National Progressive Front (Syria)

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National Progressive Front
الجبهة الوطنية التقدمية
PresidentBashar al-Assad
Vice-PresidentMohammad al-Shaar[1]
FounderHafez al-Assad
Founded1972; 49 years ago (1972)
HeadquartersDamascus
IdeologyPro-Syrian government
Arab nationalism
Arab socialism
Pan-Arabism
Secularism
Anti-imperialism
Political positionFactions:
Left-wing to far-left
People's Council
183 / 250
Council of Ministers
20 / 35
Website
pnf.org.sy

The National Progressive Front (Arabic: الجبهة الوطنية التقدمية‎, al-Jabha al-Waṭaniyyah at-Taqaddumiyyah, NPF) is a political alliance of parties in Syria that supports the anti-imperialist and Arab nationalist orientation of the government and accepts the "leading role" of the Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party, the largest party in the NPF.

History[edit]

The Front was established in 1972 by Syrian president Hafez al-Assad to provide for a limited degree of participation in government by political parties other than the ruling Ba'ath Party.[2] Its constitution provides that the Ba'ath Party controls 50% plus one of the votes on its executive committee. A number of seats in the People's Council of Syria are reserved for members of NPF parties other than the Ba'ath Party. These minor parties are legally required to accept the leadership of the Ba'ath Party. The non-Ba'athist parties in the Progressive Front, for example, are not allowed to canvass for supporters in the army or the student body which are "reserved exclusively for the Ba'ath."[3]

From 1972 to 2011, only parties participating in the NPF had been legally permitted to operate in Syria. The Legislative Decree on Parties law of 2011,[4] Legislative Decree on General Elections Law of 2011[5] and the new Syrian constitution of 2012[6] introduced multi-party system in Syria.

After previously being a part of NPF, Syrian Social Nationalist Party joined the opposition, Popular Front for Change and Liberation, for the May 2012 election to the parliament. However, the SSNP supported the re-election of Bashar al-Assad in the June 2014 presidential election and subsequently rejoined the front.[7]

Constituent parties[edit]

The NPF is currently composed of the following political parties:

Party Leader Ideology People's Council of Syria Government
Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party[8] Bashar al-Assad Neo-Ba'athism
Pan-Arabism
167 / 250
government
Syrian Social Nationalist Party[8] Fares al-Saad Syrian nationalism
Secularism
3 / 250
government
Arab Socialist Union Party[8] Safwan al-Qudsi Nasserism
Arab nationalism
3 / 250
government
Syrian Communist Party (Bakdash)[8] Ammar Bakdash Communism
Marxism-Leninism
2 / 250
government
Socialist Unionist Party[8] Shaaban Shaheen[9] Nasserism
Arab socialism
2 / 250
government
Syrian Communist Party (Unified)[8] Hanin Nimir Communism
2 / 250
government
National Covenant Party[8]
Ghassan Othman Arab socialism
Islamic socialism
2 / 250
government
Arabic Democratic Union Party[8] Iyad Ghassan Osman Nasserism
Arab nationalism
1 / 250
government
Democratic Socialist Unionist Party[8] Fadlallah Nasreddine Democratic socialism
Trade unionism
1 / 250
government
Arab Socialist Movement[10] Omar Adnan al-Alawi Neo-Ba'athism
Arab socialism
0 / 250
external support
Associated organisations
General Federation of Trade Unions[8] Yassin Tulaimat Trade unionism
Workers' rights
0 / 250
external support
General Union of Peasants[8] Ahmed Saleh Ibrahim Trade unionism
Agrarianism
0 / 250
external support
Revolutionary Youth Union[11] Maan Abboud Neo-Ba'athism
Youth activism
0 / 250
external support

Electoral history[edit]

Syrian People's Assembly elections[edit]

Election Seats +/– Position
1973
186 / 186
Increase 186 Increase 1st
1977
195 / 195
Increase 9 Steady 1st
1981
195 / 195
Steady Steady 1st
1986
195 / 195
Steady Steady 1st
1990
250 / 250
Increase 55 Steady 1st
1994
250 / 250
Steady Steady 1st
1998
250 / 250
Steady Steady 1st
2003
250 / 250
Steady Steady 1st
2007
250 / 250
Steady Steady 1st
2012
168 / 250
Decrease 82 Steady 1st
2016
200 / 250
Increase 32 Steady 1st
2020
183 / 250
Decrease 17 Steady 1st

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ phpline@gmail.com - 00963 933 878 476, Mohannad Orfali-. "الجبهة الوطنية التقدمية". pnf.org.sy.
  2. ^ Elizabeth O'Bagy (7 June 2012). "Syria's Political Struggle: Spring 2012" (Backgrounder). ISW. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  3. ^ Seale, Patrick, Asad, the Struggle for the Middle East, University of California Press, 1989, p. 176
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-08-05. Retrieved 2013-07-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-08-05. Retrieved 2013-07-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ "SANA Syrian News Agency - Constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic Approved in Popular Referendum on February 27, 2012, Article 8". Archived from the original on October 14, 2012.
  7. ^ "SSNP Supports Bashar al-Assad's Presidential Nomination". 7 May 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k phpline@gmail.com - 00963 933 878 476, Mohannad Orfali-. "الجبهة الوطنية التقدمية". pnf.org.sy.
  9. ^ phpline@gmail.com - 00963 933 878 476, Mohannad Orfali-. "حزب الوحدويين الاشتراكيين". pnf.org.sy.
  10. ^ Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "Quwat Muqatili al-Asha'ir: Tribal Auxiliary Forces of the Military Intelligence". Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2019-09-06. Retrieved 2019-08-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External links[edit]