 2005.
- Shiklomanov & Rodda 2003.
- Gordon, Peterson & Bennett 2008.
- Stern 2007.
- Chapron, Guillaume; Epstein, Yaffa; Trouwborst, Arie; López-Bao, José Vicente (February 2017). "Bolster legal boundaries to stay within planetary boundaries". Nature Ecology & Evolution. 1 (3): 0086. doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0086. PMID 28812716. S2CID 31914128.
- Steffen, Rockström & Costanza 2011.
- "The nine planetary boundaries" (web page). Stockholm Resilience Centre. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- Recent Mauna Loa CO2 Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA Research.
- NASA Global Climate Change. "Carbon Dioxide Concentration | NASA Global Climate Change". Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- Allen 2009; Heffernan 2009; Morris 2010; Pearce 2010, pp. 34–45, "Climate change".
- Butler, James; Montzka, Stephen. "THE NOAA ANNUAL GREENHOUSE GAS INDEX (AGGI)". Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division. NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- Allen 2009.
- Samper 2009; Daily 2010; Faith & others 2010; Friends of Europe 2010; Pearce 2010, p. 33, "Biodiversity".
- Schlesinger 2009; Pearce 2009; UNEP 2010, pp. 28–29; Howarth 2010; Pearce 2010, pp. 33–34, "Nitrogen and phosphorus cycles".
- Schlesinger 2009; Carpenter & Bennett 2011; Townsend & Porder 2011; Ragnarsdottir, Sverdrup & Koca 2011; UNEP 2011, pp. 35–46; Ulrich, Malley & Voora 2009; Vaccari 2010.
- Brewer 2009; UNEP 2010, pp. 36–37; Doney 2010; Pearce 2010, p. 32, "Acid oceans".
- Bass 2009; Euliss & others 2010; Foley 2009; Lambin 2010; Pearce 2010, p. 34, "Land use".
- Molden 2009; Falkenmark & Rockström 2010; Timmermans & others 2011; Gleick 2010; Pearce 2010, pp. 32–33, "Fresh water".
- Molina 2009; Fahey 2010; Pearce 2010, p. 32, "Ozone depletion".
- Pearce 2010, p. 35, "Aerosol loading".
- Handoh & Kawai 2011; Handoh & Kawai 2014; Pearce 2010, p. 35, "Chemical pollution".
- Zimmer 2009.
- Clark 2011.
- Schlesinger 2009.
- Molden 2009.
- Brewer 2009.
- Bass 2009.
- Morris 2010.
- UN GSP 2 meeting 2011, p. 5.
- UN Sherpa 3 meeting 2011.
- UN Agenda 21.
- Sustainable agriculture key to green growth, poverty reduction UN Daily News, 1 June 2011, page 8.
- UNEP 2010, p. [page needed].
- "The Budapest Declaration". Transition towards sustainable food consumption and production in a resource constrained world. May 2011. Conference 4–5 May 2011 Budapest, Hungary. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012.
- Greenfield 2010.
- Martin, Henrichs & others 2010.
- UN GSP meeting 2012, p. 14.
- USGCRP 2009.
- IPCC AR4 WG1 2007, "Human and Natural Drivers of Climate Change". Archived from the original on 1 May 2010.
- Samper 2009.
- Neset & Cordell 2011, p. 2. sfn error: no target: CITEREFNesetCordell2011 (help)
- Cordell, Drangert & White 2009, p. 292. sfn error: no target: CITEREFCordellDrangertWhite2009 (help)
- Lewis 2008, p. 1. sfn error: no target: CITEREFLewis2008 (help)
- Gruber, Sarmiento & Stocker 1996.
- Palaniappan & Gleick 2008.
- "Underlying Causes of Deforestation and Forest Degradation". World Rainforest Movement. Archived from the original on 11 April 2001.
- Matters left pending and other issues arising from the programme elements of the IPF process. Underlying causes of deforestation; traditional forest-related knowledge; forest conservation and protected areas; and research priorities (Report). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). 1999.
- Larsen 2005; Sandford 2009.
- Manney et al. 2011, p. 473.
- IPCC AR4 WG1 2007.
- Handoh & Kawai 2011.
- Handoh & Kawai 2014.
- Rockström & 28 others 2009, Appendix 1. Supplementary Information.
- Steffen, Will (2012) Rio+20: Another step on the journey towards sustainability The Conversation, 29 June 2012.
- Raworth, Kate (2012) A safe and just space for humanity: Can we live within the doughnut? Oxfam Discussion Paper, 2012.
- Climate change: Understanding Rio+20 UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, ITIN, 3 April 2012.
- Daniel W. O’Neill; Andrew L. Fanning; William F. Lamb; Julia Steinberger (2018). "A good life for all within planetary boundaries" (PDF). Nature Sustainability. 1 (2): 88–95. doi:10.1038/s41893-018-0021-4. ISSN 2398-9629. S2CID 169679920.
- Björn Nykvist, Åsa Persson, Fredrik Moberg, Linn Persson, Sarah Cornell, Johan Rockström: National Environmental Performance on Planetary Boundaries, commissioned by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 2013.
- Hy Dao, Pascal Peduzzi, Damien Friot: National environmental limits and footprints based on the Planetary Boundaries framework: The case of Switzerland, University of Geneva, Institute for Environmental Sciences, GRID-Geneva, EA - Shaping Environmental Action, 2018.
- Paul Lucas, Harry Wilting: Towards a Safe Operating Space for the Netherlands: Using planetary boundaries to support national implementation of environment-related SDGs, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency 2018.
- Tina Häyhä, Sarah E. Cornell, Holger Hoff, Paul Lucas, Detlef van Vuuren: the concept of a safe operating space at the EU level – first steps and explorations, Stockholm Resilience Centre, 2018.
- bluedot.world: Environmental footprint of nations.
- Kai Fang, Reinout Heijungs, Zheng Duan, Geert R. de Snoo: The Environmental Sustainability of Nations: Benchmarking the Carbon, Water and Land Footprints against Allocated Planetary Boundaries, Sustainability 2015, 7, 11285-11305.
- Running, Steven W. (2012). "A Measurable Planetary Boundary for the Biosphere". Science. 337 (6101): 1458–1459. Bibcode:2012Sci...337.1458R. doi:10.1126/science.1227620. PMID 22997311. S2CID 128815842.
- Has Plant Life Reached Its Limits? New York Times, 20 September 2012.
- Biomass should be tenth tipping point, researcher says SciDev.Net, 27 March 2012.
- Rio+20 zero draft accepts 'planetary boundaries' SciDev.Net, 28 March 2012.
- Secretary-General Highlights Key Points... United Nations News, 16 March 2012.
- Zero draft of the outcome document RIO+20, United Nations Conference on Sustainability Development.
- Your guide to science and technology at Rio+20 scidev.net, 12 June 2012.
- Meier 2017
- Allen, M. (2009), "Planetary boundaries: Tangible targets are critical", [commentary], Nature Reports Climate Change (910): 114, doi:10.1038/climate.2009.95
- Bass, S. (2009), "Planetary boundaries: Keep off the grass", [commentary], Nature Reports Climate Change (910): 113, doi:10.1038/climate.2009.94
- Bellwood, D. R.; Hughes, T. P.; Folke, C.; Nyström, M. (2004), "Confronting the coral reef crisis" (PDF), Nature, 429 (6994): 827–833, Bibcode:2004Natur.429..827B, doi:10.1038/nature02691, PMID 15215854, S2CID 404163
- Brewer, P. (2009), "Planetary boundaries: Consider all consequences", [commentary], Nature Reports Climate Change (910): 117, doi:10.1038/climate.2009.98
- Carpenter, S. R.; Bennett, E. M. (2011), "Reconsideration of the planetary boundary for phosphorus" (PDF), Environmental Research Letters, 6 (1): 014009, Bibcode:2011ERL.....6a4009C, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/1/014009
- Clark, Bill (2011), Grand Challenges of Sustainability Science (PDF), Presentation to Resilience 2011 conference on Resilience, Innovation, and Sustainability: Navigating the Complexities of Global Change, 11–16 March, Arizona State University
- Crutzen, Paul J. (3 January 2002), "Geology of mankind – The Anthropocene" (PDF), Nature, 415 (6867): 23, Bibcode:2002Natur.415...23C, doi:10.1038/415023a, PMID 11780095, S2CID 9743349, archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2012
- Daily, Gretchen (April 2010), Foley, J.; et al. (eds.), "Boundaries for a Healthy Planet", Scientific American (Biodiversity Loss), vol. 302 no. 4, pp. 54–57, Bibcode:2010SciAm.302d..54F, doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0410-54, PMID 20349574
- Dansgaard, W.; Johnsen, S.J.; Clausen, H.B.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; et al. (15 July 1993), "Evidence for general instability of past climate from a 250-kyr ice-core record" (PDF), Nature, 364 (6434): 218–20, Bibcode:1993Natur.364..218D, doi:10.1038/364218a0, S2CID 4304321
- De'Ath, G.; Lough, J. M.; Fabricius, K. E. (2009), "Declining Coral Calcification on the Great Barrier Reef" (PDF), Science, 323 (5910): 116–119, Bibcode:2009Sci...323..116D, doi:10.1126/science.1165283, PMID 19119230, S2CID 206515977
- Doney, Scott C. (April 2010), Foley, J.; et al. (eds.), "Boundaries for a Healthy Planet", Scientific American (Ocean Acidification), vol. 302 no. 4, pp. 54–57, Bibcode:2010SciAm.302d..54F, doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0410-54, PMID 20349574
- Euliss, N. H.; Smith, L. M.; Liu, S.; Feng, M.; Mushet, D. M.; Auch, R. F.; Loveland, T. R. (2010), "The Need for Simultaneous Evaluation of Ecosystem Services and Land Use Change", Environmental Science & Technology, 44 (20): 7761–3, Bibcode:2010EnST...44.7761E, doi:10.1021/es102761c, PMID 20809588
- Fahey, David (April 2010), Foley, J.; et al. (eds.), "Boundaries for a Healthy Planet", Scientific American (Ozone Depletion), vol. 302 no. 4, pp. 54–57, Bibcode:2010SciAm.302d..54F, doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0410-54, PMID 20349574
- Faith, D. P.; Magallón, S.; Hendry, A. P.; Conti, E.; Yahara, T.; Donoghue, M. J. (2010), "Evosystem services: An evolutionary perspective on the links between biodiversity and human well-being" (PDF), Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 2 (1–2): 66–74, doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2010.04.002
- Falkenmark, M.; Rockström, J. (2010), "Back to basics on water as constraint for global food production: Opportunities and limitations", in Garrido, A.; Ingram, H. (eds.), Water for food in a changing world, 2nd. vol., Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-61911-0 It is unclear whether the editor was referring to a paper from the conference, or the book, or the Kindle e-book edition (ISBN 1-136-80810-8)
- Foley, Jonathan (5 October 2009), "The Other Inconvenient Truth: The Crisis in Global Land Use", Yale Environment 360
- Folke, C.; Carpenter, S.; Walker, B.; Scheffer, M.; Elmqvist, T.; Gunderson, L.; Holling, C. S. (2004), "Regime Shifts, Resilience, and Biodiversity in Ecosystem Management" (PDF), Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 35: 557–81, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.489.8717, doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.35.021103.105711, archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2012
- Friends of Europe (2010), Biodiversity: a crisis in search of a policy? (PDF), Policy briefing for pricing the Earth, policy summit, Green Week 1–2 June 2010
- Gleick, Peter (April 2010), Foley, J.; et al. (eds.), "Boundaries for a Healthy Planet", Scientific American (Freshwater Use), vol. 302 no. 4, pp. 54–57, Bibcode:2010SciAm.302d..54F, doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0410-54, PMID 20349574
- Gordon, L. J.; Peterson, G. D.; Bennett, E. M. (2008), "Agricultural modifications of hydrological flows create ecological surprises" (PDF), Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23 (4): 211–19, doi:10.1016/j.tree.2007.11.011, PMID 18308425
- Gordon, Line J.; Steffen, Will; Jönsson, Bror F.; Folke, Carl; Falkenmar, Malin; Johannessen, Åse (2005), "Human modification of global water vapor flows from the land surface", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102 (21): 7612–7617, Bibcode:2005PNAS..102.7612G, doi:10.1073/pnas.0500208102, PMC 1140421, PMID 15890780
- Greenfield, O. (April 2010), Discussion input for the 4th session: Corporate social responsibility in a globalised economy [meeting abstract] (PDF), European Conference: “Towards a Greater Understanding of the Changing Role of Business in Society", Brussels, 22 April 2010
- Gruber, N.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Stocker, T. F. (December 1996), "An improved method for detecting anthropogenic CO2 in the oceans" (PDF), Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10 (4): 809–837, Bibcode:1996GBioC..10..809G, doi:10.1029/96GB01608
- Guinotte, J. M.; Fabry, V. J. (2008), "Ocean Acidification and Its Potential Effects on Marine Ecosystems" (PDF), Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1134 (1): 320–342, Bibcode:2008NYASA1134..320G, doi:10.1196/annals.1439.013, PMID 18566099, S2CID 15009920
- Handoh, Itsuki C.; Kawai, Toru (2011), "Bayesian Uncertainty Analysis of the Global Dynamics of Persistent Organic Pollutants: Towards Quantifying the Planetary Boundaries for Chemical Pollution"" (PDF), in Omori, K.; et al. (eds.), Interdisciplinary Studies on Environmental Chemistry—Marine Environmental Modeling & Analysis, Terrapub, pp. 179–187
- Handoh, Itsuki C.; Kawai, Toru (2014), "Modelling exposure of oceanic higher trophic-level consumers to polychlorinated biphenyls: Pollution 'hotspots' in relation to mass mortality events of marine mammals", Marine Pollution Bulletin, 85 (8): 824–830, doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.06.031, ISSN 0025-326X, PMID 25016416
- Heffernan, O. (2009), "A safe space", Nature Reports Climate Change (910): 109, doi:10.1038/climate.2009.103
- Howarth, Robert (April 2010), Foley, J.; et al. (eds.), "Boundaries for a Healthy Planet", Scientific American (Nitrogen Cycle), vol. 302 no. 4, pp. 54–57, Bibcode:2010SciAm.302d..54F, doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0410-54, PMID 20349574
- IPCC AR4 WG1 (2007), Solomon, S.; Qin, D.; Manning, M.; Chen, Z.; et al. (eds.), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-88009-1 (pb: 978-0-521-70596-7)
- IPCC AR4 WG2 (2007), Parry, M.L.; Canziani, O.F.; Palutikof, J.P.; van der Linden, P.J.; et al. (eds.), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-88010-7 (pb: 978-0-521-70597-4)
- Lambin, Eric (April 2010), Foley, J.; et al. (eds.), "Boundaries for a Healthy Planet", Scientific American (Land Use), vol. 302 no. 4, pp. 54–57, Bibcode:2010SciAm.302d..54F, doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0410-54, PMID 20349574
- Larsen, Janet (7 April 2005), Plan B updates: Disappearing lakes, shrinking seas [web page], Washington, D.C.: Earth Policy Institute
- van der Leeuw, S. E. (2008), "Climate and Society: Lessons from the Past 10,000 Years", AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 37: 476–482, doi:10.1579/0044-7447-37.sp14.476, PMID 19205123, S2CID 25602752
- Lovelock, J. E. (August 1972), "Gaia as seen through the atmosphere", Atmospheric Environment, 6 (8): 579–580, Bibcode:1972AtmEn...6..579L, doi:10.1016/0004-6981(72)90076-5, ISSN 1352-2310
- Lovelock, J. E.; Margulis, L. (1974), "Atmospheric homeostasis by and for the biosphere: The gaia hypothesis", Tellus, 26 (1–2): 2–10, Bibcode:1974Tell...26....2L, doi:10.1111/j.2153-3490.1974.tb01946.x
- Mace, G.; Masundire, H.; Baillie, J. (2005), "Biodiversity", in Hassan, R.M.; Scholes, R.; Ash, N. (eds.), Ecosystems and human well-being: current state and trends : findings of the Condition and Trends Working Group of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, The millennium ecosystem assessment series, Island Press, pp. 79–115, ISBN 978-1-55963-228-7, LCCN 2005017196
- Manney, G. L.; Santee, M. L.; Rex, M.; Livesey, N. J.; et al. (27 October 2011), "Unprecedented Arctic ozone loss in 2011" (PDF), Nature, 478 (10556): 469–475, Bibcode:2011Natur.478..469M, doi:10.1038/nature10556, PMID 21964337, S2CID 4412386
- Martin, J.; Henrichs, T.; et al. (2010), The European environment – state and outlook 2010, Chapter 7: environmental challenges in a global context, European Environment Agency
- Meadows, D. H.; Meadows, D. L.; Randers, J.; Behrens III, W. W. (1972), The Limits to Growth: a report for the Club of Rome's project on the predicament of mankind, Universe Books, ISBN 978-0-87663-165-2
- Meier, Toni (2017), "Planetary boundaries of agriculture and nutrition – an Anthropocene approach" (PDF), Proceedings of the Symposium on Communicating and Designing the Future of Food in the Anthropocene. Humboldt University Berlin, Bachmann Publisher
- Meyer, N. I.; Nørgård, J. S. (2010), Policy Means for Sustainable Energy Scenarios (abstract) (PDF), Denmark: International Conference on Energy, Environment and Health – Optimisation of Future Energy Systems, pp. 133–137, archived from the original (PDF) on 9 October 2016, retrieved 5 July 2011
- Molden, D. (2009), "Planetary boundaries: The devil is in the detail", [commentary], Nature Reports Climate Change (910): 116, doi:10.1038/climate.2009.97
- Molina, M. J. (2009), "Planetary boundaries: Identifying abrupt change", [commentary], Nature Reports Climate Change, 1 (910): 115–116, doi:10.1038/climate.2009.96
- Morris, Adele (April 2010), Foley, J.; et al. (eds.), "Boundaries for a Healthy Planet", Scientific American (Climate Change), 302 (4): 54–57, Bibcode:2010SciAm.302d..54F, doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0410-54, PMID 20349574
- Nature (24 September 2009), "Earth's boundaries?", [editorial], Nature, 461 (7263): 447–448, Bibcode:2009Natur.461R.447., doi:10.1038/461447b, PMID 19779405
- Nørgård, J. S.; Peet, J.; Ragnarsdóttir, K. V. (2010), "The History of The Limits to Growth", Solutions, 2 (1): 59–63
- Palaniappan, M.; Gleick, P. H. (2008), "Peak Water", in Gleick, P. H.; Cooley, H.; Morikawa, M. (eds.), The World's Water 2008–2009: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources (PDF), Island Press, ISBN 978-1-59726-505-8, archived from the original (PDF) on 20 March 2009 See also: Peak water.
- Pearce, Fred (5 November 2009). "The Nitrogen Fix: Breaking a Costly Addiction". Yale Environment 360.
- Pearce, Fred (24 February 2010), "From ocean to ozone: Earth's nine life-support systems", New Scientist, no. 2749, pp. 30–35
- Petit, JR; Jouzel, J; Raynaud, D; Barkov, NI; Barnola, JM; Basile, I; Bender, M; Chappellaz, J; Davis, M; Delaygue, G; Delmotte, M; Kotlyakov, VM; Legrand, M; Lipenkov, VY; Lorius, C; Pépin, L; Ritz, C; Saltzman, E; Stievenard, M (1999), "Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica" (PDF), Nature, 399 (6735): 429–36, Bibcode:1999Natur.399..429P, doi:10.1038/20859, S2CID 204993577, archived from the original (PDF) on 17 November 2017, retrieved 7 July 2011
- Ragnarsdottir, K. V.; Sverdrup, H. U.; Koca, D. (2011), "Challenging the planetary boundaries I: Basic principles of an integrated model for phosphorous [sic] supply dynamics and global population size", Applied Geochemistry, 26: S303–S306, Bibcode:2011ApGC...26S.303R, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.03.088
- Rioual, P.; Andrieu-Ponel, V. R.; Rietti-Shati, M.; Battarbee, R. W.; De Beaulieu, J. L.; Cheddadi, R.; Reille, M.; Svobodova, H.; Shemesh, A. (2001), "High-resolution record of climate stability in France during the last interglacial period", Nature, 413 (6853): 293–296, Bibcode:2001Natur.413..293R, doi:10.1038/35095037, PMID 11565028, S2CID 4347303
- Rockström, Johan (26 October 2009), Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity (PDF) (presentation), Stockholm Resilience Centre, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, Master Class, Club of Rome General Assembly, 26 Oct 2009
- Rockström, J; et al. (2009), "Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity" (PDF), Ecology and Society, 14 (2): 32, doi:10.5751/ES-03180-140232
- Rockström, J; Steffen, WL; et al. (24 September 2009), "A safe operating space for humanity", Nature, 461 (7263): 472–475, Bibcode:2009Natur.461..472R, doi:10.1038/461472a, PMID 19779433, S2CID 205049746
- Samper, C. (2009), "Planetary boundaries: Rethinking biodiversity", [commentary], Nature Reports Climate Change, 1 (910): 118–119, doi:10.1038/climate.2009.99
- Sandford, R. N. (2009), Restoring the flow : confronting the world's water woes, Victoria B.C: Rocky Mountain Books, ISBN 978-1-897522-52-3
- Schlesinger, W. H. (2009), "Planetary boundaries: Thresholds risk prolonged degradation", [commentary], Nature Reports Climate Change (910): 112, doi:10.1038/climate.2009.93
- Shiklomanov, I. A.; Rodda, J. C., eds. (2003), World water resources at the beginning of the twenty-first century (PDF), Cambridge University Press, Bibcode:2004wwrb.book.....S, ISBN 978-0-521-61722-2
- Steffen, W.; Crutzen, P. J.; McNeill, J. R. (2007), "The Anthropocene: Are Humans Now Overwhelming the Great Forces of Nature", AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 36 (8): 614–21, doi:10.1579/0044-7447(2007)36[614:TAAHNO]2.0.CO;2, ISSN 0044-7447, PMID 18240674
- Steffen, W.; Rockström, J.; Costanza, R. (May 2011), "How Defining Planetary Boundaries Can Transform Our Approach to Growth", Solutions, 2 (3)
- Steffen, W.; Richardson, K.; Rockström, J.; Cornell, S. E.; et al. (2015). "Planetary boundaries: Guiding human development on a changing planet". Science. 347 (6223): 1259855. doi:10.1126/science.1259855. PMID 25592418.
- Steffen, Will; Rockström, Johan; Richardson, Katherine; Lenton, Timothy M.; et al. (2018). "Trajectories of the Earth System in the Anthropocene". PNAS. 115 (33): 8252–8259. Bibcode:2018PNAS..115.8252S. doi:10.1073/pnas.1810141115. PMC 6099852. PMID 30082409.
- Stern, Nicholas (2007), The economics of climate change : the Stern review, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-70080-1, archived from the original on 7 April 2010 The web page inverts the book title.
- The Stockholm Memorandum: Tipping the Scales towards Sustainability (PDF) (presentation), 18 May 2011, Third Nobel Laureate Symposium on Global Sustainability, Stockholm, 16–19 May 2011
- Sverdrup, H. U.; Ragnarsdottir, K. V. (June 2011), "Challenging the planetary boundaries II: Assessing the sustainable global population and phosphate supply, using a systems dynamics assessment model", Applied Geochemistry, 26: S307–S310, Bibcode:2011ApGC...26S.307S, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.03.089
- Timmermans, J.; Kwakkel, J.; van de Giesen, N.; Thissen, W. (2011), "Blue limits of the Blue Planet: an exploratory analysis of safe operating spaces for human water use under deep uncertaint [abstract]" (PDF), Geophysical Research Abstracts, 13, EGU2011-7446
- Townsend, A. R.; Porder, S. (June 2011), "Boundary issues", Environmental Research Letters, 6 (1): 011001, Bibcode:2011ERL.....6a1001T, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/1/011001
- Turner, Graham (2008), A comparison of The Limits to Growth with thirty years of reality (PDF), Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Sustainable Ecosystems, archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2010
- Ulrich, A.; Malley, D.; Voora, V. (2009), Peak Phosphorus: Opportunity in the Making — Why the Phosphorus Challenge Presents a New Paradigm for Food Security and Water Quality in the Lake Winnipeg Basin, Winnipeg, Canada: International Institute for Sustainable Development
- "Sustainable agriculture key to green growth, poverty reduction" (PDF), UN Daily News, 1 June 2011
- United Nations Environment Programme (2010), Year Book 2010: New Science and Developments in Our Changing Environment (PDF), Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Programme. Division of Early Warning and Assessment, ISBN 978-92-807-3044-9
- United Nations Environment Programme (2011), Year Book 2011: Emerging Issues in Our Global Environment (PDF), Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Programme. Division of Early Warning and Assessment, ISBN 978-92-807-3101-9
- United Nations General Assembly (16 August 2010), Implementation of Agenda 21, the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 and the outcomes of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (PDF), Report of the Secretary-General to the General Assembly of the United Nations
- United Nations High-level Panel on Global Sustainability (February 2011), Meeting Report (PDF), Second meeting of the Panel, Cape Town, 24–25 February 2011
- United Nations High-level Panel on Global Sustainability (April 2011), Meeting Report (PDF), Report of the meeting of the GSP Sherpas held in Madrid, Spain, 13–14 April 2011
- United Nations High-level Panel on Global Sustainability (2012). Resilient People, Resilient Planet: A future worth choosing (PDF) (Report). New York: United Nations. Retrieved 30 January 2012.
- U.S. Global Change Research Program (2009), Karl, T. R.; Melillo, J. M.; Peterson, T. C. (eds.), Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-14407-0
- Vaccari, David (April 2010), Foley, J (ed.), "Boundaries for a Healthy Planet", Scientific American (Phosphorus Cycle), vol. 302 no. 4, pp. 54–57, Bibcode:2010SciAm.302d..54F, doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0410-54, PMID 20349574
- van Vuuren, D. P.; Faber, A. (2009), Growing within Limits – A Report to the Global Assembly 2009 of the Club of Rome (PDF), Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, ISBN 978-90-6960-234-9
- World Commission on Environment and Development (4 August 1987), Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on Environment & Development (The Bruntland Report), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-282080-8
- World Meteorological Organization (2011), WMO statement on the status of the global climate in 2010 (PDF), Geneva: World Meteorological Organization, ISBN 978-92-63-11074-9, WMO-No. 1074
- Young, O. R.; Steffen, W. (2009), "The Earth system: sustaining planetary life-support systems", in Chapin III, F. S.; Kofinas, G. P.; Folke, C. (eds.), Principles of ecosystem stewardship: resilience-based natural resource management in a changing world, Springer, pp. 295–315, ISBN 978-0-3877-3032-5
- Zalasiewicz, J.; Williams, M.; Steffen, W.; Crutzen, P. (2010), "The New World of the Anthropocene" (PDF), Environmental Science & Technology, 44 (7): 2228–2231, Bibcode:2010EnST...44.2228Z, doi:10.1021/es903118j, PMID 20184359
- Zimmer, Carl (23 September 2009). "Provocative New Study Warns of Crossing Planetary Boundaries". Yale Environment 360.
- Cornell, Sarah (2012). "On the System Properties of the Planetary Boundaries" (PDF). Ecology and Society. 17. doi:10.5751/ES-04731-1701r02.
- Folke, C; Gunderson, L (2010). "Resilience and Global Sustainability" (PDF). Ecology and Society. 15 (4): 43. doi:10.5751/ES-03954-150443.
- Foster JB, Clark B and York R (2010) The Ecological Rift: Capitalism's War on the Earth Monthly Review Press. ISBN 9781583672198. Review
- Galaz V, Biermann F, Crona B, Loorbach D, Folke C, Olsson P, Nilsson M, Allouche J, Persson A and Reischl G (2011)Planetary Boundaries-Exploring the Challenges for Global Environmental Governance Beijer Discussion Paper, Series No. 230.
- Garver G (2011) "A Framework for Novel and Adaptive Governance Approaches Based on Planetary Boundaries" Colorado State University, Colorado Conference on Earth System Governance, 17–20 May 2011.
- Geisler, C (2010). "Must Biodiversity Hot-Spots Be Social Not-Spots? Win-Win Ecology as Sustainable Social Policy". Consilience: The Journal of Sustainable Development. 4 (1): 119–133.
- Horner, Jack (2010) "A Dynamical Implementation of the Stockholm Resilience Center Safe Operating Space Model" In Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Scientific Computing, CSC 2010, pages 236–242. Eds. HR Arabnia et al. 12–15 July 2010, Nevada, CSREA Press. ISBN 1-60132-137-6.
- Lenton TM, Held H, Kriegler E, Jim W. Hall JW, Lucht W, Rahmstorf S and Schellnhuber HJ (2008) "Tipping elements in the Earth’s climate system" PNAS105(6): 1786–1793. (Precursor elements?)
- Lynas, M (2011) The God Species: How the planet can survive the age of humans HarperCollins. ISBN 9780007313426.
- Lynas, Mark (2012) "The Smart Way to Play God with Earth's Limited Land" Scientific American, 20 January 2012.
- Meadows DH, Randers J and Meadows DL (2005) Limits to growth: the 30-year update Edition 3, revised, Earthscan. ISBN 9781844071449.
- Moldan, Bedřich; Janoušková, Svatava; Hák, Tomáš (2012). "How to understand and measure environmental sustainability: Indicators and targets". Ecological Indicators. 17: 4–13. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.04.033.
- Richardson K, Steffen W, and Liverman D (2011) Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions Cambridge University Press, pp. 485–487. ISBN 9780521198363.
- Richardson K (2010) Biodiversity, a global threshold orgprints.org.
- Rockström, J (2010). "Planetary Boundaries" (PDF). New Perspectives Quarterly. 27 (1): 72–74. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5842.2010.01142.x.
- Rockström, Johan. "Bounding the Planetary Future: Why We Need a Great Transition." Great Transition Initiative (April 2015), https://www.greattransition.org/publication/bounding-the-planetary-future-why-we-need-a-great-transition.
- Rockström, J; Falkenmark, M; Lannerstad, M; Karlberg, L (2012). "The planetary water drama: Dual task of feeding humanity and curbing climate change". Geophysical Research Letters. 39 (15): L15401. Bibcode:2012GeoRL..3915401R. doi:10.1029/2012gl051688.
- Rockström, J; Karlberg, L (2010). "The Quadruple Squeeze: Defining the safe operating space for freshwater use to achieve a triply green revolution in the Anthropocene". AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment. 39 (3): 257–265. doi:10.1007/s13280-010-0033-4. PMC 2890077. PMID 20701182.
- Scheffer, M; Bascompte, J; Brock, WA; Brovkin, V; Carpenter, SR; Dakos, V; Held, H; van Nes, EH; Rietkerk, M; Sugihara, G (2009). "Early-warning signals for critical transitions" (PDF). Nature. 461 (7260): 53–59. Bibcode:2009Natur.461...53S. doi:10.1038/nature08227. PMID 19727193. S2CID 4001553.
- Steffen, W; Grinevald, J; Crutzen, P; McNeill, J (2011). "The Anthropocene: conceptual and historical perspective". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 369 (1938): 842–867. Bibcode:2011RSPTA.369..842S. doi:10.1098/rsta.2010.0327. PMID 21282150.
- Will Steffen, A. Sanderson, Jill Jäger, Pamela A. Matson, Peter D. Tyson, Berrien Moore III, Frank Oldfield, Katherine Richardson, Hans-Joachim Schellnhuber, Billie L. Turner, Robert J. Wasson (2004) Global Change and the Earth System: A Planet Under Pressure The IGBP Series. Springer ISBN 978-3-540-26594-8.
- Victor, P (2010). "Questioning economic growth". Nature. 468 (7322): 370–371. Bibcode:2010Natur.468..370V. doi:10.1038/468370a. PMID 21085153. S2CID 205060280.
- Wijkman, Anders; Rockström, Johan (2012). Bankrupting Nature: Denying Our Planetary Boundaries. A report to the Club of Rome. Routledge. ISBN 9780415539692.
- Establishing Environmental Sustainability Thresholds and Indicators Ecologic Institute and Sustainable Europe Research Institute (SERI)[who?], Final report to the European Commission’s DG Environment, November 2010.
- From ocean to ozone: Earth's nine life-support systems New Scientist, issue 2749, 24 February 2010.
- Living in the Anthropocene: Toward a New Global Ethos Paul J. Crutzen and Christian Schwägerl, Yale Environment 360, 22 February 2011.
- The Anthropocene Debate: Marking Humanity’s Impact Elizabeth Kolbert, Yale Environment 360, 17 May 2010.
- Planetary Boundaries and the New Generation Gap Alex Steffen, Worldchanging, 30 June 2009.
- Djoghlaf A and Dodds F (Eds.) (2011) Biodiversity and Ecosystem Insecurity: A Planet in Peril, Earthscan. ISBN 9781849712200.
- Sachs, Jeffrey D. (2009). "Sustainable Developments – Transgressing Planetary Boundaries". Scientific American. 301 (6): 36. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1209-36. PMID 20058632.
- "Boundaries for a Healthy Planet" by Foley J, Daily GC, Howarth R, Vaccari DA, Morris AC, Lambin EF, Doney SC, Peter H. Gleick and Fahey DW. Scientific American, April 2010. Includes opinion essays by invited experts on the planetary boundaries.
- "Prophesy of economic collapse 'coming true'", by Jeff Hecht, New Scientist, 17 November 2008.
- "Welcome to the Anthropocene" The Economist, 26 May May 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Planetary boundaries.|
- Planetary Boundaries: Specials Nature, 24 September 2009.
- Johan Rockstrom: Let the environment guide our development TED video, July 2010. Transcript html
- Planetary boundaries: what are the limits of the earth? - podcast The Guardian, 30 January 2013.
- on YouTube