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|Passive–aggressive personality disorder|
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revision IV (DSM-IV) describes passive–aggressive personality disorder as a "pervasive pattern of negativistic attitudes and passive resistance to demands for adequate performance in social and occupational situations."
Passive-aggressive behavior is the obligatory symptom of the passive–aggressive personality disorder. Persons with passive–aggressive personality disorder are characterized by procrastination, covert obstructionism, inefficiency and stubbornness.
Passive–aggressive disorder may stem from a specific childhood stimulus (e.g., alcohol/drug addicted parents, bullying, abuse) in an environment where it was not safe to express frustration or anger. Families in which the honest expression of feelings is forbidden tend to teach children to repress and deny their feelings and to use other channels to express their frustration. For example, if physical and psychological punishment were to be dealt to children who express anger, they would be inclined to be passive aggressive.
Children who sugarcoat hostility may have difficulties being assertive, never developing better coping strategies or skills for self-expression. They can become adults who, beneath a "seductive veneer," harbor "vindictive intent," in the words of US congressman/psychologist Timothy F. Murphy, and writer/practicing therapist Loriann Oberlin. Alternatively individuals may simply have difficulty being as directly aggressive or assertive as others. Martin Kantor suggests three areas that contribute to passive–aggressive anger in individuals: conflicts about dependency, control, and competition, and that a person may be termed passive–aggressive if they behave so to few people on most occasions.
Murphy and Oberlin also see passive aggression as part of a larger umbrella of hidden anger stemming from ten traits of the angry child or adult. These traits include making one's own misery, the inability to analyze problems, blaming others, turning bad feelings into angry ones, attacking people, lacking empathy, using anger to gain power, confusing anger with self-esteem, and indulging in negative self-talk. Lastly, the authors point out that those who hide their anger can be nice when they wish to be.
DSM-IV Appendix B
|Cluster A (odd)|
|Cluster B (dramatic)|
|Cluster C (anxious)|
Passive–aggressive personality disorder was listed as an Axis II personality disorder in the DSM-III-R, but was moved in the DSM-IV to Appendix B ("Criteria Sets and Axes Provided for Further Study") because of controversy and the need for further research on how to also categorize the behaviors in a future edition. According to DSM-IV, Passive–aggressive personality disorder is "often overtly ambivalent, wavering indecisively from one course of action to its opposite. They may follow an erratic path that causes endless wrangles with others and disappointment for themselves." Characteristic of these persons is an "intense conflict between dependence on others and the desire for self-assertion." Although exhibiting superficial bravado, their self-confidence is often very poor, and others react to them with hostility and negativity. This diagnosis is not made if the behavior is exhibited during a major depressive episode or can be attributed to dysthymic disorder.
The 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) of the World Health Organization (WHO) includes passive–aggressive personality disorder in the "other specific personality disorders" rubric (description: "a personality disorder that fits none of the specific rubrics: F60.0–F60.7"). ICD-10 code for "other specific personality disorders" is F60.8. For this psychiatric diagnosis a condition must meet the general criteria for personality disorder listed under F60 in the clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines.
The general criteria for personality disorder includes markedly disharmonious behavior and attitudes (involving such areas of functioning as affectivity – ability to experience affects: emotions or feelings, involving ways of perceiving and thinking, impulse control, arousal, style of relating to others), the abnormal behavior pattern (enduring, of long standing), personal distress and the abnormal behavior pattern must be clearly maladaptive and pervasive. Personality disorder must appear during childhood or adolescence and continue into adulthood.
Specific diagnostic criteria of the passive–aggressive personality disorder in the "Diagnostic criteria for research" by WHO is not presented.
|Vacillating negativist||Including borderline features||Emotions fluctuate in bewildering, perplexing, and enigmatic ways; difficult to fathom or comprehend own capricious and mystifying moods; wavers, in flux, and irresolute both subjectively and intrapsychically.|
|Discontented negativist||Including depressive and avoidant features||Grumbling, petty, testy, cranky, embittered, complaining, fretful, vexed, and moody; gripes behind pretense; avoids confrontation; uses legitimate but trivial complaints.|
|Circuitous negativist||Including dependent and antisocial features||Opposition displayed in a roundabout, labyrinthine, and ambiguous manner, e.g., procrastination, dawdling, forgetfulness, inefficiency, neglect, stubbornness, indirect and devious in venting resentment and resistant behaviors.|
|Abrasive negativist||Including sadistic features||Contentious, intransigent, fractious, and quarrelsome; irritable, caustic, debasing, corrosive, and acrimonious, contradicts and derogates; few qualms and little conscience or remorse. (no longer a valid diagnosis in DSM)|
Psychiatrist Kantor suggests a treatment approach using psychodynamic, supportive, cognitive, behavioral and interpersonal therapeutic methods. These methods apply to both the passive–aggressive person and their target victim.
In the first version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM-I, in 1952, the Passive–aggressive was defined in a narrow way, grouped together with the passive-dependent.
The DSM-III-R stated in 1987 that Passive–aggressive disorder is typified by, among other things, "fail[ing] to do the laundry or to stock the kitchen with food because of procrastination and dawdling."
- Benjamin J. Sadock, Virginia A. Sadock, (2008). Kaplan & Sadock's Concise Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-0-7817-8746-8. [page needed]
- Johnson, JG; Cohen, P; Brown, J; Smailes, EM; Bernstein, DP (July 1999), "Childhood maltreatment increases risk for personality disorders during early adulthood", Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 56 (7): 600–06, doi:10.1001/archpsyc.56.7.600, PMID 10401504
- Tim, Murphy; Hoff Oberlin, Loriann (2005), Overcoming passive aggression: how to stop hidden anger from spoiling your relationships, career and happiness, New York: Marlowe & Company, p. 48, ISBN 1-56924-361-1, retrieved April 27, 2010
- Kantor 2002, pp. xvi–xvii, 5.
- Tim, Murphy; Hoff Oberlin, Loriann (2005).[page needed]
- American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatic Association. pp. 733–34. ISBN 0-89042-024-6.
- "Disorders of adult personality and behaviour (F60–F69). F60 Specific personality disorders". The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders – Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines (PDF). Geneva: World Health Organization. pp. 157–58.
- "Disorders of adult personality and behaviour (F60–F69). F60.8 Other specified personality disorders". The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders – Diagnostic criteria for research (PDF). Geneva: World Health Organization. p. 157.
- Theodore Millon, Carrie M. Millon, Sarah E. Meagher; et al. (2012). Personality Disorders in Modern Life. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 529–31. ISBN 978-1-118-42881-8.
- Kantor 2002, p. 115.
- Lane, C (1 February 2009), "The Surprising History of Passive–aggressive Personality Disorder" (PDF), Theory & Psychology, 19 (1): 55–70, doi:10.1177/0959354308101419
- Kantor, Martin (2002), Passive-aggression: a guide for the therapist, the patient and the victim, Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, ISBN 0-275-97422-7, retrieved December 6, 2017.