Member states of NATO

From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

Current NATO members highlighted in blue
Timeline of countries becoming NATO members as of 2020. Dark blue marks countries that were already NATO members at the given time. Light blue marks new members.

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is an international alliance that consists of 30 member states from North America and Europe. It was established at the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949. Article Five of the treaty states that if an armed attack occurs against one of the member states, it shall be considered an attack against all members, and other members shall assist the attacked member, with armed forces if necessary.[1]

Of the 30 member countries, two are located in North America (Canada and the United States), 28 are in Europe, one of which (Turkey) is in both Europe and Asia. All members have militaries, except for Iceland, which does not have a typical army (but it does have a coast guard and a small unit of civilian specialists for NATO operations). Three of NATO's members are nuclear weapons states: France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. NATO has 12 original founding member nation states, and from 18 February 1952 to 6 May 1955, it added three more member nations, and a fourth on 30 May 1982. After the end of the Cold War, NATO added 14 more member nations (10 former Warsaw Pact members and four former Yugoslav republics) from 12 March 1999 to 27 March 2020.

Founding and changes in membership[edit]

NATO has added new members eight times since its foundation, in 1949, with a total of 30 members. Twelve countries took part in the founding of NATO: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In 1952, Greece and Turkey became members of the Alliance, joined later by West Germany (in 1955) and Spain (in 1982). In 1990, with the reunification of Germany, NATO grew to include the former country of East Germany. Between 1994 and 1997, wider forums for regional cooperation between NATO and its neighbors were set up, including the Partnership for Peace, the Mediterranean Dialogue initiative and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council. In 1997, three former Warsaw Pact countries, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Poland, were invited to join NATO. After this fourth enlargement in 1999, the Vilnius group of the Baltics and seven East European countries formed in May 2000 to cooperate and lobby for further NATO membership. Seven of these countries joined in the fifth enlargement in 2004. The Adriatic States Albania and Croatia joined in the sixth enlargement in 2009, Montenegro in 2017 and North Macedonia in 2020.

United States President Donald Trump expressed interest in withdrawing from the organization during his 2016 presidential campaign, but he later stated that the United States would protect allies in the event that Article V is invoked.[2][3][4]

Member states[edit]

Flag Map Member state Capital Accession[5] Population[a] Area[7]
Flag of Albania
Map showing Albania in an orthographic projection
Albania Tirana 1 April 2009 2,821,977 28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi)
Flag of Belgium
Map showing Belgium in an orthographic projection
Belgium Brussels 24 August 1949[b] 11,720,716 30,528 km2 (11,787 sq mi)
Flag of Bulgaria
Map showing Bulgaria in an orthographic projection
Bulgaria Sofia 29 March 2004 6,966,899 110,879 km2 (42,811 sq mi)
Flag of Canada
Map showing Canada in an orthographic projection
Canada Ottawa 24 August 1949[b] 37,694,085 9,984,670 km2 (3,855,103 sq mi)
Flag of Croatia
Map showing Croatia in an orthographic projection
Croatia Zagreb 1 April 2009 4,227,746 56,594 km2 (21,851 sq mi)
Flag of the Czech Republic
Map showing the Czech Republic in an orthographic projection
Czech Republic Prague 12 March 1999 10,702,498 78,867 km2 (30,451 sq mi)
Flag of Denmark
Map showing Denmark in an orthographic projection
Denmark Copenhagen 24 August 1949[b] 5,869,410 2,210,000 km2 (853,286 sq mi)
Flag of Estonia
Map showing Estonia in an orthographic projection
Estonia Tallinn 29 March 2004 1,228,624 45,228 km2 (17,463 sq mi)
Flag of France
Map showing France in an orthographic projection
France Paris 24 August 1949[b] 67,848,156 643,427 km2 (248,429 sq mi)
Flag of Germany
Map showing Germany in an orthographic projection
Germany[c] Berlin 8 May 1955 80,159,662 357,022 km2 (137,847 sq mi)
Flag of Greece
Map showing Greece in an orthographic projection
Greece Athens 18 February 1952 10,607,051 131,957 km2 (50,949 sq mi)
Flag of Hungary
Map showing Hungary in an orthographic projection
Hungary Budapest 12 March 1999 9,771,827 93,028 km2 (35,918 sq mi)
Flag of Iceland
Map showing Iceland in an orthographic projection
Iceland Reykjavík 24 August 1949[b] 350,734 103,000 km2 (39,769 sq mi)
Flag of Italy
Map showing Italy in an orthographic projection
Italy Rome 24 August 1949[b] 62,402,659 301,340 km2 (116,348 sq mi)
Flag of Latvia
Map showing Latvia in an orthographic projection
Latvia Riga 29 March 2004 1,881,232 64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi)
Flag of Lithuania
Map showing Lithuania in an orthographic projection
Lithuania Vilnius 29 March 2004 2,731,464 65,300 km2 (25,212 sq mi)
Flag of Luxembourg
Map showing Luxembourg in an orthographic projection
Luxembourg Luxembourg 24 August 1949[b] 628,381 2,586 km2 (998 sq mi)
Flag of Montenegro
Map showing Montenegro in an orthographic projection
Montenegro Podgorica 5 June 2017 609,859 13,812 km2 (5,333 sq mi)
Flag of the Netherlands
Map showing Netherlands in an orthographic projection
Netherlands Amsterdam 24 August 1949[b] 17,280,397 41,543 km2 (16,040 sq mi)
Flag of North Macedonia
Map showing North Macedonia in an orthographic projection
North Macedonia Skopje 27 March 2020 2,125,971 25,713 km2 (9,928 sq mi)
Flag of Norway
Map showing Norway in an orthographic projection
Norway Oslo 24 August 1949[b] 5,467,439 323,802 km2 (125,021 sq mi)
Flag of Poland
Map showing Poland in an orthographic projection
Poland Warsaw 12 March 1999 38,282,325 312,685 km2 (120,728 sq mi)
Flag of Portugal
Map showing Portugal in an orthographic projection
Portugal Lisbon 24 August 1949[b] 10,302,674 92,090 km2 (35,556 sq mi)
Flag of Romania
Map showing Romania in an orthographic projection
Romania Bucharest 29 March 2004 21,302,893 238,391 km2 (92,043 sq mi)
Flag of Slovakia
Map showing Slovakia in an orthographic projection
Slovakia Bratislava 29 March 2004 5,440,602 49,035 km2 (18,933 sq mi)
Flag of Slovenia
Map showing Slovenia in an orthographic projection
Slovenia Ljubljana 29 March 2004 2,102,678 20,273 km2 (7,827 sq mi)
Flag of Spain
Map showing Spain in an orthographic projection
Spain Madrid 30 May 1982 50,015,792 505,370 km2 (195,124 sq mi)
Flag of Turkey
Map showing Turkey in an orthographic projection
Turkey Ankara 18 February 1952 82,017,514 783,562 km2 (302,535 sq mi)
Flag of the United Kingdom
Map showing the United Kingdom in an orthographic projection
United Kingdom London 24 August 1949[b] 65,761,117 243,610 km2 (94,058 sq mi)
Flag the United States
Map showing the United States in an orthographic projection
United States Washington, D.C. 24 August 1949[b] 332,639,102 9,833,520 km2 (3,796,743 sq mi)

Military personnel[edit]

The following list is sourced from the 2018 edition of "The Military Balance" published annually by the International Institute for Strategic Studies.

Country Active military Reserve military Paramilitary Total Per 1,000 capita
(total)
Per 1,000 capita
(active)
Albania Albania[8] 10,000 0 500 10,500 3.4 3.3
Belgium Belgium[9] 28,800 5,000 0 33,800 2.9 2.5
Bulgaria Bulgaria[10] 31,300 3,000 0 34,300 4.8 4.4
Canada Canada[11] 63,000 30,000 4,500 97,500 2.7 1.8
Croatia Croatia[12] 15,650 0 3,000 18,650 4.3 3.6
Czech Republic Czech Republic[13] 23,200 2,359 0 25,559 2.4 2.2
Denmark Denmark[14] 16,100 45,700 0 61,800 11 2.9
Estonia Estonia[15] 6,600 12,000 15,800 34,400 27.5 5.3
France France[16] 202,700 72,300 103,400 378,400 5.6 3
Germany Germany[17] 178,600 27,900 500 207,000 2.6 2.2
Greece Greece[18] 141,350 220,500 4,000 365,850 34 13.1
Hungary Hungary[19] 27,800 44,000 12,000 83,800 8.5 2.8
Iceland Iceland[20] 200 200 250 650 1.9 0.6
Italy Italy[21][d] 174,500 18,300 182,350 375,150 6 2.8
Latvia Latvia[22] 5,310 7,850 0 13,160 6.8 2.7
Lithuania Lithuania[23] 18,350 6,700 11,300 36,350 12.9 6.5
Luxembourg Luxembourg[24] 900 0 600 1,500 2.5 1.5
Montenegro Montenegro[25] 1,950 0 10,100 12,050 18.8 3
Netherlands Netherlands[26] 35,410 4,660 5,900 45,970 2.7 2.1
North Macedonia North Macedonia[27] 8,000 4,850 7,600 20,450 9.7 3.8
Norway Norway[28] 23,950 38,590 0 62,540 11.8 4.5
Poland Poland[29] 105,000 0 73,400 178,400 4.6 2.7
Portugal Portugal[30] 30,500 211,950 44,000 286,450 26.4 2.8
Romania Romania[31] 69,300 50,000 79,900 199,200 9.3 3.2
Slovakia Slovakia[32] 15,850 0 0 15,850 2.9 2.9
Slovenia Slovenia[33] 7,250 1,760 5,950 14,960 7.6 3.7
Spain Spain[34] 121,200 15,450 76,750 213,400 4.4 2.5
Turkey Turkey[35] 355,200 378,700 156,800 890,700 11 4.4
United Kingdom United Kingdom[36] 146,650 44,250 0 190,900 2.9 2.3
United States United States[37] 1,348,400 857,950 0 2,206,350 6.8 4.2

Military expenditures[edit]

The United States has a larger defence expenditure than all other members combined.[38] Criticism of the organization by current US President Donald Trump caused various reactions from American and European political figures, ranging from ridicule to panic.[39][40][41] Pew Research Center's 2016 survey among its member states showed that while most countries viewed NATO positively, most NATO members preferred keeping their military spending the same. The response to whether their country should militarily aid another NATO country if it were to get into a serious military conflict with Russia was also mixed. Only in the US and Canada did more than 50% of the people answer that they should.[42][43]

Member state Population[a] GDP (nominal)[e] Defence expenditure (US$)[f] Personnel[f]
In millions % real GDP Per capita
 Albania 3,074,579 16.75 198 1.26 58 6,800
 Belgium 11,720,716 529.55 4,921 0.93 392 26,000
 Bulgaria 6,966,899 70.13 1,079 1.61 132 25,000
 Canada 37,694,085 1,810.00 21,885 1.27 569 72,000
 Croatia 4,227,746 63.17 1,072 1.75 238 15,000
 Czech Republic 10,702,498 261.73 2,969 1.19 236 26,000
 Denmark 5,869,410 360.51 4,760 1.35 760 17,000
 Estonia 1,228,624 32.74 669 2.13 429 6,300
 France 67,848,156 2,770.00 50,659 1.84 709 208,000
 Germany 80,159,662 3,980.00 54,113 1.36 591 184,000
 Greece 10,607,051 222.79 4,844 2.24 431 105,000
 Hungary 9,771,827 180.50 2,080 1.21 178 20,000
 Iceland 350,734 24.24 N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Italy 62,402,659 2,010.00 24,482 1.22 385 179,000
 Latvia 1,881,232 36.77 724 2.01 325 6,400
 Lithuania 2,731,464 56.23 1,084 1.98 336 15,900
 Luxembourg 628,381 72.99 391 0.55 552 900
 Montenegro 609,859 5.69 92 1.65 126 1,600
 Netherlands 17,280,397 930.99 12,419 1.35 655 41,000
 North Macedonia 2,125,971 13.33 108 1.09 7,200
 Norway 5,467,439 422.06 7,179 1.70 1,308 20,000
 Poland 38,282,325 606.73 11,971 2.01 296 123,000
 Portugal 10,302,674 243.23 3,358 1.41 299 30,000
 Romania 21,302,893 261.87 5,043 2.04 225 69,000
 Slovakia 5,440,602 111.87 1,905 1.74 322 13,000
 Slovenia 2,102,678 56.85 581 1.04 253 6,800
 Spain 50,015,792 1,440.00 13,156 0.92 264 121,000
 Turkey 82,017,514 813.81 13,919 1.89 225 435,000
 United Kingdom 65,761,117 2,720.00 60,376 2.13 979 144,000
 United States 332,639,102 22,320.00 730,149 3.42 2,072 1,338,000
 NATO 951,214,086 42,444.53 1,036,077 2.51 1,045 3,258,000

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Population data is based on a July 2020 estimate by the Central Intelligence Agency in The World Factbook.[6]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Founding member of NATO.
  3. ^ Germany initially joined NATO as West Germany. The former country of East Germany joined NATO after German reunification.
  4. ^ The paramilitary forces of Italy consist of the Carabinieri and the Guardia di Finanza.
  5. ^ Gross domestic product (nominal) data (in billions of US dollars) is based on an October 2019 issue of the World Economic Outlook, which is published by the International Monetary Fund.[44]
  6. ^ a b Defence expenditure and personnel data are based on a June 2019 press release from NATO.[45]

References[edit]

Citations
  1. ^ "The North Atlantic Treaty". North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 4 April 1949. Retrieved 16 June 2008.
  2. ^ "Trump threatens to quit NATO: White House official - France 24". France 24. 18 May 2017. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  3. ^ Landler, Michael D. Shear, Mark; Kanter, James (25 May 2017). "In NATO Speech, Trump Is Vague About Mutual Defense Pledge". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  4. ^ Lauter, David (26 May 2017). "A glowing orb and a not-so-glowing review of the GOP healthcare bill: Trump's week was filled with events he didn't control". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  5. ^ "Member countries". NATO. 24 March 2020. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  6. ^ "Country Comparison :: Population". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  7. ^ "Field Listing :: Area". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
  8. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 82
  9. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 85
  10. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 88
  11. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 43
  12. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 90
  13. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 94
  14. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 96
  15. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 98
  16. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 102
  17. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 107-108
  18. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 111
  19. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 114
  20. ^ IISS 2018, p. 116
  21. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 118
  22. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 122
  23. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 124
  24. ^ IISS 2018, p. 125-126
  25. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 128
  26. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 130
  27. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 126
  28. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 132-133
  29. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 135
  30. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 138
  31. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 140
  32. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 145
  33. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 147
  34. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 148
  35. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 156-157
  36. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 160-161
  37. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 46
  38. ^ Where Does The Relationship Between NATO And The U.S. Go From Here?, Huffington Post
  39. ^ NATO allies boost defense spending in the wake of Trump criticism, The Washington Post
  40. ^ Former US ambassador to Nato in withering criticism of Donald Trump, The Independent
  41. ^ Shaken by Trump’s Criticism of NATO, Europe Mulls Building Own Military Force, Voice Of America
  42. ^ Support for NATO is widespread among member nations, Pew Research
  43. ^ U.S. would defend NATO despite Trump's criticism, Europeans believe: study, Reuters
  44. ^ "GDP, current prices". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  45. ^ "Defence Expenditure of NATO Countries (2012-2019)" (PDF). NATO. 25 June 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
Bibliography