Murine coronavirus

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Murine coronavirus
Virus classification e
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Phylum: incertae sedis
Order: Nidovirales
Family: Coronaviridae
Genus: Betacoronavirus
Subgenus: Embecovirus
Murine coronavirus
  • Mouse hepatitis virus[1]
  • Murine hepatitis virus[2]
  • Puffinosis coronavirus[2]
  • Rat coronavirus[2]

Murine coronavirus (M-CoV) is a species of coronavirus.[3][4] The infecting virus is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus which enters its host cell by binding to the CEACAM1 recepter.[5] It has, like other coronaviruses from genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Embecovirus, an additional hemagglutinin esterase (HE) gene.[6][4]

The Murine coronavirus (sometimes: Mouse hepatitis virus, MHV) is a coronavirus that causes an epidemic murine illness with high mortality, especially among colonies of laboratory mice. Prior to the discovery of SARS-CoV, M-CoV had been the best-studied coronavirus both in vivo and in vitro as well as at the molecular level. Some strains of M-CoV cause a progressive demyelinating encephalitis in mice which has been used as a murine model for multiple sclerosis. Significant research efforts have been focused on elucidating the viral pathogenesis of these animal coronaviruses, especially by virologists interested in veterinary and zoonotic diseases.

A feature of M-CoV is that many strains have the hemagglutinin-esterase gene turned into a pseudogene.[7] This does not, however, apply to M-CoVs in general, as other members like PV retain a functional version of this gene.[8]


  • "Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV)" (PDF). Division of Animal Resources, University of Illinois, Urbana.
  1. ^ ICTV 2nd Report Fenner, F. (1976). Classification and nomenclature of viruses. Second report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Intervirology 7: 1-115.
  2. ^ a b c de Groot, Raoul J.; et al. (2009). "Revision of the family Coronaviridae" (PDF). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). p. 36. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 February 2019. Retrieved 23 January 2020. Species Murine hepatitis virus; Puffinosis coronavirus; Rat coronavirus (these are to be united in a new species Murine coronavirus in a new genus Betacoronavirus)
  3. ^ Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Huang, Yi; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung (2010-08-24). "Coronavirus Genomics and Bioinformatics Analysis". Viruses. 2 (8): 1804–1820. doi:10.3390/v2081803. ISSN 1999-4915. PMC 3185738. PMID 21994708. Figure 2. Phylogenetic analysis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (Pol) of coronaviruses with complete genome sequences available. The tree was constructed by the neighbor-joining method and rooted using Breda virus polyprotein.
  4. ^ a b "Taxonomy browser (Murine coronavirus)". Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  5. ^ Fehr, Anthony R.; Perlman, Stanley (2015). "Coronaviruses: An Overview of Their Replication and Pathogenesis". Coronaviruses. Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 1282. pp. 1–23. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-2438-7_1. ISBN 978-1-4939-2437-0. ISSN 1064-3745. PMC 4369385. PMID 25720466. See Table 1.
  6. ^ Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Huang, Yi; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung (2010-08-24). "Coronavirus Genomics and Bioinformatics Analysis". Viruses. 2 (8): 1804–1820. doi:10.3390/v2081803. ISSN 1999-4915. PMC 3185738. PMID 21994708. In all members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A, a haemagglutinin esterase (HE) gene, which encodes a glycoprotein with neuraminate O-acetyl-esterase activity and the active site FGDS, is present downstream to ORF1ab and upstream to S gene (Figure 1).
  7. ^ Yokomori, K; Banner, LR; Lai, MM (August 1991). "Heterogeneity of gene expression of the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein of murine coronaviruses". Virology. 183 (2): 647–57. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(91)90994-m. PMID 1649505.
  8. ^ Klausegger, A; Strobl, B; Regl, G; Kaser, A; Luytjes, W; Vlasak, R (May 1999). "Identification of a coronavirus hemagglutinin-esterase with a substrate specificity different from those of influenza C virus and bovine coronavirus". Journal of Virology. 73 (5): 3737–43. doi:10.1128/JVI.73.5.3737-3743.1999. PMC 104150. PMID 10196267.

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