Wikipedia open wikipedia design.

Private Company
Industry Commodities trading
Founded 1901
Founder Julius Philipp
Oscar Philipp
Headquarters Stamford, Connecticut
Key people
Simon Greenshields
Parent Occidental Petroleum Corporation

Phibro is an international physical commodities trading firm. Phibro trades in crude oil, oil products, natural gas, precious and base metals, agricultural products, commodity-related equities, and other products. Phibro’s headquarters are located in Stamford, Connecticut.[1]


The origin of the company traces to 1901 when Julius Philipp, an Orthodox Jew, founded a small metal trading company in Hamburg, Germany[2] and then in 1909, Philipp's younger brother, Oscar Philipp established a metal trading company in London under the name of Philipp Brothers.[2][3][4][5] Julius continued to run the German operation out of Hamburg.[2] In 1914, with the advent of World War I, Siegfried Bendheim, an apprentice, German citizen, and minor partner, avoided internment by the British government by moving to New York City where he established Philipp Brothers, Inc.; Oscar Philipp continued to operate the London office as he had previously obtained British citizenship.[2] In 1923, another apprentice and second cousin to Bendheim, Siegfried Ullmann, moved to the New York office.[2] Responsibilities in New York were divided with Bendheim responsible for chemicals and Ullmann for metals, scrap, and ore including their mining operations in Bolivia.[2] In 1934, Julius moved Philipp Brothers' German operations to Amsterdam due to the rise of Nazi Germany (Julius perished in 1944 in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp).[6] The New York office eventually became Philipp Brothers headquarters.[6]

In 1967, it was acquired and became the Philipp Brothers Division of Engelhard Minerals & Chemicals Corporation. In 1981 the company was spun off as Phibro Corporation, and that same year the company subsequently acquired Salomon Brothers, creating Phibro-Salomon Inc.[7] Phibro Energy, Inc. was established in 1984, absorbing the oil department of Philipp Brothers. In 1986, the combined company removed the Phibro name from the parent company.[8] In 1993, Phibro Energy, Inc. became the Phibro Energy Division of Salomon Inc.[9] It was renamed simply "Phibro" in 1996, and in 1997, Salomon was acquired by Travelers Group, which merged with Citicorp to form Citigroup in 1998.[8] With the merger, Salomon became an indirect, wholly owned subsidiary of Citigroup.

Phibro came to the notice of the public when its leader, Andrew J. Hall reportedly was seeking a $100 million bonus from Citigroup, which had been bailed out by U.S. taxpayers in 2009. Reportedly Phibro was the main source of the $2 billion in pretax revenue Citigroup received in commodities trading.[10]

In October 2009, Occidental Petroleum announced it would acquire Phibro from Citigroup, estimating its net investment at approximately $250 million.[11]

In January 2016, it was purchased by Energy Arbitrage Partners for an undisclosed sum.[12]


  1. ^ Phibro, LLC. "Phibro". Retrieved 19 December 2010.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Storli, Espen (August 30, 2013). "Ludwig Jesselson (1910-1993)". Immigrant Entrepreneurship. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
  3. ^ Bloomberg. "Phibro LLC: Private Company Information - BusinessWeek". Retrieved 19 December 2010.
  4. ^ Phibro. "Phibro". Retrieved 24 December 2010.
  5. ^ Corkery, Michael (October 9, 2009). "10 Things You Didn't Know About Phibro and Andrew Hall". Wall Street Journal.
  6. ^ a b Meyer, Gregory (February 2, 2015). "Rise and fall of a commodities powerhouse". Financial Times.
  7. ^ "History of Salomon Inc. – FundingUniverse". Retrieved 2014-04-29.
  8. ^ a b "FACTBOX: A history of Citi's Phibro unit". Reuters. 2009-10-09. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
  9. ^ Kenneth N. Gilpin (1993-02-04). "COMPANY REPORTS; Salomon Shows a Turnaround in Earnings". New York Times. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
  10. ^ Segal, David (August 1, 2009). "$100 Million Payday Poses Problem for Pay Czar". New York Times.
  11. ^ Occidental Petroleum (2009-10-09). "Occidental Petroleum Announces Acquisition of Phibro". Business Wire. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
  12. ^ Gregory Meyer (2016-01-26). "Phibro bought by Former Wall Street banker". Financial Times. Retrieved 19 December 2010.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by contributors (read/edit).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.