List of contemporary ethnic groups

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The following is a list of contemporary ethnic groups. There has been constant debate over the classification of ethnic groups. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be associated with shared cultural heritage, ancestry, history, homeland, language or dialect; where the term "culture" specifically includes aspects such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing (clothing) style, and other factors.

By the nature of the concept, ethnic groups tend to be divided into ethnic subgroups, which may themselves be or not be identified as independent ethnic groups depending on the source consulted.

Ethnic groups[edit]

The groups commonly identified as "ethnic groups" (as opposed to ethno-linguistic phyla, national groups, racial groups or similar). Smaller groups (i.e. less than 100,000) are often indigenous peoples and are not listed.

Name Native language (primary language) Primary homeland Population (estimate) Subgroups Majority (plurality) religion and sect
Abazins Northwest CaucasianAbazgiAbaza Abazinia (Russia) 0.1 million[1] IslamSunni Islam
Abkhazians Northwest CaucasianAbazgiAbkhaz Abkhazia 0.2 million[2] ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Acehnese AustronesianChamicAcehnese Aceh (Indonesia) 3.5[3]–4.2 million[4] IslamSunni Islam
Acoli Nilo-SaharanNiloticLuoAcoli Uganda (Agago, Amuru, Gulu, Kitgum, Lamwo, Nwoya, and Pader Districts) 2 million[5] Christianity
Adjoukrou Niger–CongoKwaAdjukru Dabou (Ivory Coast) 0.5 million[6] Christianity
Afemai Niger–CongoVolta–NigerEdoidAfenmai Edo State (Nigeria) 0.5 million[7] Christianity
Afar AfroasiaticCushiticAfar Afaria (Ethiopia, Djibouti, Eritrea) 2.1 million[8] Islam
African Americans Indo-EuropeanGermanicEnglishAfrican-American English American South (United States) 40.9 million[9] Gullah (including Black Seminoles and Bahamians) ChristianityProtestantism
Afrikaners Indo-EuropeanGermanicDutchAfrikaans South Africa (Northern and Western Cape), Namibia 3.5 million[10] Boers, White Namibians, White Botswanans, Coloureds (including Cape Coloureds, Griqua, Basters, Oorlam, and Goffal) ChristianityProtestantism
Afro-Saint Lucians Indo-EuropeanRomanceoïlFrenchSaint Lucian Creole Saint Lucia 0.1 million[11] Christianity
Agaw AfroasiaticCushiticAgaw[note 1] Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Eritrea)[note 2] 1.5 million[12] Bilen, Xamtanga, Awi, Qemant ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Ahom Kra–DaiTaiAhom[note 3] Assam (India) 1.3[13]–8 million[14] Hinduism
Aimaq Indo-EuropeanIranianPersianAimaq Afghanistan 0.7 million[15] Aimaq Hazara, Firozkohi, Jamshidi, Kipchak, Timuri, Taymani IslamSunni Islam
Akan Niger–CongoPotou-TanoCentral TanoAkan[note 4] Ghana, Ivory Coast 20.9 million[16] Asante, Ahafo, Akwamu, Akuapem, Akyem, Asen, Denkyira, Fante, Kwahu, Wassa, Abron, Anyi, Baoulé, Sefwi, Nzema, Ahanta, Tchaman, Abbé, Chakosi, Abidji, Attie, Avatime along with numerous slave descendants such as Antiguans and Barbudans, Barbadians (including Vincentians), Jamaicans (including Cocolos, Cayman Islanders, Jamaican Maroons, and Rastafaris), American Virgin Islanders, and Montserratians Christianity
Akha Sino-TibetanLoloishHanoidHani Yunnan (China)[note 5] 0.6 million[17] Akeu Animism
Albanians Indo-EuropeanAlbanian Albania, Kosovo, North Macedonia 4.2 million[18] Ghegs, Tosks, Kosovars, Cham Albanians, Arbëreshë, Arvanites, Macedonian Albanians, along with significant populations in Turkey, Germany, Switzerland and the United States Islam
Altai TurkicSiberianAltai Russia (Altai Republic, Altai Krai) 0.1 million[19] Telengits, Teleuts, Tubalar, Kumandins, Chelkans Shamanism
Ambonese AustronesianMalayanAmbonese Ambon Island (Indonesia) 0.3 million[citation needed] ChristianityProtestantism
Ambundu Niger–CongoBantuKimbundu Angola 7.6 million[20] numerous slave descendants such as Angolares Christianity
Amhara AfroasiaticSemiticAmharic Amharia (Ethiopia) 19.9 million[21] ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Amis AustronesianEast FormosanAmis Taiwan (Taitung and Hualien Counties) 0.2 million[22] Christianity
Anaang Niger–CongoCross RiverIbibio-EfikAnaang Akwa Ibom State (Nigeria) 2.6 million[23] Christianity
Anglo-Indians Indo-EuropeanGermanicEnglishIndian English India[note 6] 0.3[24]–1 million[25] Christianity
Anuak Nilo-SaharanNiloticLuoAnuak Anuakia (Ethiopia), Boma (South Sudan) 0.2 million[26] Christianity
Apache Dené–YeniseianNa-DeneApachean[note 7] Apacheria (United States)[note 8] 0.1 million[27] Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains Apache, Western Apache Native American religionNative American Church
Arabs AfroasiaticSemiticArabic Arabia (Yemen, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates)[note 9] 450 million[28] Bedouins, Druze, Shirazis (including Zanzibaris, Comorians and Maores), Baggara), Arab-Berbers (including Algerians, Libyans, Moroccans, and Tunisians), Bahrainis, Sudanese, Iraqis (including Marsh Arabs), Jordanians, Kuwaitis, Omanis (including Dhofaris), Qataris, Saudis (including Rashaida, Hejazis, and Najdis), Syrians (including Alawites), Emiratis, Yemenis (including Hadhrami, Ta'izzis-Adenis, Sanʽani, and Tihami), along with significant populations in Brazil, Indonesia, Iran, Turkey, Pakistan (including Mugheri), Venezuela, Afghanistan, and the United States Islam
Argobba AfroasiaticSemiticArgobba[note 10] Ethiopia (Afar, Harari, Amhara, and Oromia Regions)[note 2] 0.1 million[21] IslamSunni Islam
Armenians Indo-EuropeanArmenian Greater Armenia (Armenia, Republic of Artsakh)[note 11] 6[29]–8 million[30] Hemshin, Cherkesogai, Armeno-Tats, Hayhurum Karabakhis, along with significant populations in Russia, the United States, France, Georgia (including the Javakheti Armenians), Lebanon, and Germany Christianity
Aromanians Indo-EuropeanRomanceAromanian Balkans (Greece, Albania, North Macedonia)[note 12] 0.3 million[31][note 13] significant populations in Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Serbia ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Asmat Trans-New GuineaAsmat-KamrauAsmat[note 14] Asmatia (Indonesia) 0.1 million[32] Citak, Kamoro, Sempan, Buruwai, Kamberau Melanesian mythology
Assyrians AfroasiaticSemiticAramaicNeo-Aramaic[note 15] Assyria (Iraq, Iran, Syria, Turkey)[note 16] 2[33]–4 million[34] Chaldeans, Tyari, Mandaeans, Iraqis (including and Marsh Arabs), Syrians (including Alawites), Rûm, along with significant populations in the United States, Sweden, and Israel Christianity
Atoni AustronesianTimoricUab Meto West Timor (Indonesia), Oecusse (East Timor) 0.9 million[35] Amarasi Christianity
Atuot Nilo-SaharanNiloticReel Eastern Lakes State (South Sudan) 0.1 million[36] Traditional African religions
Atyap Niger–CongoPlateauAtyap Kaduna State (South Sudan) 0.2 million[37] Christianity
Austrians Indo-EuropeanGermanicHigh GermanAustrian German[note 17] Austria 8.1 million[38] South Tyroleans, along with significant populations in United States, Canada, and Australia ChristianityCatholicism
Avars Northeast CaucasianAvar–AndicAvar Avaristan (Russia) 1 million[39] IslamSunni Islam
Awadhis Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanHindiAwadhi Awadh (India) 3 million[40] Hinduism
Aymara AymaranAymara Bolivia, Peru, Chile 1.7 million[41] Mestizos such as Bolivians ChristianityCatholicism
Azerbaijanis TurkicOghuzAzerbaijani Azerbaijan, Iranian Azerbaijan (Iran) 30–35 million[42] Ayrums, Bayat, Karadaghis, Qajars, Küresünni, Qarapapaqs, Shahsevan, Terekeme, Yeraz, Afshar, Iranian Azerbaijanis, along with significant populations in Georgia and Russia IslamShia Islam
Bahnar AustroasiaticBahnaricBahnar Vietnam (Gia Lai and Kon Tum Provinces) 0.2 million[43] Animism
Bai Sino-TibetanBai Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture (China) 1.9 million[44] Buddhism
Balanta Niger–CongoBakBalanta Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, The Gambia 0.5 million[45] Traditional African religions
Balinese AustronesianBali–Sasak–SumbawaBalinese Bali (Indonesia) 4.2 million[46] Bali Aga HinduismBalinese Hinduism
Balkars TurkicKipchakBalkar Kabardino-Balkaria (Russia) 0.1 million[19] IslamSunni Islam
Balochis Indo-EuropeanIranianBalochi[note 18] Balochistan (Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan) 8.7 million[47] Askani, Bajkani, Bangulzai, Barazani, Bhurgari, Bugti (including Maretha), Buledi (including Bijarani Buledi) Chandio (including Shambhani), Darzada, Dehwar, Dodai, Dombki, Gabol, Ghazini, Jamali, Jatoi, Kalmati, Khetran, Kunara, Langhani, Lango, Lashkrani, Loharani, Lund, Marri (including Bahawalanzai, Chhalgari, and Jarwar), Mazari, Mengal (including Zagar and Zakria Zae), Mirali, Mugheri, Muhammad Shahi, Mullazai, Nothazai, Pitafi, Qaisrani, Rind (including Bozdar, Jalbani, Khushk, Lanjwani, Lehri, Mollazehi, Noohani, Sanjrani), Sadozai, Sethwi, Shaikhzadah, Talpur, Tauki, Umrani, Yarahmadzai, Zardari, along with significant populations in the United Arab Emirates (including Al Balushi) and Turkmenistan IslamSunni Islam
Balti Sino-TibetanBodishTibeticBalti Gilgit-Baltistan (Pakistan) 0.3 million[48] IslamShia Islam
Bamars Sino-TibetanLolo-BurmeseBurmishBurmese[note 14] Myanmar 32.9 million[49] Taungyo, Yaw, Intha, Danu, Anglo-Burmese BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Bambara Niger–CongoMandeMandingBambara Mali 4.1 million[50] Haratin Islam
Bamileke Niger–CongoBantoidGrassfieldsBamileke[note 1] Cameroon (West and Northwest Regions) 6.3 million[51] Mengaka, Ngiemboon, Ngombale, Ngomba, Ngwe, Yemba, Fe'fe', Ghomala', Kwa’, Nda’nda’, Medumba Christianity
Bamum Niger–CongoBantoidGrassfieldsBamum West Region (Cameroon) 0.4 million[52] Islam
Banda Niger–CongoUbangianBandaCentral Banda[note 14] Central African Republic, South Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1.3 million[53] South Banda Christianity
Banjarese AustronesianMalayanBanjarese South Kalimantan (Indonesia) 3.5[54]–4.1 million[55] IslamSunni Islam
Bara AustronesianBaritoBara Ibara (Madagascar) 0.5 million[56] Christianity
Bari Nilo-SaharanNiloticBari Central Equatoria (South Sudan), Uganda 0.8 million[57] Pojulu, Kakwa, Nyangwara, Mandari, Kuku Christianity
Bariba Niger–CongoSavannasBariba Borgu (Benin, Nigeria) 1.1 million[58] Islam
Bassa Niger–CongoKruBassa Bassaland (Liberia) 0.6 million[59] ChristianityProtestantism
Bashkirs TurkicKipchakBashkir Bashkortostan (Russia) 1.6 million[60] Islam
Basques Basque[note 19] Basque Country (Spain, France) 5.1 million[61] Significant populations in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, and Uruguay ChristianityCatholicism
Batak AustronesianNorthwest SumatranBatak[note 1] North Sumatra (Indonesia) 8.5 million[55] Angkola, Karo, Mandailing, Pakpak, Simalungun, Toba, Alas, Kluet, Singkil ChristianityProtestantism
Beja AfroasiaticCushiticBeja Sudan, Egypt, Eritrea 3.4 million[62] Bishari, Ababda, Hadendoa, Hedareb, Amarar, Beni-Amer IslamSunni Islam
Belarusians Indo-EuropeanSlavicBelarusian[note 20] Belarus 10 million[63] Significant populations in the United States, Ukraine, and Russia ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Belizean Creoles Indo-EuropeanGermanicEnglishBelizean Creole Belize 0.1 million[64] ChristianityProtestantism
Bembe Niger–CongoBantuLega–BinjaBembe Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania 0.3 million[65] Christianity
Bengalis Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanBengali Bengal (Bangladesh, India) 242.7 million[66] Bengali Hindus (including Bangal, Bhadralok, Ghoti, Aguri, Bagdi, Baidya, Baishya Kapali, Baishya Saha, Barujibi, Bauris, Bengali Brahmins, Chunaru, Doms, Gandhabanik, Suvarna Banik, Haris, Jalia Kaibarta, Kansabanik, Karmakar, Mahishya, Mal, Bengali Kayastha, Namasudra, Sadgop, Shunri, and Yogi Nath), Bangladeshis, along with significant populations in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Malaysia, the United Kingdom, and the United States Islam
Berbers AfroasiaticBerber[note 1] Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya) 25[67]–50 million[68] Brabers, Chaouis, Chenouas, Ghomaras, Houara, Jerbis, Kabyle, Matmatas, Mozabite, Nafusis, Rifian, Sanhaja de Srair, Shilha, Siwi, Tuaregs, Arab-Berbers (including Algerians, Libyans, Moroccans, and Tunisians), along with significant populations in France, Belgium, and the Netherlands IslamSunni Islam
Berom Niger–CongoPlateauBerom Plateau State (Nigeria) 1 million[69] Christianity
Berta Nilo-SaharanBerta Benishangul-Gumuz Region (Ethiopia), South Sudan 0.4 million[70] Islam
Betawis AustronesianMalayanBetawian Jakarta (Indonesia) 6.8 million[55] IslamSunni Islam
Beti Niger–CongoBantuBeti Cameroon 1 million[56] Ewondo, Eton Christianity
Betsimisaraka AustronesianBaritoBetsimisaraka Madagascar (Sava, Analanjirofo, Atsinanana) 3.3 million[71] Traditional African religions
Bhils Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanBhilBhili[note 14] India (Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharastra) 17.1 million[72] Barda, Bhagalia, Bhilala, Bhil Gametia, Bhil Garasia, Bhil Kataria, Bhil Mama, Bhil Mavchi, Dholi Bhil, Dungri Bhil, Damor, Dungri Garasia, Mewasi Bhil, Nirdhi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Vasava, Bhil Meena Hinduism
Bhojpuris Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanBihariBhojpuri Bhojpur (India, Nepal) 39 million[73] Hinduism
Bhumij AustroasiaticMundaMundari India (West Bengal, Odisha, Jharkhand) 0.9 million[72] Sarnaism
Bicolanos AustronesianPhilippineBikol[note 1] Bicol Region (Philippines) 3.8 million[74] Central Bikol, Sorsoganons, Catandunganons ChristianityCatholicism
Bidayuh AustronesianLand Dayak[note 21] Sarawak (Malaysia) 0.2 million[75] Kendayan, Selako, Bakati’, Sara Bakati', Laraʼ, Bukar Sadong, Biatah, Tringgus, Jagoi, Jangkang, Kembayan, Semandang, Ribun, Nyadu’, Sanggau Christianity
Bishnupriya Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanBishnupriya Manipur (India) 0.1 million[76] Hinduism
Bissa Niger–CongoMandeBissa Burkina Faso 0.6 million[77] Islam
Blang AustroasiaticWaicBlang[note 22] Yunnan (China) 0.1 million[78] Buddhism
Boa Niger–CongoBantuBati–AngbaBwa Bas-Uele (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 0.2 million[79] Christianity
Bodo Sino-TibetanSalBodo-GaroBodo Bodoland (India) 1.5 million[24] Mech Bathouism
Bosniaks Indo-EuropeanSlavicSerbo-CroatianBosnian Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sandžak (Serbia, Montenegro) 2.5 million[80] Significant populations in Serbia, Turkey, Austria, Germany and the United States IslamSunni Islam
Bouyei Kra–DaiTaiBouyei Guizhou (China) 3 million[81] Giáy Moism
Bozo Niger–CongoMandeBozo Mali 0.2 million[82] Islam
Brahuis DravidianBrahui Balochistan (Pakistan) 2.4 million[83] Raisani, Jhalawan, Sarawan, Mengal (including Zagar and Zakria Zae), Sasoli IslamSunni Islam
Bretons Indo-EuropeanCelticBrittonicBreton[note 23] Brittany (France) 4.6 million[84] ChristianityCatholicism
Bru AustroasiaticKatuicBru Vietnam (Quảng Bình and Quảng Trị Provinces), Savannakhet Province (Laos) 0.1 million[85] Animism
Bruneians AustronesianMalayanBrunei Malay Brunei 0.3 million[86] Kedayan, Lun Bawang, Suluks IslamSunni Islam
Bubi Niger–CongoBantuBube Bioko (Equatorial Guinea) 0.1 million[87] Wovea, Fernandino Christianity
Budu Niger–CongoBantuNyaliBudu Wamba Territory (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 0.4 million[88] Christianity
Bugis AustronesianSouth SulawesiBuginese South Sulawesi (Indonesia) 6.4 million[55] Islam
Bulgarians Indo-EuropeanSlavicBulgarian Bulgaria 9–10 million[89] Pomaks, along with significant populations in Turkey, Ukraine and Moldova, Romania and Serbia, Germany, Spain and the United States ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Bunak Trans–New GuineaTimor–Alor–PantarBunak Timor (Indonesia, East Timor) 0.1 million[90] ChristianityCatholicism
Burusho Burushaski Gilgit-Baltistan (Pakistan) 0.1 million[91] IslamShia Islam
Butonese AustronesianCelebicButonese[note 1] Buton (Indonesia) 0.3 million[citation needed] Islam
Bwa Niger–CongoGurBwamuBuamu[note 14] Burkina Faso, Mali 0.3 million[92] Traditional African religions
Catalans Indo-EuropeanRomanceCatalan Catalan Countries (Spain, France) 8.4 million[citation needed] Valencians, Balearics, Andorrans ChristianityCatholicism
Chamorro AustronesianChamorro Mariana Islands (United States) 0.2 million[93] ChristianityCatholicism
Chams AustronesianChamicCham Champa (Cambodia, Vietnam) 0.3[94]–0.4 million[95] IslamSunni Islam
Chechens Northeast CaucasianNakhVainakhChechen Chechnya (Russia) 2 million[96] Kists IslamSunni Islam
Cherokee IroquoianCherokee[note 24] United States (North Carolina, Tennessee)[note 25] 0.8 million[27] Cherokee Nation, Eastern Band, United Keetoowah Band Christianity
Chin Sino-TibetanKuki-Chin–NagaKuki-Chin[note 26] Chin State (Myanmar) 10 million[97] Kukis, Thadou, Paite, Simte, Zou, Lamkang, Kom, Lushai, Hmar, Koireng, Zomi, Mizo, Aimol, Mru, Mrucha, Bawm, Biate Christianity
Choctaw MuskogeanChoctaw[note 24] United States (Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana)[note 25] 0.2 million[27] Native American religion
Chokwe Niger–CongoBantuChokwe Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia 1.3 million[98] Christianity
Chutiya Sino-TibetanSalBodo-GaroDeori[note 3] Assam (India) 2.5 million[99] Deori Hinduism
Chuukese AustronesianMicronesianChuukicChuukese Chuuk Lagoon (Federated States of Micronesia) 0.1 million[100] ChristianityCatholicism
Chuvash TurkicOghurChuvash Chuvashia (Russia) 1.5 million[citation needed] Virjal, Anatri ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Circassians Northwest CaucasianCircassian[note 1] Circassia (Russia)[note 27] 2.3 million[101] Adygeans, Kabardians, Cherkess, Shapsugs IslamSunni Islam
Chewa Niger–CongoBantuNyasaChewa Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique 9.7 million[102] Christianity
Cornish Indo-EuropeanCelticBrittonicCornish[note 28] Cornwall (United Kingdom) 11 million[103] Significant populations in the United States and Australia Christianity
Corsicans Indo-EuropeanRomanceCorsican[note 23] Corsica (France) 0.1 million[104] Christianity
Cree AlgicAlgonquianCree[note 29] Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Newfoundland and Labrador)[note 30] 0.4 million[105] Innu, Naskapi, Atikamekw, James Bay Cree, Moose Cree, Swampy Cree, Woods Cree, Plains Cree, Métis (including Métis in Canada), Oji-Cree Christianity
Croats Indo-EuropeanSlavicSerbo-CroatianCroatian Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina 7–9 million[citation needed] Bunjevci, Krashovani, Janjevci, Sokci, along with significant populations in Italy (including Molise Croats), Austria, United States, Chile, Argentina, Germany, Australia and Canada ChristianityCatholicism
Czechs Indo-EuropeanSlavicCzech Czech Republic 10–12 million[citation needed] Bohemians, Moravians, Silesians, along with significant populations in United States and Canada ChristianityCatholicism
Dagaaba Niger–CongoGurOti–VoltaDagaare Ghana, Burkina Faso 1.1 million[106] Christianity
Dagombas Niger–CongoGurOti–VoltaDagbani Kingdom of Dagbon (Ghana) 1.2 million[107] IslamSunni Islam
Damara KhoeKhoekhoe Damaraland (Namibia) 0.2 million[108] Christianity
Danes Indo-EuropeanGermanicDanish Denmark 7 million[citation needed] Significant populations in the United States, Canada, Greenland, and Germany. ChristianityProtestantism
Dargins Northeast CaucasianDarginDargwa[note 14] Dagestan (Russia) 0.6 million[109] Kajtak, Kubachi, Itsari, Chirag Islam
Dinka Nilo-SaharanNiloticDinka South Sudan 3.7 million[110] Christianity
Dogon Niger–CongoDogon[note 1] Bandiagara Escarpment (Mali) 0.8 million[111] Ampari Dogon Traditional African religionsDogon religion
Duala Niger–CongoBantuSawabantuDuala Littoral Region (Cameroon) 0.1 million[112] Christianity
Dubla Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanBhilDubli[note 31] Gujarat (India) 0.7 million[72] Hinduism
Dutch Indo-EuropeanGermanicDutch Netherlands, Flanders (Belgium) 29 million[113] Flemings, Arubans, Sabans, St. Maarteners, St. Eustatians, Surinamese, Mennonites, Indos, Dutch Burghers, along with significant populations in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand Christianity
Dyula Niger–CongoMandeMandingDyula Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Mali 2.2 million[114] IslamSunni Islam
Ebira Niger–CongoVolta–NigerNupoidEbira Kogi State (Nigeria) 1.8 million[115] Islam
Edo Niger–CongoVolta–NigerEdoidEdo Edo State (Nigeria) 1.6 million[116] Christianity
Efik Niger–CongoCross RiverIbibio-EfikEfik Cross River State (Nigeria) 0.7 million[117] Christianity
Egyptians AfroasiaticEgyptianCoptic[note 32] Egypt 104.2 million[118] Sa'idis, Copts, Waḥātī IslamSunni Islam
Ekoi Niger–CongoEkoidEkoi Nigeria, Cameroon 0.2 million[119] Christianity
Emberá ChocoEmbera Chocó Department (Colombia), Panama (Darién, Emberá) 0.1 million[120] Shamanism
English Indo-EuropeanGermanicEnglish England (United Kingdom) 137.4 million[121] numerous colonial descendants such as Americans, Canadians, Australians, New Zealanders, White Bahamians, White Barbadians, Cayman Islanders, White Dominiquais, White Jamaicans, White Botswanans, White Kenyans, British South Africans, White Saint Helenians, White Zambians, White Zimbabweans, Anglo-Burmese, British Hongkongers, and White Pakistanis ChristianityProtestantism
Esan Niger–CongoVolta–NigerEdoidEsan Esanland (Nigeria) 0.7 million[122][note 33] Christianity
Estonians UralicFinnicEstonian Estonia 1.2 million[123] Võros, Setos ChristianityProtestantism
Evenks TungusicEvenki[note 34] Evenkia (Russia) 0.1 million[124] ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Ewe Niger–CongoVolta–NigerGbeEwe Togo, Ghana 6.7 million[125] Christianity
Fang Niger–CongoBantuBetiFang Río Muni (Equatorial Guinea), Gabon 1 million[56] Christianity
Fijians AustronesianOceanicCentral PacificFijian Fiji 0.5 million[126] ChristianityProtestantism
Finns UralicFinnicFinnish Finland 7 million[citation needed] Kvens, Forest Finns, along with significant populations in Sweden (including Tornedalians), Russia, United States, and Canada. ChristianityProtestantism
Fon Niger–CongoVolta–NigerGbeFon Dahomey (Benin) 4.3 million[58] numerous slave descendants Traditional African religionsWest African Vodun
French Indo-EuropeanRomanceoïlFrench[note 14][note 35] France, Romandy (Switzerland), Wallonia-Brussels (Belgium), Aosta Valley (Italy) 76.8 million[127] Walloons, Romands, Arpitans, Waldensians, Saint-Pierrais, Burgundians, Champenois, Free Countians, Gallo, Lorrainers, Normans, Picards, Poitevins (including Saintongeais), Barthélemoise, Saint-Martinois, French Guianese, Caldoche, along with numerous colonial descendants such as Pieds-Noirs, Quebecers, Acadians (including Cajuns), Métis (including Métis in Canada), Louisianians (including Creoles of color), French Haitians, French Malagasy, Franco-Mauritians, and Franco-Seychellois ChristianityCatholicism
Frisians Indo-EuropeanGermanicFrisian[note 1] Frisia (Netherlands, Germany) 0.8 million[citation needed] West Frisians, East Frisians, North Frisians ChristianityProtestantism
Friulians Indo-EuropeanRomanceRhaeto-RomanceFriulian Friuli (Italy) 0.6 million[128][note 36] ChristianityCatholicism
Fula Niger–CongoSenegambianFula West Africa (Guinea, Senegal, Mali)[note 37] 20[129]–25 million[89] Wodaabe, Haratin, Toucouleur Islam
Fur Nilo-SaharanDarfuranFur Darfur (Sudan) 0.7 million[130] IslamSunni Islam
Ga-Adangbe Niger–CongoKwaGa-Dangme[note 1] Greater Accra (Ghana) 2.1 million[131] Ga, Adangbe Christianity
Gagauz TurkicOghuzGagauz Gagauzia (Moldova), Budjak (Ukraine) 0.2 million[citation needed] ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Galicians Indo-EuropeanRomanceGalician Galicia (Spain) 3.2 million[citation needed] ChristianityCatholicism
Ganda Niger–CongoBantuGanda Buganda (Uganda) 6.7 million[132] Abayudaya Christianity
Garifuna ArawakanIgneriGarifuna Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[note 38] 0.1 million[133] Black Caribs ChristianityCatholicism
Garos Sino-TibetanSalBodo-GaroGaro Garo Hills (India) 1.1 million[24] Christianity
Gayo AustronesianNorthwest SumatranGayo Indonesia (Bener Meriah, Central Aceh, and Gayo Lues Regencies) 0.3 million[134] Islam
Gbagyi Niger–CongoVolta–NigerNupoidGwari Nigeria 1.2 million[135] Traditional African religions
Gbaya Niger–CongoSavannasGbaya[note 1] Central African Republic, Cameroon 1.2 million[136] Bokoto, Kàrà, Buli (including Toongo), Ali, Mandja, Gbaya-Bossangoa, Bozom, Mbodomo, Gbanu, Bangandu Islam
Gedeo AfroasiaticCushiticGedeo Gedeo Zone (Ethiopia) 1 million[21] ChristianityProtestantism
Gelao Kra–DaiKraGelao[note 39] Guizhou (China) 0.6 million[137] Taoism
Georgians KartvelianGeorgian[note 40] Georgia 4.1 million[138] Adjarians, Mingrelians, Svans, Tushetians (including Bats), Meskhetians ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Germans Indo-EuropeanGermanicHigh GermanGerman[note 14] Germany, Switzerland, Liechtenstein 100–150 million[139] Bavarians, Franconians, Hessians, Swabians, Alsatians, German Swiss, Liechtensteiners, Pomeranians, Volga Germans, Baltic Germans, Silesian Germans, Carpathian Germans, Danube Swabians, North Schleswig Germans, Eastern Belgians, Transylvanian Saxons, Amish, Hutterites, Mennonites, along with significant populations in the United States, Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Canada, Chile, Kazakhstan, Australia, and New Zealand. Christianity
Gola Niger–CongoGola Liberia, Sierra Leone 0.2 million[140] Islam
Gonds DravidianGondi[note 41] Gondwana (India) 13.3 million[72] Godha Hinduism
Gorontaloans AustronesianGorontalo-MongondowGorontaloan Gorontalo (Indonesia) 1.8 million[55] IslamSunni Islam
Greeks Indo-EuropeanGreek Greece, Cyprus 17 million[141] Greek Cypriots, Pontic Greeks, Cappadocian Greeks, Sarakatsani, Urums, Griko, along with significant populations in Albania (including Northern Epirotes), Ukraine, Georgia, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, and Canada ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Guan Niger–CongoPotou-TanoGuang[note 1] Ghana (Brong-Ahafo and Volta Regions) 1 million[142] Gonja, Kyode, Cherepon, Efutu, Anyanga Christianity
Guaraní TupianTupi-GuaraniGuarani Paraguay, Misiones (Argentina), Bolivia (Gran Chaco, Luis Calvo, Cordillera, Germán Busch), Brazil 6.2 million[143][note 42] Chiriguanos, along with Mestizos such as Paraguayans ChristianityCatholicism
Gujarati Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanGujarati Gujarat (India) 60 million[24] Gujarati Americans, Zarabes, Luso-Indians Hinduism
Gumuz Nilo-SaharanKomuzGumuz Benishangul-Gumuz Region (Ethiopia) 0.2 million[21] Traditional African religion
Gurage AfroasiaticSemiticGurage[note 1] Guragia (Ethiopia) 3.6 million[21] Christianity
Gurma Niger–CongoGurGurmaGourmanché[note 43] Gurmaland (Burkina Faso, Ghana) 1.1[144]–3.1 million[145] Ntcham, Bimoba Islam
Gurunsi Niger–CongoGurGurunsi[note 1] Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo 1.6 million[146] Lukpa, Kabye, Tem, Lamba, Delo, Bago-Kusuntu, Chala, Lyélé, Nuna, Kalamsé, Pana, Kassena, Winye, Deg, Puguli, Paasaal, Sisaala, Chakali, Siti, Tamprusi, Vagla Traditional African religions
Hajong Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanHajong India (Assam, Meghalaya), Bangladesh 0.1 million[72] Hinduism
Han Sino-TibetanSiniticChinese China 1,300 million[147] Cantonese (including Taishanese, Hongkongers, and Macanese),[note 44] Chuanqing, Fujianese (including Fuzhounese, Hainanese, Hoklo, Hui'an maidens, Putianese, and Teochew), Gaoshan Han, Gan, Hakka (including Ngái), Hebei, Hunanese, Jianghuai, Shandong, Sichuanese, Wu (including Shanghainese, Ningbonese, and Wenzhou), Han Taiwanese, Hui[note 45] (including Dungan), along with significant populations[note 46] in the United States, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand,[note 47] Indonesia, Myanmar (including Panthays), Canada, the Philippines (including Sangley), Peru, Australia, Vietnam, Japan, Russia, France (including Chinois), the United Kingdom, South Africa, Italy, Germany, Korea, Spain, India, Laos, Brazil, the Netherlands, Panama, and New Zealand Chinese folk religion
Hani Sino-TibetanLoloishHanoidHani[note 14] Yunnan (China) 1.4 million[148] Animism
Harari AfroasiaticSemiticEthiopianHarari Hararia (Ethiopia) 0.2 million[149] IslamSunni Islam
Hausa AfroasiaticChadicHausa Hausaland (Niger, Nigeria) 43.7 million[150] IslamSunni Islam
Hawaiians AustronesianPolynesianHawaiian[note 48] Hawaii (United States) 0.5 million[93] Christianity
Hazaras Indo-EuropeanIranianPersianHazaragi Hazarajat (Afghanistan) 7–8 million[151] Aimaq Hazara, Hazara Australians IslamShia Islam
Herero Niger–CongoBantuHerero Hereroland (Namibia), Angola 0.3 million[citation needed] OvaHimba, Ovambanderu Christianity
Hmong Hmong–MienHmongic[note 1] China (Guizhou, Hunan, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi, Hainan, Guangdong, Hubei), Vietnam, Laos, Thailand 14–15 million[152] A-Hmao, Gha-Mu, Xong, Hmong Americans Hmong folk religion
Huli Trans–New GuineaEnganHuli Southern Highlands Province (Papua New Guinea) 0.3 million[153] Christianity
Hungarians UralicUgricHungarian Hungary, Székely Land (Romania), Felvidék (Slovakia) 12.6 million[154] Jasz, Palóc, along with significant populations in Romania (including Székelys and Csangos), Slovakia, Serbia, Ukraine, Croatia, Slovenia, Germany, the United States, and Canada ChristianityCatholicism
Hutu Niger–CongoBantuRwanda-Rundi[note 49] Rwanda, Burundi, Kivu (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 18.5 million[citation needed] Christianity
Iban AustronesianIbanicIban[note 14] Sarawak (Malaysia) 0.8 million[155] Mualang Christianity
Ibibio Niger–CongoCross RiverIbibio-EfikIbibio Akwa Ibom State (Nigeria) 4.5 million[156] Eket Christianity
Icelanders Indo-EuropeanGermanicIcelandic Iceland 0.4 million[157] ChristianityProtestantism
Idoma Niger–CongoVolta–NigerIdomoidIdoma[158] Benue State (Nigeria) 1.1 million[159] Agatu, Alago, Yala Christianity
Igbo Niger–CongoVolta–NigerIgboidIgbo Igboland (Nigeria) 28.7 million[156] numerous slave descendants such as Antiguans and Barbudans, Barbadians (including Vincentians), Dominiquais, Grenadians, and Kittians and Nevisians (including Anguillans) Christianity
Igede Niger–CongoVolta–NigerIdomoidIgede Benue State (Nigeria) 0.4 million[160] Christianity
Ijaw Niger–CongoIjawIzon[note 50] Nigeria (Rivers, Bayelsa, and Delta States) 14 million[111] Bille, Engenni, Ibani, Kalabari, Kula, Nkoro, Nkoroo, Obolo Christianity
Ingush Northeast CaucasianNakhVainakhIngush Ingushetia (Russia) 0.4 million[19] IslamSunni Islam
Inuit Eskimo–AleutInuit[note 1] Greenland (Denmark), Canada (Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, Nunavik, NunatuKavut), Alaska (United States) 0.2 million[161] Greenlandics (including Kalaallit, Tunumiit, Inughuit and Greenlandic Danes), Iñupiat, Inuktitut, Inuvialuit Christianity
Irish Indo-EuropeanCelticIrish[note 28] Ireland (Republic of Ireland, United Kingdom)[note 51] 80 million[162] Irish Travellers, Ulster Irish, along with significant populations in the United States, Australia, Canada, Argentina, Mexico and New Zealand ChristianityCatholicism
Iroquois Iroquoian[note 52] United States, Canada 0.1 million[163] Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, Tuscarora Longhouse Religion
Isoko Niger–CongoVolta–NigerEdoidIsoko Isoko region (Nigeria) 0.6 million[164] Christianity
Italians Indo-EuropeanRomanceItalo-DalmatianItalian[note 53] Italy, Ticino (Switzerland) 69[165]–140 million[166] Sicilians, Waldensians, Lazians, Marchigianos, Tuscans, Umbrians, Emilian, Romagnol (including Sanmarinese), Trentinis, Ligurians (including Monégasque), Lombards (including Swiss Italians), Piedmontese, Apulians, Calabrians, Neapolitans (including Abruzzans, Molisans, Basilicatans, and Campanians), Venetians along with significant populations in Argentina, Brazil, the United States, Venezuela, Canada, France, Peru, Uruguay, Australia, Germany, Chile and the United Kingdom ChristianityCatholicism
Japanese JaponicJapanese Japan 128.2 million[167] Kantō, Kansai, Hokkaido, Tōhoku, Hōnichi, Satsugū, Chūgoku, Echigo, Tōkai, Shinshuu, Hokuriku, Hachijō, along with significant populations in Brazil, the United States and the Philippines. Shinto
Javanese AustronesianJavanese Java (Indonesia) 95.6 million[168] Cirebonese, Osing, Tenggerese, Boyanese, Samin, Banyumasan, along with significant populations in Malaysia, Suriname, China, and Saudi Arabia IslamSunni Islam
Jews AfroasiaticSemiticCanaaniteHebrew[note 54] Israel[note 55] 17.6 million[169] Ashkenazim, Sephardim (including Moroccan Jews, Tunisian Jews, and Toshavim), Mizrahim (including Syrian and Bukharan Jews), Teimanim, Beta Israel, Italkim, Romaniotes, Juhurim, Krymchaks, Bene Israel, Cochin, Lishanid Noshan, Israelis, along with significant populations in the United States, France, Canada, the United Kingdom, Argentina, Russia, Germany, and Australia Judaism
Jingpo Sino-TibetanSalJingpho Kachin State (Myanmar), Yunnan (China) 1 million[170] Animism
Jola Niger–CongoBakJola[note 1] Jolaland (Senegal) 0.5 million[171] Banjaal, Bayot, Fogni, Gusilay, Karon, Kasa, Kuwaataay, Mlomp Traditional African religions
Kadazan-Dusun AustronesianDusunic languages[note 1] Sabah (Malaysia) 0.6 million[172] Kadazan, Dusun, Dumpas, Ida'an, Kwijau, Lotud, Mangka'ak, Maragang, Minokok, Orang Sungai, Rumanau, Rungus, Tambanuo Christianity
Kalanga Niger–CongoBantuShonaKalanga Zimbabwe, Botswana 0.3[173]–0.7 million[174][note 56] Nambya Christianity
Kalenjin Nilo-SaharanNiloticKalenjin[note 1] Rift Valley Province (Kenya) 4.9 million[175] Keiyo, Tugen, Marakwet, Nandi, Kipsigis, Sabaot, Pökoot, Okiek, Terik Christianity
Kamba Niger–CongoBantuKamba Ukambani (Kenya) 3.9 million[176][note 57] Afro-Paraguayans[note 58] Christianity
Kanaks AustronesianOceanicKanak[note 1] Kanakia (France) 0.1 million[177] ChristianityCatholicism
Kannadigas DravidianKannada Karnataka (India) 43.7 million[24] Hinduism
Kanuri Nilo-SaharanSaharanKanuri Kanuriland (Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Cameroon) 7.9 million[178] Kanembu Islam
Karachays TurkicKipchakKarachay Karachay-Cherkessia (Russia) 0.2 million[19] IslamSunni Islam
Karakalpaks TurkicKipchakKarakalpak Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan) 0.7 million[179] IslamSunni Islam
Karbi Sino-TibetanKuki-Chin–NagaKarbi Karbi Anglong district (India) 0.4 million[180] Amri Hinduism
Karelians UralicFinnicKarelian Karelia (Finland, Russia) 0.1 million[citation needed] ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Karen Sino-TibetanKaren[note 1] Karen State (Myanmar), Thailand 9 million[181][note 59] S'gaw Karen, Pwo Karen, Karenni (including Kayan) BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Kashmiris Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanKashmiri Kashmir (India, Pakistan) 6.8 million[24] Kashmiri Pandits, Kashmiris of Punjab IslamSunni Islam
Kashubians Indo-EuropeanSlavicPomeranianKashubian Kashubia (Poland) 0.5[182]–0.6 million[183][note 60] ChristianityCatholicism
Kazakhs TurkicKipchakKazakh Kazakhstan 18 million[184] Significant populations in China, and Russia IslamSunni Islam
Kelantanese AustronesianMalayanKelantanese Kelantan (Malaysia) 1.4 million[citation needed] IslamSunni Islam
Khas Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanNepali Nepal, Uttarakhand (India) 15.4 million[185] Chhetri, Bahun, Kami, Damai, Sarki, Gandarbha, Thakuri, Badi Hinduism
Khakas TurkicSiberian TurkicKhakas Khakassia (Russia) 0.1 million[citation needed] ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Khmer AustroasiaticKhmer Cambodia 17 million[186] Significant populations in the United States and Vietnam BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Khorasani Turks TurkicOghuzKhorasani Turkic Khorasan (Iran) 1 million[187] IslamShia Islam
Kikuyu Niger–CongoBantuKikuyu Kenya 6.6 million[188] Christianity
Kilba AfroasiaticChadicBiu–MandaraHuba Hong (Nigeria) 0.3 million[189] Christianity
Kirati Sino-TibetanKiranti[note 1] Eastern Development Region (Nepal) 1.4 million[190] Limbu, Sunuwar, Yakkha (including Athpare), Rai (including Kulung, Bantawa, and Bahing) Kirat Mundhum
Kissi Niger–CongoMelKissi Guinea, Sierra Leone 0.6 million[191] Christianity
Kofyar AfroasiaticChadicKofyar Plateau State (Nigeria) 0.2 million[192] Traditional African religions
Komi UralicPermicKomi Komi Republic, Permyakia (Russia) 0.6 million[125] Komi-Zyrians, Komi-Permyaks, Izhma Komi ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Konkani Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanKonkani Goa (India) 6.1 million[193] Luso-Indians Hinduism
Kongo Niger–CongoBantuKongoKikongo[note 61] Kongoland (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Angola) 5.7[194]–6.8 million[195] Lari, Vili, Mayombe, Suundi, along with numerous slave descendants such as Dominicans Christianity
Konjo Niger–CongoBantuKonjo Rwenzori Mountains (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda) 1.5 million[citation needed] Nande Christianity
Konso AfroasiaticCushiticKonso Konso special woreda (Ethiopia) 0.4 million[21] Traditional African religions
Koreans KoreanicKorean[note 14] Korea (North Korea, South Korea) 77.2 million[196] Jeju Islanders, along with significant populations in the United States, China, Russia, Japan, Canada, Australia, Vietnam, and the Philippines Irreligion
Kru Niger–CongoKruKlao[note 43] Liberia (Grand Kru and Maryland Counties) 0.4[197]–3.3 million[198] Aizi, Bété, Bakwé, Grebo, Krahn (including Sapo), Kuwaa Christianity
Kumyks TurkicKypchakKumyk Dagestan (Russia) 0.5 million[19] IslamSunni Islam
Kunama Nilo-SaharanKunama Eritrea, Ethiopia 0.3 million[citation needed] ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Kurds Indo-EuropeanIranianKurdish[note 1] Kurdistan (Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria) 45.6 million[199] Bajalan, Kurmanjis, Sorans, Zazas, Feylis, Iranian Laks, Yazidis, Shabak, along with significant populations in France and Germany IslamSunni Islam
Kurukh DravidianKurukh Chota Nagpur Plateau (India) 3.7 million[72] Kisan Hinduism
Kuteb Niger–CongoJukunoidKuteb Taraba State (Nigeria) 0.6 million[200] Christianity
Kyrgyz TurkicKipchakKyrgyz Kyrgyzstan 4.1 million[201][note 62] IslamSunni Islam
Laks Northeast CaucasianLak Lakia (Russia) 0.2 million[19] IslamSunni Islam
Lampungs AustronesianLampung Lampung (Indonesia) 1.4 million[55] Islam
Lao Kra–DaiTaiSouthwestern TaiLao Laos, Isan (Thailand) 4[202]–30 million[203][note 63] Isan[note 64] BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Latvians Indo-EuropeanBalticLatvian Latvia 1.8 million[204] Latgalians, Kursenieki, Selonians ChristianityProtestantism
Laz KartvelianZanLaz[note 65] Lazistan (Turkey, Georgia) 1.6 million[205] Turkish Laz, Georgian Laz IslamSunni Islam
Lebanese AfroasiaticSemiticArabicLebanese Arabic[note 66] Lebanon[note 67] 11.6 million[206] Maronites, along with significant populations in Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, the United States, and France ChristianityCatholicism
Lega Niger–CongoBantuLega–BinjaLega Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.3 million[207] Traditional African religions
Lezgins Northeast CaucasianLezgicLezgian Lezgistan (Russia, Azerbaijan) 0.8 million[208] IslamSunni Islam
Li Kra–DaiHlai[note 1] Hainan (China) 1.2 million[209] Animism
Limba Niger–CongoLimba Sierra Leone (Bombali and Koinadugu Districts) 0.4 million[210] Christianity
Lisu Sino-TibetanLoloishLisoishLisu China, Myanmar 0.9 million[211] ChristianityProtestantism
Lithuanians Indo-EuropeanBalticLithuanian Lithuania 3.7[212]–4.1 million[213] Samogitians, Aukstaitians, Lietuvninkai ChristianityCatholicism
Luba Niger–CongoBantuLuban[note 1] Lubaland (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 7 million[56] Luba-Kasai, Luba-Katanga, Hemba, Songe Christianity
Lumbee AlgicAlgonquianLumbee[note 24] Robeson County (United States) 0.1 million[27] Christianity
Luo Nilo-SaharanNiloticLuoDholuo Kenya, Tanzania 4.2 million[214] Christianity
Luxembourgers Indo-EuropeanGermanicHigh GermanLuxembourgish Luxembourg, Arelerland (Belgium) 0.4 million[215][note 68] Significant populations in Brazil, and United States ChristianityCatholicism
Lurs Indo-EuropeanIranianLuri Iran 5 million[216] Bakhtiari, Iranian Laks IslamShia Islam
Maasai Nilo-SaharanNiloticEastern NiloticMaasai Maasailand (Tanzania, Kenya) 1.5 million[217] Samburu Traditional African religionsMaasai faith
Macedonians Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicMacedonian North Macedonia 2 million[218] Torbesh, Mijaks, along with significant populations in Australia and Greece ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Madi Nilo-SaharanCentral SudanicMoru–MadiMa'di Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, Uganda 0.4 million[citation needed] Christianity
Madurese AustronesianMadurese Madura (Indonesia)[note 69] 7.2 million[55] IslamSunni Islam
Mafa AfroasiaticChadicBiu–MandaraMafa Cameroon 0.2 million[219] Christianity
Magahi Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanBihariMagahi Magadha (India) 12.7 million[24] Hinduism
Magars Sino-TibetanMagar[note 70] Nepal 1.9 million[220] Hinduism
Maithils Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanBihariMaithili Mithila (India, Nepal) 40 million[221] Karan Kayastha Hinduism
Makassarese AustronesianSouth SulawesiMakassarese South Sulawesi (Indonesia) 2.7 million[55] IslamSunni Islam
Makonde Niger–CongoBantuRufiji–RuvumaMakonde Tanzania, Mueda Plateau (Mozambique) 1.4 million[222] Machinga Islam
Makua Niger–CongoBantuMakuaMakhuwa[note 14] Mozambique 3.5 million[223] Lomwe, Chuwabu, Moniga, Koti, Nathembo Traditional African religions
Malays AustronesianMalayanMalay[note 14] Malay world (Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia) 60.7 million[224] Kedahans, Pattani, Pahang, Perakians, Berau,Proto-Malay (including Orang Kuala, Jakun, Orang Rimba, Orang Seletar, and Temuan), Lubu, Musi, Cape Malays, Cocos Malays IslamSunni Islam
Malayali DravidianTamil–KannadaMalayalam Kerala (India) 34.8 million[24] Ambalavasi, Dheevara, Nair, Paravar, Saint Thomas Christians (including Knanayas), Mappilas, along with significant populations in the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait and Bahrain Hinduism
Maldivians Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanMaldivian Maldives 0.3 million[225] Mahls IslamSunni Islam
Maltese AfroasiaticSemiticArabicMaltese Malta 0.5 million[226] Gozitans ChristianityCatholicism
Mambila Niger–CongoMambiloidMambila Mambilla Plateau (Nigeria, Cameroon) 0.1 million[227] Somyev Traditional African religions
Manchu TungusicManchu[note 34] Manchuria (China) 10.4 million[228] Shamanism
Mandarese AustronesianSouth SulawesiMandar West Sulawesi (Indonesia) 0.5 million[229] Islam
Mandinka Niger–CongoMandeManding[note 1] Mali, The Gambia, Guinea, Senegal 13[136]–20 million[230] Bolon, along with numerous slave descendants such as Montserratians, Cape Verdeans, and Martinicans
Manjak Niger–CongoBakManjak Guinea-Bissau, Senegal 0.4 million[231] Traditional African religions
Manx Indo-EuropeanCelticGaelicManx[note 28] Isle of Man 0.1 million[citation needed] Significant populations in Australia, United States, and Canada ChristianityProtestantism
Māori AustronesianPolynesianMāori[note 71] New Zealand 0.9 million[citation needed] Cook Islanders Christianity
Mapuche AraucanianMapudungun[note 72] Araucanía (Chile, Argentina) 1.7 million[232] Huilliche, along with Mestizos such as Chileans Christianity
Marathi Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanMarathi Maharashtra (India) 83 million[24] Mahar, Maratha, Kunbi Hinduism
Mari UralicMari Mari El (Russia) 0.6 million[citation needed] Meadow Mari, Hill Mari ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Masa AfroasiaticChadicMasaMasana Cameroon, Chad 0.5 million[233] Islam
Masalit Nilo-SaharanMabanMasalit Sudan, Chad 0.4 million[234] IslamSunni Islam
Maya MayanMaya[note 43] Guatemala, Belize, Mexico (Yucatán, Campeche, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Chiapas), 0.8[235]–6 million[236] Achi, Chuj, Ch'orti', Itza, K'iche', Q'eqchi', Xinca, Tektitek, Huastecan, Mopan, Lacandon, Chontal, Akatek, Jakaltek, Q'anjob'al, Tzeltal, Mocho', Tojolab'al, Mam, Ixil, Tzotzil, Poqomam, Yucatecan Maya, Motozintlecos, Awakatek, Kaqchikel, Sakapultek, Sipakapense, Uspantek, Ch'ol, Tz'utujil, along with Mestizos such as Guatemalans (including Hispanic Belizeans) and Mexicans ChristianityCatholicism
Mazahua Oto-MangueanOtomianMazahua State of Mexico (Mexico) 0.12 million[235] ChristianityCatholicism
Mbaka Niger–CongoUbangianNgbakaMbaka Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.3 million[56] ChristianityCatholicism
Mehri AfroasiaticSemiticMehri Mahra (Yemen, Oman) 0.2 million[237] Soqotri Islam
Meitei Sino-TibetanMeitei Manipur (India) 1.8 million[24] Loi HinduismVaishnavism
Melanau AustronesianMelanau–KajangMelanau Sarawak (Malaysia) 0.1 million[75] Islam
Mende Niger–CongoMandeMende Sierra Leone (Southern and Eastern Provinces) 1.9 million[citation needed] Islam
Merina AustronesianBaritoMerina Antananarivo Province (Madagascar) 5 million[238] Christianity
Mi'kmaq AlgicAlgonquianMi'kmaq[note 29] Mi'kma'ki (Canada) 0.2 million[105] ChristianityCatholicism
Mien Hmong–MienMienic[note 73] China (Hunan, Guizhou), Vietnam 2.6 million[239] Iu Mien, Kim Mun, Dzao Min, Biao Min, Bunu, Lakkia, Biao Mon Yao folk religion
Mijikenda Niger–CongoBantuSabakiMijikenda Coast Province (Kenya), Tanga Region (Tanzania) 2 million[176] Chonyi, Giriama, Digo, Segeju Christianity
Minahasan AustronesianPhilippineMinahasan[note 1] Minahassa Peninsula (Indonesia) 1.2 million[55] Tonsawang, Tontemboan, Tondano, Tombulu, Tonsea ChristianityProtestantism
Minangkabau AustronesianMalayanMinangkabau Minangkabau Highlands (Indonesia) 8 million[240] IslamSunni Islam
Mising Sino-TibetanTaniMising India (Assam, Arunachal Pradesh) 0.6 million[24] Donyi-Polo
Miskito MisumalpanMiskito Mosquito Coast (Nicaragua, Honduras) 0.2 million[241] ChristianityProtestantism
Mixe Mixe–ZoqueMixeanMixe[note 1] Oaxaca (Mexico) 0.1 million[235] ChristianityCatholicism
Mixtec Oto-MangueanMixtecanMixtec La Mixteca (Mexico) 0.5 million[235] Trique, Cuicatecs ChristianityCatholicism
Mon AustroasiaticMonicMon Mon State (Myanmar) 1.1 million[242] BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Mongo Niger–CongoBantuBangi–TetelaMongo[note 14] Democratic Republic of the Congo (Équateur, Tshuapa, Mongala, Nord-Ubangi, Sud-Ubangi) 3.2 million[243] Bolia, Ntomba, Ngando, Iyaelima, Mbole, Mpama, Nkutu, Sengele, Hendo, Dengese, Tetela Christianity, Traditional African religions
Mongols MongolicMongolian[note 43] China (Inner Mongolia, Dzungaria), Mongolia, Russia (Buryatia, Kalmykia) 6[244]–7.6 million[245] Buryats, Barga, Oirats, Kalmyks, Daur, Moghols, Hamnigan, Monguor, Yugur, Khatso, Santa, Bonan, Sart Kalmyks, Soyot, Sichuan Mongols, Sogwo Arig, Altai Uriankhai, Ordos, Kanja, Sogwo Arig, Mughals BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Mongondow AustronesianPhilippineMongondowicMongondow Mongondowia (Indonesia) 0.2 million[246] IslamSunni Islam
Montenegrins Indo-EuropeanSlavicSerbo-CroatianMontenegrin Montenegro 0.6 million[citation needed] Significant populations in Serbia and the United States ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Mordvins UralicMordvinic[note 1] Mordovia (Russia) 0.8 million[citation needed] Erzyas, Mokshas, Qaratays ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Mossi Niger–CongoGurOti–VoltaMossi Mossiland (Burkina Faso) 7.6 million[citation needed] Islam
Mumuye Niger–CongoSavannasMumuye–YendangMumuye Taraba State (Nigeria) 0.4 million[247] Traditional African religions
Munanese AustronesianCelebicMunanese[note 1] Muna (Indonesia) 0.3 million[citation needed] Islam
Mundas AustroasiaticMundaMundari[note 74] India (Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal) 2.2 million[72] Sabar, Mahali Sarnaism
Murut AustronesianSouthwest SabahanMurutic[note 1] Murutia (Malaysia) 0.1 million[248] Okolod, Keningau, Tagal, Paluan, Selungai, Timugon, Serudung, Sembakung, Tidong, Kalabakan, Bulungan, Bookan ChristianityCatholicism
Muscogee MuskogeanMuscogee[note 24] United States (Alabama, Tennessee, Georgia)[note 25] 0.1 million[27] Coushatta, Alibamu, Hitchiti, Natchez, Seminoles (including Black Seminoles), Yuchi, Shawnee, Creoles of color, Miccosukee Native American religionCreek mythology
Musgum AfroasiaticChadicBiu–MandaraMusgu Far North Region (Cameroon), Chad (Chari-Baguirmi, Mayo-Kebbi Est) 0.2 million[249] Islam
Mwera Niger–CongoBantuRufiji–RuvumaMwera Tanzania (Mtwara and Ruvuma Regions) 0.4 million[250] Islam
Naga Sino-TibetanKuki-Chin–Naga[note 1] Nagaland (India) 1.7 million[72] Anāl, Ao, Sangtam, Yimchunger, Lotha, Angami, Chakhesang (including Chokri and Khezha), Mao, Pochury, Rengma, Tangkhul, Maring, Zemi, Liangmei, Kabui, Maram, Konyak, Chang, Wancho, Phom, Khiemnungan, Tangsa, Nocte Christianity
Nagpuri Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanBihariSadri Chota Nagpur Plateau (India) 4.3 million[24] Chik Baraik Hinduism
Nahuas Uto-AztecanNahuanNahuatl Mexico 1.5 million[235] Huasteca Nahuas, Mexicaneros, Sierra Puebla Nahuas, Guerrero Nahuas, Orizaba Nahuas, Southeastern Puebla Nahuas, Central Nahuas, along with Mestizos such as Mexicans ChristianityCatholicism
Nama KhoeKhoekhoe Namaland (Namibia), South Africa 0.1 million[108][note 75] Coloureds (including Cape Coloureds, Griqua, Basters, Oorlam, and Goffal) Christianity
Navajo Dené–YeniseianNa-DenéApacheanNavajo Navajo Nation (United States) 0.3 million[27] ChristianityCatholicism
Newar Sino-TibetanNewaricNewar Kathmandu Valley (Nepal) 1.4 million[251] Chitrakar Hinduism
Ngaju AustronesianBaritoNgaju[note 76] Central Kalimantan (Indonesia) 1 million[252] Bakumpai, Meratus Kaharingan
Ngalop Sino-TibetanBodishTibeticDzongkha Bhutan 0.4 million[253] Kheng, Bumthang BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Ngbandi Niger–CongoUbangianNgbandi Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic 0.1 million[254] Yakoma Christianity
Nias AustronesianNorthwest SumatranNias Nias (Indonesia) 1 million[55] Christianity
Nogais TurkicKipchakNogai Russia (Stavropol Krai, Dagestan) 0.1 million[19] Ak Nogai, Karagash IslamSunni Islam
Norwegians Indo-EuropeanGermanicNorwegian Norway 12 million[citation needed] Significant populations in the United States, and Norwegian Canadians ChristianityProtestantism
Nubians Nilo-SaharanNubian[note 1] Nubia (Egypt, Sudan) 2.7 million[255] Nobiin, Mattokki, Dongolawi, Midob, Hill Nubians (including Dilling, Debri, Ghulfan, Kadaru, Karko, and Wali), Birgid, Ja'alin (including Bedaria), Shaigiya Islam
Nuer Nilo-SaharanNiloticWestern NiloticNuer Nuerland (South Sudan) 2.9 million[citation needed] Traditional African religions
Nuristanis Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianNuristani[note 1] Nuristan (Afghanistan) 0.3 million[256] Safed-Posh Kaffirs (including Askunis), Kamkata-viris (including Kata and Kom) IslamSunni Islam
Nyishi Sino-TibetanTaniNishi Arunachal Pradesh (India) 0.3 million[24] Christianity
Occitans Indo-EuropeanRomanceOccitan[note 23] Occitania (France, Italy, Spain) 6 million[257] Aranese, Auvergnat Christianity
Odia Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanOdia Odisha (India) 32.1[258]–37 million[24] Utkala Brahmin, Khandayat Hinduism
Ogoni Niger–CongoCross RiverOgoniKhana[note 14] Ogoniland (Nigeria) 0.7 million[259] Baan, Eleme, Gokana, Tẹẹ Christianity
Ojibwe AlgicAlgonquianOjibwe[note 24][note 29] Anishinaabeland (Canada, United States) 0.1 million[citation needed] Oji-Cree, Odawa, Potawatomi, Mississaugas Midewiwin
Oromo AfroasiaticCushiticOromo Oromia (Ethiopia), Kenya 17.5[260]–25.5 million[21] Boran, Barentoo IslamSunni Islam
Ossetians Indo-EuropeanIranianOssetian South Ossetia, North Ossetia-Alania (Russia) 0.7 million[261] Iron, Digor ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Ot Danum AustronesianBaritoOt Danum[note 77] Indonesia (West and Central Kalimantan) 0.4 million[262] Lawangan, Ma'anyan Kaharingan
Otomi Oto-MangueanOtomianOtomi Mexico (Hidalgo, Puebla, Veracruz, State of Mexico, Querétaro) 0.3 million[235] ChristianityCatholicism
Ovambo Niger–CongoBantuOshiwambo Ovamboland (Namibia), Angola 1.6 million[citation needed] ChristianityProtestantism
Ovimbundu Niger–CongoBantuUmbundu Angola 6 million[citation needed] Christianity
Pa'O Sino-TibetanKarenicPa'O Shan State (Myanmar) 0.8 million[263] BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Palestinians AfroasiaticSemiticArabicPalestinian Arabic State of Palestine, Israel[note 78] 12.4 million[264] Arab Israelis, along with significant populations in Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and Chile IslamSunni Islam
Pamiris Indo-EuropeanIranianPamir[note 1] Pamir Mountains (Tajikistan, Afghanistan, China) 0.3 million[citation needed] Shughni, Sarikoli (including Tajiks of Xinjiang),[note 79] Yazghulami, Munji, Yidgha, Sanglechi, Ishkashimi, Wakhi IslamShia Islam
Papel Niger–CongoBakPapel Biombo Region (Guinea-Bissau) 0.2 million[265] ChristianityCatholicism
Pare Niger–CongoBantuPare Pare Mountains (Tanzania) 0.9 million[266] Islam
Pashayi Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanPashayi[note 1] Afghanistan (Laghman, Kapisa and Nangarhar Provinces) 0.4 million[267] Islam
Pashtuns Indo-EuropeanIranianPashto Pashtunistan (Afghanistan, Pakistan) 49.6 million[268] Pashtun Americans, Kakar IslamSunni Islam
Pende Niger–CongoBantuPendePende[note 14] Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.3 million[269] Christianity
Persians Indo-EuropeanIranianPersian Iran 52.5 million[270] Tat, along with significant populations in the United States, the United Arab Emirates, Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, Bahrain, Australia, and Sweden IslamShia Islam
Poles Indo-EuropeanSlavicWest SlavicPolish Poland 58–60 million[271] Significant populations in the United States, Brazil, Germany, Canada, Iceland, Sweden, France, the United Kingdom, Argentina, Belarus, Russia, Australia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Ireland, and Norway ChristianityCatholicism
Portuguese Indo-EuropeanRomancePortuguese Portugal 222.7 million[272] Azoreans, Madeirans, along with numerous colonial descendants such as Brazilians (including (Ribeirinhos), Cape Verdeans, Portuguese Angolans, Portuguese Mozambicans, Luso-Indians, Macanese, Kristangs, and Portuguese Burghers ChristianityCatholicism
Punjabis Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanPunjabi Punjab (Pakistan, India) 122.2 million[273] Sikhs, Jat, Khatris, along with significant populations in the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. Islam
Purépecha Purépecha Michoacán (Mexico) 0.1 million[235] ChristianityCatholicism
Qashqai TurkicOghuzQashqai Fars Province (Iran) 1 million[274] IslamShia Islam
Quechua Quechuan[note 1] Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador 7.7 million[275] Mestizos such as Peruvians, Ecuadorians, and Bolivians ChristianityCatholicism
Rajasthanis Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanRajasthani Rajasthan (India) 25.8 million[24] Banjara, Gurjars, Rajputs (including Muslim Rajputs and Chandels), Marwari Hindusim
Rajbongshi Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanKamtapuri India (Assam, West Bengal) 15 million[276] Hindusim
Rakhine Sino-TibetanBurmishRakhinenese Rakhine State (Myanmar) 1 million[277] Marma BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Rarámuri Uto-AztecanTarahumaranRalámuli ra'ícha Chihuahua (Mexico) 0.1 million[235] Native American Church
Rejangese AustronesianBidayuhRejang Rejang Lebong Regency (Indonesia) 2 million[278] IslamSunni Islam
Rohingyas Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanRohingya Rakhine State (Myanmar) 2.4 million[279] Islam
Roma Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanRomani Europe (Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, North Macedonia, Serbia, Slovakia, Czech Republic)[note 2] 12 million[280] Roma, Iberian Kale, Finnish Kale, Welsh Kale, Romanichal, Sinti, Manush, Romanisæl, Ashkali and Balkan Egyptians, Boyash, Lom, Dom (including Halebi, Lori, and Madari), along with significant populations in the United States, and Brazil. Christianity
Romanians Indo-EuropeanRomanceRomanian Romania, Moldova 23.4 million[281] Moldovans, along with significant populations in Italy, Germany, Spain, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and France. ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Russians Indo-EuropeanSlavicEast SlavicRussian Russia 130–150 million[citation needed] Cossacks,[note 80] Pomors, Lipovans, along with significant populations in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Germany, the United States, Uzbekistan, Israel, Brazil, Belarus, Canada, Latvia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Estonia, Turkmenistan, France, Lithuania and Azerbaijan. ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Ryukyuans JaponicRyukyuan[note 81] Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 1.5 million[282] Amami (including Kikai, Amami Ōshima, Tokunoshima, Okinoerabu, and Yoron), Okinawan (including Kunigami) Miyako, Yaeyama, Yonaguni Ryukyuan religion
Rusyns Indo-EuropeanSlavicRusyn Carpathian Ruthenia (Ukraine, Slovakia, Poland) 0.1[283]–1.2 million[284][note 82] Pannonian Rusyns, Lemkos,[note 83] Hutsuls,[note 83] Boykos[note 83] Christianity
Saho AfroasiaticCushiticSaho Eritrea 0.3 million[285] Islam
Sahrawi AfroasiaticSemiticArabicHassaniya Arabic Western Sahara (Morocco), Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Mauritania 5.2 million[286] Reguibat, Tajakant, Tekna IslamSunni Islam
Sama-Bajau AustronesianBaritoSama–Bajaw[note 1] Maritime Southeast Asia (Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei)[note 2] 1.1 million[287] Sama (including Banguingui), Bajaw, Yakan, Abaknon IslamSunni Islam
Sambal AustronesianPhilippineSambalic[note 1] Zambales (Philippines) 0.1 million[288][note 84] Bolinao, Botolan (including Banguingui), Bajaw, Yakan, Abaknon IslamSunni Islam
Sami UralicFinno-UgricSami[note 1] Sápmi (Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia) 0.1 million[289] Inari Sami, Kildin Sami, Lule Sami, Northern Sami, Pite Sami, Skolt Sami, Southern Sami, Ter Sami, Ume Sami ChristianityProtestantism
Samoans AustronesianPolynesianSamoan Samoan Islands (Samoa, American Samoa) 0.6 million[citation needed] American Samoans Christianity
San Kx'a[note 85] Southern Africa (Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Angola) 0.1 million[290] ǃKung, Coloureds (including Cape Coloureds, Griqua, Basters, Oorlam, and Goffal) Traditional African religionsSan religion
Sangirese AustronesianPhilippineSangiricSangirese Sangihe Islands (Indonesia) 0.4 million[291] ChristianityProtestantism
Santal AustroasiaticMundaSantali India (West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha)[note 2] 6.6 million[72] ChristianityCatholicism
Sara Nilo-SaharanBongo–BagirmiSara[note 86] Chad, Central African Republic 5.4 million[292] Ngambay, Doba, Laka, Kabba, Sar, Mbay, Ngam, Dagba, Gulay Traditional African religions
Sardinians Indo-EuropeanRomanceSardinian Sardinia (Italy) 1.2 million[293] ChristianityCatholicism
Sasak AustronesianBali–Sasak–SumbawaSasak Lombok (Indonesia) 3.2 million[55] Islam
Savu AustronesianSumba–FloresSumbaHawu Savu (Indonesia) 0.1 million[294] ChristianityProtestantism
Scots Indo-EuropeanCelticScottish Gaelic[note 28] Scotland (United Kingdom) 40 million[162] Ulster Scots, Orcadians, Shetlanders, Highlanders, Lowlanders, along with significant populations in the United States (including Scotch-Irish Americans), Canada, Australia, Argentina, and the Bahamas ChristianityProtestantism
Senufo Niger–CongoSenufo[note 1] Mali, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso 3 million[citation needed] Nafana Traditional African religions
Serbs Indo-EuropeanSlavicSerbo-CroatianSerbian Serbia, Republika Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Montenegro 9.6–12.5 million[citation needed] Kosovo Serbs, Triestine Serbs, along with significant populations in Croatia, Germany, Austria, France, and Sweden ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Serer Niger–CongoSenegambianSerer[note 87] Senegal 1.4 million[295] Laalaa, Ndut, Niominka, Serer-Noon, Palor, Saafi, Toucouleur Islam
Shan Kra–DaiTaiSouthwestern TaiShan Shan State (Myanmar) 5 million[242] BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Sharchops Sino-TibetanBodishTshangla Bhutan (Lhuntse, Mongar, Pemagatshel, Samdrup Jongkhar, Trashigang, and Trashiyangtse Districts) 0.1 million[296] BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Sherbro Niger–CongoMelSherbro Sherbro Island (Sierra Leone) 0.2 million[297] Traditional African religions
Shilluk Nilo-SaharanNiloticLuoShilluk South Sudan 1.5 million[298] Gule ChristianityCatholicism
Shona Niger–CongoBantuShona[note 1] Mashonaland (Zimbabwe) 7.2 million[299] Manyika, Ndau Christianity
Sibe TungusicXibe[note 34] China (Liaoning, Jilin, Xinjiang)[note 2] 0.2 million[300] Irreligion
Sidama AfroasiaticCushiticSidaama Sidamia (Ethiopia) 7.8 million[21] Christianity
Siddi Niger–CongoBantuSwahiliSidi[note 88] Pakistan (Baluchistan, Sindh), India (Karnataka, Gujarat, Hyderabad) 0.4 million[citation needed] Islam
Silesians Indo-EuropeanSlavicLechiticSilesian Silesia (Poland), Czech Silesia (Czech Republic) 2 million[citation needed] Cieszyn Vlachs, Silesian Gorals ChristianityCatholicism
Silt'e AfroasiaticSemiticEthiopian SemiticSilt'e Siltia (Ethiopia) 1 million[citation needed] Islam
Sindhis Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanSindhi Sindh (Pakistan) 34.8 million[301] Jat, Indian Sindhis IslamSunni Islam
Sinhalese Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanSinhalese Sri Lanka 15.2 million[302] British Sri Lankans, Burghers[note 89] (including Portuguese Burghers and Dutch Burghers) BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Sioux SiouanSioux[note 90] Lakotah (United States)[note 91] 0.2 million[27] Lakota, Dakota, Nakota (including Nakoda and Assiniboine) Native American religion
Slovaks Indo-EuropeanSlavicSlovak Slovakia 6 million[citation needed] Significant populations in Czech Republic, Serbia, Hungary, United States and Canada ChristianityCatholicism
Slovenes Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicSlovene Slovenia 2.5 million[citation needed] Carinthian Slovenes, Italy Slovenes ChristianityCatholicism
Soga Niger–CongoBantuGreat Lakes BantuSoga Busoga (Uganda) 2.1 million[citation needed] Christianity, Traditional African religions
Somalis AfroasiaticCushiticSomali Greater Somalia (Somalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Kenya) 16.1 million[303] Hawiye, Darod (including Majeerteen), Isaaq, Dir, Rahanweyn, Madhiban, Yibir, along with significant populations in the United States, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Canada IslamSunni Islam
Songhai Nilo-SaharanSonghai Mali, Niger 4.5 million[304] Zarma Islam
Soninke Niger–CongoMandeSoninke Mali 2.1 million[305] Haratin IslamSunni Islam
Sotho Niger–CongoBantuSotho-TswanaSotho Free State (South Africa), Lesotho 6 million[306] Pedi Christianity, Traditional African religions
Spaniards Indo-EuropeanRomanceIberianSpanish[note 14] Spain[note 92] 442.4 million[307] Castilians, Andalusians, Asturians, Leonese, Cantabrians, Aragonese, Extremadurans, Mirandese, Canary Islanders (including Isleños), along with numerous colonial descendants such as Hispanos (including Californios, Tejanos, and Neomexicanos), Mexicans, Guatemalans (including Hispanic Belizeans), Salvadorans, Hondurans, Nicaraguans, Costa Ricans, Panamanians, Colombians, Venezuelans, Ecuadorians, Peruvians, Bolivians, Paraguayans, Chileans, Argentines, Uruguayans, Cubans, Dominicans, Puerto Ricans, Fernandinos, and Spanish Filipinos (including Zamboangueños) ChristianityCatholicism
Sui Kra–DaiKam–SuiSui Sandu Shui Autonomous County (China) 0.4 million[308] Animism
Sumba AustronesianSumba–FloresSumba[note 1] Sumba (Indonesia) 0.3 million[309] ChristianityProtestantism
Sundanese AustronesianSundanese Java (Indonesia) 36.7 million[55] Bantenese, Baduy, Cirebonese IslamSunni Islam
Sukuma Niger–CongoBantuSukuma Tanzania 5.5 million[citation needed] Christianity, Traditional African religions
Sumbawa AustronesianBali–Sasak–SumbawaSumbawa Sumbawa (Indonesia) 0.4 million[310] Islam
Surma Nilo-SaharanEastern SudanicSurmic[note 93] Ethiopia, South Sudan 0.2 million[citation needed] Me'en, Mursi Traditional African religions
Susu Niger–CongoMandeSusu Guinea, Kambia (Sierra Leone) 1.3[311]–2.4 million[312] Islam
Swahili Niger–CongoBantuSabakiSwahili Swahili coast (Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Comoros) 0.5[313]–1.8 million[314][note 94] Shirazi (including Zanzibaris, Comorians and Maore) Islam
Swazi Niger–CongoBantuNguniSwazi Mpumalanga (South Africa), Eswatini 2.4 million[315] ChristianityAfrican Zionism
Swedes Indo-EuropeanGermanicNorth GermanicSwedish Sweden 14.2 million[citation needed] Scanians, Jamtish, Gutnish, along with significant populations in Finland (including Åland Swedes), the United States, Canada, Argentina and the United Kingdom ChristianityProtestantism
Sylhetis Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanSylheti Sylhet Division (Bangladesh), Barak Valley (India) 10.3 million[316] Islam
Tabasaran Northeast CaucasianSamurTabasaranese Tabasaranstan (Russia) 0.1 million[19] IslamSunni Islam
Tagalogs AustronesianPhilippineTagalog Philippines 30 million[citation needed] Filipino Americans ChristianityCatholicism
Tahitians AustronesianPolynesianTahitian[note 23] Tahiti (France) 0.2 million[citation needed] Christianity
Tajiks Indo-EuropeanIranianPersianTajik[note 95] Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan 16.9 million[317] Chagatai IslamSunni Islam
Talysh Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianTalysh Azerbaijan, Iran 0.2 million[318] IslamShia Islam
Tama Nilo-SaharanEastern SudanicTamanTama Chad, Sudan 0.3 million[citation needed] Islam
Tamils DravidianTamil–KannadaTamil Tamil Nadu (India), Sri Lanka (Northern and Eastern Provinces) 67.3 million[319] Indian Tamils, Sri Lankan Tamils, Paravar, along with significant populations in Malaysia, South Africa, the United States, Singapore, Canada, the United Kingdom, and France (including Malbars). Hinduism
Tankas Sino-TibetanSiniticChineseYue Chinese China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Hainan, Zhejiang, Hong Kong, Macau) 4.6 million[citation needed] Fuzhou Tankas Chinese folk religion
Tarok Niger–CongoPlateauTarok Plateau State (Nigeria) 0.3 million[320] Christianity
Tatars TurkicKipchakTatar Tatarstan (Russia) 6.8 million[citation needed] Volga Tatars, Crimean Tatars, Lipka Tatars, Siberian Tatars, Mishar Tatars, Finnish Tatars, Dobruja Tatars, Chinese Tatars, Nagaybak, Kryashens IslamSunni Islam
Telugu DravidianTelugu India (Andhra Pradesh, Telangana) 81.1 million[24] Vaidiki Brahmins, Raju Hinduism
Temne Niger–CongoMelTemne Sierra Leone 2.2 million[210] Islam
Thais Kra–DaiTaiSouthwestern TaiThai[note 14] Thailand 31.1 million[321] Southern, Khorat, Lanna, Tai Lü, Thai Americans BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Tibetans Sino-TibetanBodishTibeticTibetan[note 14] Tibet (China) 5.4[322]–6.2 million[323] Amdolese (including Golok and Tebbu), Khams, Ü-Tsang (including Ngari and Walung), Changpa, Baima BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Tigrayans AfroasiaticSemiticTigrinya Eritrea, Tigrayia (Ethiopia) 9 million[citation needed] ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Tigre AfroasiaticSemiticEthiopicTigre Eritrea 1.8 million[citation needed] Islam
Tiv Niger–CongoTivoidTiv Benue State (Nigeria) 4.5 million[156] Christianity
Tiwa Sino-TibetanSalBodo-GaroTiwa[note 3] India (Assam, Meghalaya) 0.2 million[72] Hinduism
Tlapanec Oto-MangueanTlapanec Guerrero (Mexico) 0.1 million[235] ChristianityCatholicism
Toraja AustronesianSouth SulawesiToraja Tana Toraja (Indonesia) 1.1 million[324][note 96] ChristianityProtestantism
Terengganuarians AustronesianMalayanMalayTerengganurian Malay Terengganu (Malaysia) 1.1 million[citation needed] IslamSunni Islam
Toubou Nilo-SaharanSaharanTebu[note 1] Toubouland (Chad, Niger, Sudan, Libya) 0.7 million[citation needed] Daza, Teda IslamSunni Islam
Tripuri Sino-TibetanSalBodo-GaroKokborok Tripura (India) 1 million[24] Jamatia, Murasing Hinduism
Tsonga Niger–CongoBantuTswa-RongaTsonga Mozambique (Maputo City and Maputo Province, Gaza Province), South Africa (Limpopo, Mpumalanga) 5.5 million[325] Traditional African religions
Tswana Niger–CongoBantuSotho-TswanaTswana South Tswanaland (South Africa), Botswana 5.8 million[326] Balete, Mangwato, Bangwaketse, Rolong Christianity
Tupuri Niger–CongoSavannasMbumTupuri Far North Region (Cameroon), Mayo-Kébbi (Chad) 0.2 million[327] Christianity
Turkana Nilo-SaharanNiloticEastern NiloticTurkana Turkanaland (Kenya) 1 million[176] ChristianityCatholicism
Turks TurkicOghuzTurkish Turkey 79 million[328] Turkish Cypriots, Meskhetian Turks, Yörüks, along with significant populations in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, the United States, Syria, and Iraq IslamSunni Islam
Turkmens TurkicOghuzTurkmen Turkmenistan 6.7 million[329] IslamSunni Islam
Tutsi Niger–CongoBantuRwanda-Rundi[note 49] Rwanda, Burundi, Kivu (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 3 million[citation needed] Banyamulenge Christianity, Islam
Tuvans TurkicSiberianTuvan Tuva (Russia) 0.3 million[citation needed] Tozhu Tuvans BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Twa Niger–CongoBantuRwanda-Rundi[note 49] Rwanda, Burundi, Kivu (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 0.1 million[citation needed] Traditional African religions
Udmurts UralicPermicUdmurt Udmurtia (Russia) 0.6 million[citation needed] Besermyan ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Urhobos Niger–CongoVolta–NigerEdoidUrhobo Delta State (Nigeria) 1 million[330] Christianity
Ukrainians Indo-EuropeanSlavicUkrainian Ukraine 37.3[331]–58.7 million[332] Poleshuks, Cossacks,[note 80] along with significant populations in the United States, Brazil, Kazakhstan,Germany, Canada, Italy, Argentina, the Czech Republic, and Romania ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Uyghurs TurkicKarlukUyghur Uyghuristan (China) 10.4 million[333] Uyghurs in Kazakhstan IslamSunni Islam
Uzbeks TurkicKarlukUzbek Uzbekistan 29.3 million[334] Uzbeks in Russia IslamSunni Islam
Venda Niger–CongoBantuTshivenda Vendaland (South Africa) 1.3 million[335] Christianity, Traditional African religions
Vietnamese AustroasiaticVieticVietnamese Vietnam 73.6 million[336] Significant populations in the United States, Cambodia, France, Australia, Canada, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Germany and Laos BuddhismMahayana
Visayans AustronesianPhilippineVisayan[note 1] Visayas (Philippines) 24.8 million[337] Aklanon, Butuanon, Cebuano (including Boholano and Eskaya), Caluyanon, Capiznons, Hiligaynon, Karay-a, Masbateño, Negrense, Porohanon, Romblomanon, Waray ChristianityCatholicism
Wa AustroasiaticPalaungicWaicWa Wa State (Myanmar) 1.2 million[citation needed] Buddhism, Animism
Welayta AfroasiaticOmoticOmetoWolayitta Wolayitia (Ethiopia) 1.7 million[21] ChristianityProtestantism
Welsh Indo-EuropeanCelticBrittonicWelsh[note 28] Wales (United Kingdom) 16.3 million[338] Significant populations in Argentina, the United States, Canada, and Australia. ChristianityProtestantism
Wolof Niger–CongoSenegambianWolof Senegambia (Senegal, The Gambia) 5.9 million[339] Lebu, along with numerous slave descendants such as Haratins and Martinicans (including Saint Lucians) IslamSunni Islam
Xhosa Niger–CongoBantuNguniXhosa Xhosaland (South Africa) 8.2 million[340] Christianity
Yakö Niger–CongoCross RiverYakö Yakurr Local Government (Nigeria) 0.1 million[341] Christianity
Yakuts TurkicSiberian TurkicYakut Yakutia (Russia) 0.5 million[citation needed] ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Yao Niger–CongoBantuRufiji–RuvumaYao Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania (Ruvuma and Mtwara Regions) 2.6 million[342] Islam
Yi Sino-TibetanLolo-BurmeseLolishNuosu[note 14] China (Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Guangxi)[note 2] 7.8 million[343] Phù Lá, Azha Bimoism
Yoruba Niger–CongoVolta–NigerYoruboidYoruba Yorubaland (Nigeria, Benin) 37.7 million[344] Egun, Ijesha, Egba, Yewa, Igbomina, Awori, Akoko, Okun, Ana, Ekiti, Ilaje, Oku, along with numerous slave descendants Christianity
Zaghawa Nilo-SaharanSaharanZaghawa Chad, Sudan 0.3 million[111] IslamSunni Islam
Zande Niger–CongoZandePazande[note 43] Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, South Sudan 1.1[345]–1.2 million[346] Christianity
Zapotec Oto-MangueanZapotecan[note 1] Oaxaca (Mexico) 0.5 million[235] ChristianityCatholicism
Zhuang Kra–DaiTaiZhuang[note 1] Zhuangia (China) 14.9[347]–16.2 million[348] Moism
Zulu Niger–CongoBantuNguniZulu KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) 11.8 million[349] Northern Ndebele Christianity, Traditional African religions

Lists of ethnic groups[edit]

by status
regional lists

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au Language family; with some exceptions, the speakers of the various languages within this family are typically seen as one singular ethnicity.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Noncontiguous homeland. Throughout most of their history (if not their entire history), this ethnic group have lived in separate, isolated communities scattered throughout the countries/subdivisions listed.
  3. ^ a b c Assamese ethnic group; the vast majority only speak Assamese.
  4. ^ The Akan ethnicity usually incorporates the entire Central Tano family as well as other languages, such as Abé, Abidji, Attié, and Avatime.
  5. ^ Some time around 1860s, many Akha have been migrating to Myanmar, Laos, and Thailand. Today, the majority reside outside of China.
  6. ^ The Anglo-Indians are largely found in India's urban areas. It is believed, however, that the majority of the Anglo-Indians have left India since the country's independence.
  7. ^ With the exception of Navajo, the Apache ethnicity usually incorporates the entire Southern Athabaskan family. However, due to a history of forced assimilation by the American government, the majority can only speak English.
  8. ^ The various noncontiguous Apache reservations only make up a small portion of Apacheria; prior to the Apache Wars, the Apache homeland was mostly a contiguous area that included most of New Mexico and eastern Arizona along with some exclaves in Oklahoma and Texas.
  9. ^ Between 632 and 861, the Arabs controlled most of West Asia and North Africa, with Bedouin tribes forming in what is now Algeria, Sudan, and Iraq. Today, the majority of the Arab world is outside of Arabia.
  10. ^ The Argobba have typically been a merchant community and usually trades with other ethnic groups; recently, these factors have resulted in the majority only speaking Amharic or Oromo.
  11. ^ During the Armenian Genocide, many Armenians fled to Russia, France, and the United States. Today, the majority reside outside of Greater Armenia.
  12. ^ The Aromanians are considered to be descendants of the Romanised people of Southern Balkans and they live scattered in many settlements of that region.
  13. ^ The Aromanians tend to either identify their ethnicity as being the same as the dominant group of their area (especially in Greece, where Aromanians played an active role in Greece's war of independence) or Romanian (due to the similarity in their languages); this figure does not include those who do not speak the Aromanian language.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Standard language; while this language is considered to be the primary/native language for this ethnicity, most definitions of this ethnic group usually incorporates other language speakers within the preceding language family listed.
  15. ^ The Aramaic language morphed into the Neo-Aramaic languages around 1200 AD; of these languages, the most commonly used are Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic, and Turoyo. Whether the majority of the Assyrians are still speaking these languages is unclear, however.
  16. ^ Modern Assyria have seen long periods of violence throughout the region, some of which (such as the Assyrian genocide and the Persecution of Christians by ISIL) have been directed against the Assyrians themselves. This has caused many to flee to places such as the United States and Sweden; it is believed that the majority now reside outside of the Middle East.
  17. ^ Largely used in formal conversations; the majority of Austrians actually speak Bavarian.
  18. ^ The Khetrans are generally considered a part of the Balochis despite speaking a different language.
  19. ^ Due to the widespread presence of both Spanish and French, the majority of Basques only have a passive knowledge of their language.
  20. ^ Unlike the rest of the Soviet republics, who were able to maintain their native language despite the de facto Russianization during the Soviet era, the Russian language has largely replaced Belarusian in everyday use.
  21. ^ With the exception of the Rejangese, the Bidayuh ethnicity usually incorporates the entire Land Dayak family along with speakers of the Kendayan language.
  22. ^ The speakers of U are generally considered part of the Blang ethnicity.
  23. ^ a b c d Due to France's long history of promoting the French language at the expense of others, the vast majority only speak French.
  24. ^ a b c d e Due to the a long history of forced assimilation by the American government, the vast majority only speak English.
  25. ^ a b c Following the passage of the Indian Removal Act, this ethnic group was forced to relocate its entire population to Oklahoma.
  26. ^ With the exception of the Northwestern Kuki-Chin branch, the Chin ethnicity usually incorporates the entire Kuki-Chin family as well as the Mruic languages.
  27. ^ Following the Caucasian War, the majority of Circassians were deported to Turkey.
  28. ^ a b c d e Due to a long history of English dominance within Great Britain, the Celtic languages within the islands have seen steady decline in use, with some of them eventually going extinct. Although all of them have since seen major language revival movements, English continues to be main language for the majority of this group.
  29. ^ a b c Due to the a long history of forced assimilation by the Canadian government, the vast majority can only either speak English.
  30. ^ The various noncontiguous Cree bands only make up a small portion of what was once a contiguous homeland. This homeland also incorporated parts of Montana, United States.
  31. ^ Due to their historical low status in India, the majority only speak Gujarati.
  32. ^ The original Egyptian language, which morphed into Coptic around the 1st century AD, died out as a spoken language around the 17th century and is now only used for religious ceremonies. Today, the Egyptians, including the Copts, speak Arabic.
  33. ^ Population of Esanland.
  34. ^ a b c The majority of the Tungusic languages are endangered, and many Tungusic ethnic groups now mostly speak only Russian or Chinese depending on the location of their homeland.
  35. ^ The French ethnicity generally also includes speakers of the Franco-Provençal language.
  36. ^ Number of Friuilian speakers.
  37. ^ The Fula are a semi-nomadic people with rather dispersed settlements; it's impossible to claim any specific area as a primary homeland of the Fula beyond West Africa. The countries listed here are the present-day locations of former Fula states: Futa Jallon, Futa Toro, Great Fulo, and Massina. (The Sokoto Caliphate was founded on traditionally Hausa land, which is why Nigeria is not listed.)
  38. ^ Following the Second Carib War, the majority of the Garifuna were deported to Honduras, where they later spread to Guatemala, Belize, and Nicaragua. Since then, Honduras have seen high murder rates, causing many to flee to United States.
  39. ^ Many of the Gelao dialects are mutually unintelligible from each other and are known to intermarry with other ethnic groups; recently, these factors have resulted in most of the populations speaking only Chinese.
  40. ^ The Georgian ethnicity generally includes speakers of the Mingrelian language.
  41. ^ The Gond ethnicity usually incorporates the entire Gondi family. However, due to their historical low status in India, the majority only speak Hindi.
  42. ^ Population total of all users of the Paraguayan Guaraní macrolanguage. Unlike other Mestizo populations, who have largely abandoned their native languages, the Paraguayans have continued to use Guaraní in their everyday lives, meaning it's entirely possible for a non-ethnic Guaraní to be a native Guaraní speaker.
  43. ^ a b c d e Definition of this ethnic group varies between incorporating almost all speakers of the preceding language family to limiting it to just those who speak this particular language.
  44. ^ The term Macanese refers specifically to the Macau population with Han and Portuguese ancestry; it is not usually used to describe the general Macau population, who are simply just Han.
  45. ^ Because of their Islamic faith, the Hui tend to be seen as a separate ethnic group (particularly by the Chinese government).
  46. ^ The vast majority of Oversea Chinese are ethnic Han; however, these populations may also include other ethnic groups residing in China.
  47. ^ Due to frequent intermarriages, many of the Thai Chinese have significant amount of Thai ancestry.
  48. ^ Since Hawaii's annexation into the United States, English has almost completely supplanted Hawaiian.
  49. ^ a b c Refers specifically to the Kinyarwanda and Kirundi dialects. The other speakers of the dialects within the Rwanda-Rundi continuum are considered to be separate from the Hutu, Tutsi, and Twa peoples.
  50. ^ The Ijaw ethnicity usually incorporates the entire Ijaw family as well as the Obolo, who speak a non-Ijaw language.
  51. ^ During the Great Famine, many Irish people fled to places like Argentina, Mexico, and the United States. Today, the majority of people claiming Irish ethnicity resides outside of Ireland.
  52. ^ With the exception of Cherokee, the Iroquois ethnicity usually incorporates the entire Iroquoian family. However, due to a long history of forced assimilation by both American and Canadian governments, the vast majority can only speak English.
  53. ^ The Italian ethnicity generally incorporates most Italo-Dalmatian and Gallo-Italic speakers.
  54. ^ Despite the successful revival of the Hebrew language, many Jews continue to speak the various languages that have developed by the diaspora populations, including Yiddish, Ladino, and Judeo-Arabic. In addition, English serves as the lingua franca of Israel.
  55. ^ Until 1948, the Jews were largely a diaspora ethnicity, with the Jewish identity being claimed mostly by descendants of those that left Israel following the First Jewish–Roman War while the remaining population eventually evolved into the Palestinians. Even though entire Jewish communities have migrated back to Israel, the majority still reside outside their ancestral homeland.
  56. ^ Both figures exclude the Nambya. The latter figure is taken by combining the Zimbabwean and the Botswanan populations.
  57. ^ Not including the diaspora population residing in Paraguay.
  58. ^ The majority of Afro-Paraguayans identify as being ethnically Kamba, who arrived shortly after Paraguay's independence; the descendants of original slave population (which was mostly made up of Igbo, Yoruba, and Ambundu) have largely integrated into this Kamba population.
  59. ^ Karen population. Presumably includes those outside of Burma.
  60. ^ The Kashubians tend to identify themselves as being a Polish subgroup (only 0.2 million consider themselves as being a separate ethnicity); this figure does not include those residing outside of Poland.
  61. ^ Definitions on the Kongo varies on whether their ethnicity incorporates all speakers of the Kongo language family or just those who speak Kikongo, although most consider the Vili to be a Kongo subgroup despite speaking a separate language.
  62. ^ Figure taken by combining the ethnic populations of Kyrgyzstan, China, and Tajikistan.
  63. ^ These numbers depend on whether the Isan are considered a part of the Lao population; the former figure excludes the Isan, while the latter includes them.
  64. ^ There is debate on whether the Isan are Thai, Lao, or their own separate ethnic group. Until the Lao rebellion, the Lao themselves were viewed, both by themselves and by outsiders, as being a Thai subgroup. Linguistically, their language is closer to Lao than it is to Thai (although all three are highly mutually intelligible to each other); however, due to heavy state-sponsored Thaification, many Isan consider themselves as being ethnically Thai.
  65. ^ Due to both Turkification and the tendency among Georgia-residing Laz to see themselves as being a Georgian subgroup, the majority of Laz either speak Turkish or Georgian (mostly Turkish).
  66. ^ Most Lebanese migrants do not pass their language to their children; recently, this has resulted in the Lebanese Arabic speakers only forming a plurality of the overall population.
  67. ^ Some time around the late 1800s, many Lebanese have migrated to places such as France, Brazil, and the United States. Today, the majority reside outside of Lebanon.
  68. ^ Until the collapse of the German Confederation, the Luxembourgers were considered, both by themselves and by outsiders, as being a German subgroup. By the time of this collapse in 1866 however, many of the Luxembourgish diaspora populations were already decades old; this figure only include those who speak Luxembourgish as their first language.
  69. ^ Due to poor soil condition in Madura, the majority now live on Java.
  70. ^ The majority of the Magars have recently switched to Nepali.
  71. ^ Although the Māori have been able to halt the extinction of their language, the majority still only speak English fluently.
  72. ^ The Mapuche ethnicity usually incorporates the entire Araucanian family. However, due to gradual Hispanicization following the Occupation of Araucanía, the majority of Mapuche can only speak Spanish, even when excluding the mestizos.
  73. ^ The Mien ethnicity usually incorporates the entire Mienic branch as well as some Hmongic languages and the Lakkia language.
  74. ^ The Mahali are usually grouped with the Munda despite speaking a Santali dialect.
  75. ^ Namibia: 0.1 million ("Nama 5%" of a population of 2.5 million). Most estimates exclude the Coloureds due to their special status in South African society.
  76. ^ A number of other Dayak people are usually grouped with the Ngaju, including the Bakumpai speakers.
  77. ^ A number of other Dayak people are usually grouped with the Ot Danum, including the Lawangan and Ma'anyan speakers.
  78. ^ During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, many Palestinians fled to places like Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon. Today, the majority reside outside of what was once Mandatory Palestine.
  79. ^ There is a tendency among outsiders to identify the Pamiris as being a Tajik subgroup.
  80. ^ a b The Cossacks also include other members native to Eastern Europe.
  81. ^ the Ryukyuan ethnicity usually incorporates the entire Ryukyuan family. However, due to a history of forced assimilation by the Japanese government, the majority can only speak Japanese.
  82. ^ The former figure includes self-identified Rusyns and Lemkos in the national censuses of Slovakia, Serbia, Poland, Czech Republic, Croatia and Ukraine, while the latter is an estimate of people with Rusyn ancestry. A major problem with finding the actual Rusyn population is that the Rusyns are usually seen, even by Rusyns residing in Ukraine, as being a Ukrainian subgroup; the Rusyn identity is usually confined to the diaspora population.
  83. ^ a b c There is debate on whether the Lemkos, the Hutsuls, and the Boykos are considered to be Ukrainian subgroups or Rusyn subgroups (which is largely dependent on whether the Rusyns themselves are a separate ethnic group or an Ukrainian subgroup). The majority of all three groups tend to identify as being ethnically Rusyn rather than being ethnically Ukrainian.
  84. ^ Sambal population within Zambales.
  85. ^ The San ethnicity generally incorporates both the Tuu and Kx'a language family.
  86. ^ The Sara ethnicity usually incorporates speakers of the Sara and Kaba languages.
  87. ^ The Serer ethnicity generally also includes speakers of the Cangin languages.
  88. ^ The Siddi language has been extinct since the 20th century. The Siddi now speak the dominant language of their region.
  89. ^ Unlike the Portuguese and the Dutch, the English have rarely intermarried with Burghers.
  90. ^ The speakers of the Assiniboine and Stoney languages are also usually considered a part of the Sioux ethnicity. However, due to a history of forced assimilation by the American government, the majority can only speak English.
  91. ^ The various noncontiguous Sioux reservations only make up a small portion of Lakotah; prior to the Sioux Wars, the Sioux homeland was a contiguous area that included most of Minnesota and North and South Dakota along with some parts of Nebraska and Iowa.
  92. ^ Between 1492 and 1833, the Spaniards controlled most of the Americas, with Mestizo communities forming in areas such as what is now Mexico, Argentina, and Colombia. Today, the majority of the Hispanosphere is outside of Spain.
  93. ^ Refers specifically to the three languages that form the Surma language family: Me'en, Mursi, and Suri. The ethnonym Surma is usually applied to the speakers of the Suri language.
  94. ^ Most publications tend to stick with 500,000. The ethnic Swahili population is believed to be significantly smaller than the millions of people who use Swahili in their everyday lives, even when limited to first language speakers.
  95. ^ The Tajik ethnicity generally includes speakers of the Dari language.
  96. ^ Figure taken by combining both local and diaspora populations.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Abaza". Joshua Project. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  2. ^ "Abkhaz". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 November 2018. Total Abkhaz users in all countries.
  3. ^ "Acehnese". Joshua Project. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  4. ^ "Acehnese". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  5. ^ "Acholi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  6. ^ "Adjoukrou in Côte d'Ivoire". Joshua Project. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  7. ^ "Etsako in Nigeria". Joshua Project. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  8. ^ "Afar". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 December 2018. Figure taken by adding the ethnic populations of Ethiopia and Djibouti with the Eritrean population.
  9. ^ "ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES: 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 5, 2018. Total population of people who identify as Black or African American in the United States, including recent African immigrants.
  10. ^ "Afrikaners constitute nearly three million out of approximately 53 million inhabitants of the Republic of South Africa, plus as many as half a million in diaspora." Afrikaner – Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. Retrieved 24 August 2014. Most estimates exclude the Coloureds due to their special status in South African society.
  11. ^ "Saint Lucia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total population.
  12. ^ "Awi in Ethiopia". Joshua Project. Retrieved 17 January 2019. "Bilen in Eritrea". Joshua Project. Retrieved 17 January 2019. "Kemant in Ethiopia". Joshua Project. Retrieved 17 January 2019. "Ximre in Ethiopia". Joshua Project. Retrieved 17 January 2019. Figure taken by totaling all four populations.
  13. ^ "Ahom in India". Joshua Project. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  14. ^ "Ahom". Ethnologue. Retrieved 23 January 2019. Possible number of Assamese speakers claiming to be of Ahom descent.
  15. ^ "Aimaq". Ethnologue. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  16. ^ "Cote D'Ivoire". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. "Ghana". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total populations. Most estimates exclude the African diaspora caused by the Atlantic slave trade due to centuries worth of separation from the rest of the Akan population.
  17. ^ "Akha". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 January 2019. Total users of Akha in all countries.
  18. ^ "Albanian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 December 2018. Population total of all users of the Albanian macrolanguage.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h "Russian Census 2010: Population by ethnicity". Archived from the original on 2012-04-24. Retrieved 2013-04-16. Russian population only. The Laks are unrelated to the Kurdish/Lurish subgroup of the same name.
  20. ^ "Angola". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total populations. Most estimates exclude the African diaspora caused by the Atlantic slave trade due to centuries worth of separation from the rest of the Ambundu population.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Census 2007" Archived February 14, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Chia-chen, Hsieh; Wu, Jeffrey (15 February 2015). "Amis remains Taiwan's biggest aboriginal tribe at 37.1% of total". FocusTaiwan.tw. The Central News Agency. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  23. ^ "Anaang". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q 2011 Indian census, Abstract of Speakers' Strength of Languages and Mother Tongues. Figure taken using the mother tongue grouping population or the specific language population. Indian population only. The English population used for Anglo-Indian figure may include upper-class urbanites of full Indian descent.
  25. ^ Fisher, Michael H. (2007), "Excluding and Including "Natives of India": Early-Nineteenth-Century British-Indian Race Relations in Britain", Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 27 (2): 303–314 [305], doi:10.1215/1089201x-2007-007 Indian population only; the Anglo-Indian population outside of India cannot be determined.
  26. ^ "Anuak". Joshua Project. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g "The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010" (PDF). census.gov. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
  28. ^ Margaret Kleffner Nydell Understanding Arabs: A Guide For Modern Times, Intercultural Press, 2005, ISBN 1931930252, page xxiii, 14. Include groups that tend to be seen, both by themselves and by outsiders, as being Arabic subgroups, but are listed here as separate ethnicities.
  29. ^ Dennis J.D. Sandole (24 January 2007). Peace and Security in the Postmodern World: The OSCE and Conflict Resolution. Routledge. p. 182. ISBN 9781134145713. The nearly 3 million Armenians in Armenia (and 3–4 million in the Armenian Diaspora worldwide) "perceive" the nearly 8 million Azerbaijanis in Azerbaijan as "Turks."
  30. ^ Von Voss, Huberta (2007). Portraits of Hope: Armenians in the Contemporary World. New York: Berghahn Books. p. xxv. ISBN 9781845452575. ...there are some 8 million Armenians in the world...
  31. ^ Puig, Lluis Maria de (17 January 1997). "Report: Aromanians". Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly. Doc. 7728.
  32. ^ "The Asmat". The Met. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
  33. ^ Ronald Roberson. "The Eastern Catholic Churches 2016" (PDF). Catholic Near East Welfare Association. Retrieved 29 November 2016. Information sourced from Annuario Pontificio 2016 edition
  34. ^ "Assyria". Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. unpo.org. Most estimates exclude the Iraqis and Syrians due to their political and cultural dominance over those who still maintain the Assyrian culture.
  35. ^ "Timorese". Joshua Project. Retrieved 1 January 2019. "Baikeno in East Timor". Joshua Project. Retrieved 1 January 2019. Figure taken by combining both sources. Includes only the Uab Meto speakers.
  36. ^ "Reel, Atwot in South Sudan". Joshua Project. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  37. ^ "Katab in Nigeria". Joshua Project. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  38. ^ "Bavarian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 29 January 2019. Figure taken by adding the Austrian and Italian population. Until World War II, the Austrians viewed themselves as being a German subgroup. Despite speaking the same language, the Bavarians and the Austrians are generally seen as being separate groups.
  39. ^ "Avar". Ethnologue. Retrieved 20 January 2019. Figure taken by combining the Azerbaijani and Georgian population with the ethnic Avar population in Russia. Despite various attempts by the Soviet government to incorporate various small groups into the Avar ethnicity, most estimates usually exclude them.
  40. ^ "Awadhi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 29 January 2019. Total first-language Awadhi users in all countries.
  41. ^ "Aymara". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 November 2018. Population total of all users of the Aymara macrolanguage. Most estimates exclude mestizos due to their political and cultural dominance over those who still maintain the Aymara culture.
  42. ^ Sela, Avraham (2002). The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Continuum. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-8264-1413-7. 30–35 million
  43. ^ "The 2009 Vietnam Population and Housing Census: Completed Results". General Statistics Office of Vietnam: Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee. June 2010. p. 134. Archived from the original on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  44. ^ "The Bai ethnic minority". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  45. ^ "Balanta-Kentohe". Ethnologue. Retrieved 3 January 2018. "Balanta-Ganja". Ethnologue. Retrieved 3 January 2018. Figure taken by combining the total users of Balanta-Kentohe in all countries with the Balanta-Ganja population.
  46. ^ Bali faces population boom, now home to 4.2 million residents.
  47. ^ "Baluchi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 December 2018. Population total of all users of the Balochi macrolanguage.
  48. ^ "Balti". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  49. ^ "Burmese". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 December 2018. Total first-language Burmese users in all countries.
  50. ^ "Bamanankan". Ethnologue. Retrieved 1 December 2018. Total first-language Bamanankan users in all countries.
  51. ^ "Bantu, Cameroon-Bamileke". Joshua Project. Retrieved 7 February 2019. Includes other non-Bamileke Grassfield speakers.
  52. ^ "Bamun". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  53. ^ Kevin Shillington (2013). Encyclopedia of African History. Routledge. pp. 231–232. ISBN 978-1-135-45670-2.
  54. ^ "Banjar". Ethnologue. Retrieved 1 December 2018. Total Banjarese users in all countries. Within Malaysia, the Banjarese are usually seen as being a Malay subgroup; this figure heavily undercounts the Malaysian population.
  55. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Kewarganegaraan, Suku Bangsa, Agama dan Bahasa Sehari-hari Penduduk Indonesia Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2010. Statistics Indonesia. 2011. ISBN 978-979-064-417-5. Indonesian population only. Some of these ethnic groups are considered to be a part of the Malay ethnicity in Malaysia.
  56. ^ a b c d e Kwame Anthony Appiah; Henry Louis Gates Jr., eds. (2010). Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533770-9.
  57. ^ "Bari". Ethnologue. Retrieved 3 February 2019. "Kakwa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 3 February 2019. "Mandari". Ethnologue. Retrieved 3 February 2019. Figure taken by combining the total number of first-language Bari users in all countries, the total number of Kakwa users in all countries, and the Mandari population.
  58. ^ a b "Benin". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total populations. Most estimates exclude the African diaspora caused by the Atlantic slave trade due to centuries worth of separation from the rest of the African population.
  59. ^ "Liberia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentage listed with the total population.
  60. ^ "Bashkirs". Ethnologue. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
  61. ^ "Basque". Ethnologue. Retrieved 23 November 2018. Figure taken by adding the ethnic population of France with the number of people in Spain that have a Basque surname. Does not include descendants residing in Latin America.
  62. ^ "Bedawiyet". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 October 2016. Total Beja users in all countries.
  63. ^ "Belarusian". Joshua Project. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  64. ^ "Belize Creole". Joshua Project. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  65. ^ "Bembe". Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 January 2019. The vast majority of the Tanzanian Bembe population have largely abandoned their culture; this figure heavily undercounts those residing in Tanzania.
  66. ^ "Bengali". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 October 2016. Total first-language Bengali users in all countries.
  67. ^ "North Africa's Berbers get boost from Arab Spring". Fox News. 5 May 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  68. ^ Tej K. Bhatia; William C. Ritchie (2006). The Handbook of Bilingualism. John Wiley & Sons. p. 860. ISBN 978-0631227359. Retrieved 19 July 2016. Most estimates exclude the Arab-Berbers due to their political and cultural dominance over those who still maintain the Berber culture.
  69. ^ "Berom". Ethnologue. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  70. ^ "Berta". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 November 2018. Total first-language Berta users in all countries.
  71. ^ "Malagasy, Northern Betsimisaraka". Ethnologue. Retrieved 7 February 2019. "Malagasy, Southern Betsimisaraka". Ethnologue. Retrieved 7 February 2019. Figure taken by combining both populations.
  72. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Statistical Profile of Scheduled Tribes in India (PDF). New Delhi: Ministry of Tribal Affairs. 2013. Figures taken either directly from Table 1.23 or by combining related total populations of Table 1.24. While the term Munda can also refer collectively to all speakers of the Munda languages, most definitions and estimates limit the Munda ethnicity to a specific group that would usually speak Mundari.
  73. ^ "Bhojpuri". Ethnologue. Retrieved 31 January 2019. Total first-language Bhojpuri users in all countries.
  74. ^ "Bikol". Ethnologue. Retrieved 31 January 2019. Population total of all users of the Bikol macrolanguage.
  75. ^ a b "State statistics: Malays edge past Chinese in Sarawak". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
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  77. ^ "Bisa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. Total Bissa users in all countries.
  78. ^ "The Blang ethnic minority". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  79. ^ "Bwa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  80. ^ "Bosnian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 7 January 2019. Total Bosnian users in all countries.
  81. ^ "The Bouyei ethnic minority". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  82. ^ "Bozo, Jenaama". Ethnologue. Retrieved 7 February 2019. Includes only speakers of Jenaama dialect.
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  85. ^ "Bru". Ethnologue. Retrieved 8 February 2019. Figure based largely on the total users of Eastern Bru in all countries.
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  87. ^ "Bube". Ethnologue. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  88. ^ "Budu in Congo, Democratic Republic of". Joshua Project. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
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  91. ^ "Burushaski". Ethnologue. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
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  95. ^ "Cham, Western". Ethnologue. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
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  97. ^ "The Zomi Population"
  98. ^ "Chowke people". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  99. ^ "Chutias to shun Cong". www.telegraphindia.com. Retrieved 2018-11-23.
  100. ^ "Chuukese". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  101. ^ "Adyghe". Ethnologue. Retrieved 15 January 2019. "Kabardian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 15 January 2019. Figure taken by combining the total users of Adyghe and Kabardian in all countries.
  102. ^ "Chichewa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  103. ^ "The Cornish Transnational Communities Project". University of Exeter. Archived from the original on 20 January 2011.
  104. ^ "Corsican". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 January 2019. Total population of all speakers of Corsican.
  105. ^ a b "Aboriginal Population Profile, 2016 Census". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2017-11-23.
  106. ^ "Dagara, Northern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 7 January 2019. "Dagaare, Southern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 7 January 2019. Figure taken by combining both sources.
  107. ^ "Dagbani". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  108. ^ a b "Namibia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total populations.
  109. ^ "Dargwa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. Ethnic population.
  110. ^ "South Sudan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total populations.
  111. ^ a b c John A. Shoup III (2011). Ethnic Groups of Africa and the Middle East: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-363-7.
  112. ^ "Duala". Ethnologue. Retrieved 8 February 2019. Source dates backs to 1982; population most likely grown since then.
  113. ^ Autochtone population at 1 January 2006, Central Statistics Bureau, Integratiekaart 2006', (external link) Archived 16 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine (in Dutch)
  114. ^ "Jula". Ethnologue. Retrieved 26 November 2018. Total first-language Dyula users in all countries.
  115. ^ "Ebira". Ethnologue. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  116. ^ "edo". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. Total Edo users in all countries.
  117. ^ "Efik". Joshua Project. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  118. ^ "مصر في المركز الـ13 عالميا في التعداد السكاني". BBC News Arabic (in Arabic). 2017-09-30. Retrieved 2018-09-01.
  119. ^ "Ejagham". Joshua Project. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  120. ^ "Emberá, Northern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 31 January 2019. Number largely based on the total Emberá population in Colombia in 2001.
  121. ^ "Ethnicity and National Identity in England and Wales: 2011". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 13 December 2018. "American FactFinder - Results". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 21 August 2017. "Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 13 December 2018. "Data tables, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 13 December 2018. "2013 Census ethnic group profiles". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 13 December 2018. The following "ethnic origins/ancestry" was used to add up this figure: English, British, American, Australian, Canadian, New Zealander, and New Zealand European. Not including other colonial descendant populations. The English are more likely to identify themselves by their nationality than by their ethnicity.
  122. ^ Rolle, Nicholas. [1], University of California in Berkeley, Berkeley, October 17, 2012. Retrieved on 1 November 2014.
  123. ^ "Estonian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 26 November 2018. Population total of all users of the Estonian macrolanguage.
  124. ^ Ethnic groups in Russia, 2010 census, Rosstat. Retrieved 15 February 2012 (in Russian)
  125. ^ a b Minahan, James (2002a). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations. II (D–K). Greenwood.
  126. ^ Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics Archived 9 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  127. ^ "French". Ethnologue. Retrieved 15 December 2018. Total first-language French users in all countries, including upper-class non-French urbanites in former French Africa.
  128. ^ http://www.arlef.it/en/friulian-language/sociolinguistic-condition/5#/sociolinguistic-condition - Study made by Arlef, Association of Region for the Friulian Language
  129. ^ Felicity Crowe (2010). Modern Muslim Societies. Marshall Cavendish. p. 262. ISBN 978-0-7614-7927-7.
  130. ^ "A Closer Look: Sudan, The Peoples of Darfur". Cultural Survival. Cultural Survival. May 7, 2010. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
  131. ^ "Ga". Joshua Project. Retrieved 30 January 2013. "Dangme". Joshua Project. Retrieved 30 January 2013. Figure taken by combining both sources.
  132. ^ "Uganda". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total populations.
  133. ^ "Black Carib". Joshua Project. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  134. ^ Aris Ananta; Evi Nurvidya Arifin; M Sairi Hasbullah; Nur Budi Handayani; Agus Pramono (2015). Demography of Indonesia's Ethnicity. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 120. ISBN 981-4519-87-1.
  135. ^ "Gbagyi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 7 January 2019. "Gbari". Ethnologue. Retrieved 7 January 2019. Figure taken by combining both sources.
  136. ^ a b Olson, James Stuart (1996). The Peoples of Africa: An Ethnohistorical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-27918-8.
  137. ^ "The Gelo ethnic minority". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  138. ^ "Georgian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 30 January 2019. Figure taken by combining the ethnic populations of Georgia and Turkey. The Mingrelians were historically viewed by the Russian government as a separate ethnicity.
  139. ^ Jeffrey Cole (2011). Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 171. ISBN 9781598843026. "Estimates of the total number of Germans in the world range from 100 million to 150 million, depending on how German is defined..." The latter figure includes the Austrians and Luxembourgers, who were originally seen both by themselves and by outsiders as being German subgroups until World War II, which led to significant backlash towards Pan-Germanism.
  140. ^ "Gola". Ethnologue. Retrieved 4 January 2019. Total Gola users in all countries.
  141. ^ Clogg, Richard (2013) [1992]. A Concise History of Greece. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-65644-4.
  142. ^ "Ghana". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentage listed with the total population.
  143. ^ "Guaraní, Paraguayan". Ethnologue. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
  144. ^ "Gourmanchéma". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  145. ^ "Burkina Faso". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. "Ghana". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. "Niger". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentage listed with the total population.
  146. ^ "Burkina Faso". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
    "Ghana". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total populations. The CIA World Factbook does not have figures on the ethnic makeup of the Togolese population.
  147. ^ James B. Minahan (2014). Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 89–95. ISBN 9781610690188.
  148. ^ "The Hani ethnic minority". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
  149. ^ Lovise, Alean (22 June 2011). The Politics of Ethnicity in Ethiopia. BRILL. p. 154. ISBN 978-9004207295. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  150. ^ "Hausa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 16 December 2018. Total first-language Hausa users in all countries.
  151. ^ James B. Minahan (10 Feb 2014). Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-61069-018-8. Due to a lack of census statistics, estimates of the total Hazara population range from five million to more than eight million.
  152. ^ Lemoine, Jacques (2005). "What is the actual number of (H)mong in the world?" (PDF). Hmong Studies Journal. 6.
  153. ^ "Papua New Guinea National Population and Housing Census 2011: Final figures", Port Moresby PNG National Statistical Office 2014
  154. ^ "Hungarian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 December 2018. Total Hungarian users in all countries.
  155. ^ "Iban". Ethnologue. Retrieved 18 February 2019. Total first-language Iban users in all countries.
  156. ^ a b c "Nigeria". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentage listed with the total population. Most estimates exclude the African diaspora caused by the Atlantic slave trade due to centuries worth of separation from the rest of the Igbo population.
  157. ^ "Icelander". Joshua Project. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  158. ^ The Idoma ethnicity generally includes speakers of Agatu, Alago, and Yala.
  159. ^ "Language: Idoma". Joshua Project. Retrieved 14 February 2019. Population of groups speaking Idoma.
  160. ^ "Igede in Nigeria". Joshua Project. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  161. ^ "Greenland". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. "Inuit population by residence inside or outside Inuit Nunangat, 2016". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2017-11-12. Figure taken by combining both sources.
  162. ^ a b [email protected], Scottish Government, St. Andrew's House, Regent Road, Edinburgh EH1 3DG Tel:0131 556 8400 (29 May 2009). "The Scottish Diaspora and Diaspora Strategy: Insights and Lessons from Ireland". www.scotland.gov.uk. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  163. ^ "The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010" (PDF). census.gov. Retrieved 7 March 2017. "Aboriginal Population Profile, 2016 Census". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2017-11-23. Figure taken by combining both Iroquois populations of these two sources, including Mohawk, Oneida, and Cayuga.
  164. ^ "Isoko in Nigeria". Joshua Project. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  165. ^ "Eurobarometer – Europeans and their languages" (PDF)., February 2006. Number of native Italian speakers, including those belonging to groups listed here as separate ethnicities.
  166. ^ "Rapporto Italiani nel Mondo 2010" (PDF). Fondazione Migrantes (in Italian). December 2010. Retrieved 2018-11-22. Includes citizens of Brazil and the United States who identify as being of partial Italian ancestry, including those of groups that tend to be seen, both by themselves and by outsiders, as being Italian subgroups, but are listed here as separate ethnicities.
  167. ^ "Japanese". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 December 2018. Total first-language Japanese users in all countries.
  168. ^ "Javanese". Ethnologue. Retrieved 18 December 2018. Figure obtained by adding the ethnic populations of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. Due to cultural assimilation, many of the Javanese residing in Malaysia and Singapore are considered to be a part of the Malay ethnicity. In addition, the majority of the diaspora are migrant workers, meaning that their figures in places such as Hong Kong and Saudi Arabia are unknown.
  169. ^ Dashefsky, Arnold; DellaPergola, Sergio; Sheskin, Ira, eds. (2017). World Jewish Population, 2016 (PDF) (Report). Berman Jewish DataBank. Retrieved 12 June 2017. Population with Jewish parents (including converts to Judaism, non-observant Jews and those with only Jewish fathers). The number of Jewish converts is insignificant to affect estimates. There is debate on how to count the worldwide Jewish population, specifically on the inclusion of those with Gentile mothers. (Halakhic laws states that the Jewish identity can only inherited through the mother).
  170. ^ "Jingpho". Ethnologue. Retrieved 28 December 2018. Figure taken by combining the Burmese population with the ethnic population of China.
  171. ^ Klein, Martin A. "Shrines of the Slave Trade: Diola Religion and Society in Precolonial Senegambia." The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 31.2 (Autumn 2000): 315. Accessed through Gale (Cengage), 6 Aug. 2009
  172. ^ Saw Swee-Hock (2015). The Population of Malaysia (Second Edition). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 98-146-2036-X.
  173. ^ "Kalanga". Ethnologue. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  174. ^ "Language". Kalanga. Kalanga Language and Cultural Development Association (KLCDA). Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  175. ^ "Kalenjin". Ethnologue. Retrieved 28 November 2018. Population total of all users of the Kalenjin macrolanguage.
  176. ^ a b c "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-11-21. Retrieved 2013-12-16.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  177. ^ "Population Structure and Trends". Institute de la Statistique et des études économiques Nouvelle-Calédonie (in French). Institute de la Statistique et des études économiques Nouvelle-Calédonie. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
  178. ^ "Kanuri". Ethnologue. Retrieved 28 November 2018. Population total of all users of the Kanuri macrolanguage.
  179. ^ "Karakalpak". Ethnologue. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  180. ^ "Karbi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  181. ^ "Karen people". Archived from the original on 24 May 2015.
  182. ^ "The Institute for European Studies, Ethnological institute of UW" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-08-16.
  183. ^ "Polen-Analysen. Die Kaschuben" (PDF). Länder-Analysen (in German). Polen NR. 95: 10–13. September 2011.
  184. ^ "Kazakhstan's population tops 18 million". 2018-03-31.
  185. ^ "Nepali". Ethnologue. Retrieved 23 November 2018. Total Nepalese users in all countries. The Khas have largely abandoned their ethnic identity, making it difficult to determine their population.
  186. ^ Hattaway, Paul (ed.) (2004). Khmer. Peoples of the Buddhist World. William Carey Library. p. 133.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  187. ^ Iranicaonline
  188. ^ "Gikuyu". Ethnologue. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  189. ^ "Nya Huba". Ethnologue. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  190. ^ "Yakthumba". Joshua Project. Retrieved 27 January 2019. "Sunuwar". Joshua Project. Retrieved 27 January 2019. "Yakha". Joshua Project. Retrieved 27 January 2019. "Rai". Joshua Project. Retrieved 27 January 2019. Figure taken by combining all sources.
  191. ^ "Kissi". Joshua Project. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  192. ^ "Kofyar". Joshua Project. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  193. ^ "Konkani". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 November 2018. Population total of all users of the Konkani macrolanguage.
  194. ^ "Kongo". Ethnologue. Retrieved 25 December 2018. Population total of all users of the Kikongo macrolanguage. Most estimates exclude the African diaspora caused by the Atlantic slave trade due to centuries worth of separation from the rest of the Kongo population.
  195. ^ "Kongo". Ethnologue. Retrieved 25 December 2018. "Vili". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. "Yombe". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. "Doondo". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. "Beembe". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. "Kunyi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. "Suundi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. Figure taken by combining the total of all users of Vili, Yombe, and the Kikongo macrolanguage, with the other populations. Most estimates exclude the African diaspora caused by the Atlantic slave trade due to centuries worth of separation from the rest of the Kongo population.
  196. ^ "Korean". Ethnologue. Retrieved 19 December 2018. Total Korean users in all countries.
  197. ^ "Klao". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  198. ^ "Liberia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. "Cote D'Ivoire". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentage listed with the total population, including Grebo, Krahn, and Sapo. The Bassa are usually seen as being a separate ethnic group.
  199. ^ The Kurdish Population. Current Estimate. There is debate on whether the Iranian Laks (no relation with the Caucasian Laks) are a Lurish subgroup or a Kurdish subgroup.
  200. ^ "The Kuteb People". Geoffrey G. Gania. 2005. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  201. ^ "Kyrgyz". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  202. ^ Hattaway, Paul (ed.) (2004). Lao. Peoples of the Buddhist World. William Carey Library. p. 149.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  203. ^ "Lao (Laotien)". 2017-01-20.
  204. ^ "Latvian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 4 January 2019. Population total of all users of the Latvia macrolanguage.
  205. ^ Bülent Günal (20 December 2011). "67 milletten insanımız var!" (in Turkish). Retrieved 31 January 2015. Largest estimate of the Laz population in Turkey. It is difficult to determine the exact Laz population; the Turkish Statistical Institute do not measure the ethnic makeup of Turkey, while in Georgia, the Laz are usually considered to be a Georgian subgroup.
  206. ^ "Arab, Lebanese". Joshua Project. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  207. ^ "Lega Information". University of Iowa. 3 November 1998. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 2011-12-18.
  208. ^ "Lezgins". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 January 2019. Figure taken by combining the ethnic populations of Russia and Azerbaijan.
  209. ^ "The Li ethnic minority". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  210. ^ a b "Sierra Leone". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total populations.
  211. ^ "Lisu". Ethnologue. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  212. ^ "Lietuviai Pasaulyje" (PDF). Lietuvos statistikos departamentas. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  213. ^ Lietuviai Lietuvoje ir užsienyje: kur ir kiek mūsų yra Archived 2015-07-29 at the Wayback Machine
  214. ^ "Dholuo". Ethnologue. Retrieved 7 January 2019. While the term Luo can also refer collectively to all speakers of the Luo languages, most definitions and estimates limit the Luo ethnicity to a specific group that would usually speak Dholuo.
  215. ^ "Luxembourgish". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  216. ^ electricpulp.com. "LORI LANGUAGE ii. Sociolinguistic Status – Encyclopaedia Iranica". www.iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 2018-08-20. In 2003, the Lori-speaking population in Iran was estimated at 4.2 million speakers, or about 6 percent of the national figure (Anonby, 2003b, p. 173). Given the nationwide growth in population since then, the number of Lori speakers in 2012 is likely closer to 5 million. There is debate on whether the Iranian Laks (no relation with the Caucasian Laks) are a Lurish subgroup or a Kurdish subgroup.
  217. ^ "Maasai". Ethnologue. Retrieved 13 January 2019. Total Maasai users in all countries.
  218. ^ Nasevski, Boško; Angelova, Dora. Gerovska, Dragica (1995). Македонски Иселенички Алманах '95. Skopje: Матица на Иселениците на Македонија. pp. 52–53.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  219. ^ "Mafa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 21 February 2019. Total Mafa users in all countries.
  220. ^ "Magar, Eastern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 27 January 2019. Ethnic population; includes both Eastern and Western Magar speakers.
  221. ^ "Kirti Azad demands a separate Mithila state". m.indiatoday.in. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  222. ^ John Ndembwike (October 2009). Tanzania: Profile of a Nation. Intercontinental Books. p. 149. ISBN 978-9987-9308-1-4.
  223. ^ Andrew Dalby (1998). Dictionary of Languages: The Definitive Reference to More Than 400 Languages. Columbia University Press. pp. 386–387. ISBN 978-0-231-11568-1.
  224. ^ "Malay". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 December 2018. Population total of all users of the Malay macrolanguage, including Banjar, Minangkabau, Kelantanese, Terengganuarians, and Bruneians.
  225. ^ "Maldivian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  226. ^ "Maltese". Ethnologue. Retrieved 21 December 2018. Total Maltese users in all countries.
  227. ^ "Mambila, Nigeria". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 February 2019. "Mambila, Cameroon". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 February 2019. Figure taken by combining both sources.
  228. ^ 《中国2010年人口普查资料(上中下》 [Data of 2010 China Population Census]. China Statistics Press. 2012. ISBN 9787503765070.
  229. ^ "Mandar". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  230. ^ Godfrey Mwakikagile (2010). The Gambia and Its People: Ethnic Identities and Cultural Integration in Africa. New Africa Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-9987-16-023-5.
  231. ^ "Mandjak". Ethnologue. Retrieved 10 February 2019. Total Manjak users in all countries.
  232. ^ "Mapuche". Joshua Project. Retrieved 26 January 2019. Most estimates exclude mestizos due to their political and cultural dominance over those who still maintain the Mapuche culture.
  233. ^ "Masa". Joshua Project. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
  234. ^ "Masalit". Ethnologue. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  235. ^ a b c d e f g h i j México: Lenguas indígenas nacionales. Most estimates exclude mestizos due to their political and cultural dominance over those who still maintain their indigenous culture.
  236. ^ Lorenzo Ochoa; Patricia Martel(dir.) (2002). Lengua y cultura mayas (in Spanish). UNAM. p. 170. ISBN 9703200893. El "Pueblo Maya" lo constituyen actualmente algo menos de 6 millones de hablantes de 25 idiomas Total number of Mayan languages speakers. Most estimates exclude mestizos due to their political and cultural dominance over those who still maintain the Maya culture.
  237. ^ "Mehri". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 February 2019. "Soqotri". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 February 2019. Figure taken by combining the total Mehri users in all countries with the Soqotri population.
  238. ^ Jay Heale; Zawiah Abdul Latif (2008). Madagascar. Marshall Cavendish. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-7614-3036-0.
  239. ^ "The Tibetan ethnic minority". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 16 December 2018. Includes only the Chinese population. The proper name for this ethnic group is Yao; they are listed under the name Mien to avoid confusion with the Bantu ethnic group of the same name.
  240. ^ "Minangkabau people". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  241. ^ Robles, Frances (2016-10-16). "Nicaragua Dispute Over Indigenous Land Erupts in Wave of Killings". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-03-22.
  242. ^ a b "Burma". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total populations.
  243. ^ "Mongo". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 11 April 2017. Number of speakers of all Mongo languages. Source dates backs to 1977; population most likely grown since then.
  244. ^ "Mongolian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 22 December 2018. Population total of all users of the Mongolian macrolanguage.
  245. ^ "Mongolian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 22 December 2018. "Daur". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. "Buriat". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. "Kalmyk-Oirat". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. "Bonan". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. "Dongxiang". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. "Tu". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. Figure taken by combining the total users of the Mongolian macrolanguage, the Buryat macrolanguage, and Oirat with the ethnic populations of Dagur, Bonan, Santa, and Monguor.
  246. ^ "Mongondow". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  247. ^ "Mumuye". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  248. ^ "2010 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia" (PDF) (in Malay and English). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  249. ^ "Musgu". Ethnologue. Retrieved 21 February 2019. Total Musgu users in all countries.
  250. ^ "Mwera". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
  251. ^ "Newar". Ethnologue. Retrieved 1 February 2019. Figure taken by combining the ethnic populations of Nepal and India.
  252. ^ "Ngaju". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 December 2018. "Bakumpai". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 February 2019. Figure taken by combining both sources.
  253. ^ "Bhutan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentage listed with the total population.
  254. ^ Ngbandi Art
  255. ^ "People Cluster: Nubian". Joshua Project. Retrieved 22 December 2018. Includes some non-Nubian Nuba peoples. The more Arabized Nubians (such as the Ja'alin and the Shaigiya) are usually excluded due to their political and cultural dominance over those who still maintain the Nubian culture.
  256. ^ "Afghanistan - Nuristani". countrystudies.us.
  257. ^ "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous People". Archived from the original on 2009-04-29. Total number of people with some knowledge of Occitan.
  258. ^ "Odia". Ethnologue. Retrieved 22 October 2017. Total Odia users in all countries.
  259. ^ "Khana". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 February 2019. "Baan". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 February 2019. "Eleme". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 February 2019. "Gokana". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 February 2019. "Tee". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 February 2019. Figure taken by combining the Tẹẹ ethnic population with the other four sources.
  260. ^ "Oromo". Ethnologue. Retrieved 22 December 2018. Population total of all users of the Oromo macrolanguage.
  261. ^ "Ossetic". Ethnologue. Retrieved 19 February 2019. Figure taken by combining the ethnic population of Russia with the Georgian, Syrian, and Turkish populations.
  262. ^ "Dayak, Dohoi Ot Danum in Indonesia". Joshua Project. Retrieved 4 January 2019. "Dayak, Lawangan in Indonesia". Joshua Project. Retrieved 11 February 2019. "Dayak, Maanyak in Indonesia". Joshua Project. Retrieved 11 February 2019. Figure taken by combining all sources. A number of Ot Danum are frequently confused with the Dusun of the Kadazan-Dusun ethnic group.
  263. ^ "Pa-O". Joshua Project. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  264. ^ 'Palestinian population to exceed Jewish population by 2020,' Ma'an News Agency 1 January 2016
  265. ^ "Guinea-Bissau". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentage listed with the total population.
  266. ^ "Pare, Asu in Tanzania". Joshua Project. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  267. ^ "Pashai, Southeast". Ethnologue. Retrieved 15 January 2019. Ethnic population; includes other Pashayi speakers.
  268. ^ "Pashto, Northern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 23 December 2018. Figure include Southern and Central Pashto speakers.
  269. ^ "Pende". Art & Life in Africa. University of Iowa. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  270. ^ "Persian, Iranian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 11 December 2018. Historically, all Persian speakers were grouped as one single ethnicity. This figure only list those who speak Iranian Persian.
  271. ^ "Polmap. Rozmieszczenie ludności pochodzenia polskiego (w mln)" Archived 2017-08-15 at the Wayback Machine
  272. ^ "Portuguese". Ethnologue. Retrieved 23 December 2018. Total first-language Portuguese users in all countries, including non-Portuguese diaspora populations residing in Brazil such as Afro-Brazilians, Japanese Brazilians, and Arab Brazilians. Does not include the Cape Verdeans, whose first-language is Cape Verdean Creole.
  273. ^ "Punjabi, Eastern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 23 December 2018. "Punjabi, Western". Ethnologue. Retrieved 23 December 2018. Figure taken by combining total users of both languages in all countries.
  274. ^ "Kashkay". Ethnologue. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
  275. ^ "Quechua". Ethnologue. Retrieved 23 December 2018. Population total of all users of the Quechua macrolanguage. Most estimates exclude mestizos due to their political and cultural dominance over those who still maintain the Quechua culture.
  276. ^ "Rangpuri". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 February 2019. Total first-language Rangpuri users in all countries.
  277. ^ "Rakhine". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 February 2019. Total first-language Rakhine users in all countries.
  278. ^ Wurm, Stephen A. and Shiro Hattori, (eds.) (1981) Language Atlas of the Pacific Area Australian Academy of the Humanities in collaboration with the Japan Academy, Canberra, ISBN 0-85883-239-9
  279. ^ David Mathieson (2009). Perilous Plight: Burma's Rohingya Take to the Seas. Human Rights Watch. p. 3. ISBN 9781564324856.
  280. ^ "EU demands action to tackle Roma poverty". BBC News. 5 April 2011. Does not include those residing outside of Europe.
  281. ^ "Romanian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  282. ^ Shimoji, Michinori; Pellard, Thomas, eds. (2010). An Introduction to Ryukyuan languages (PDF). Tokyo: ILCAA. p. 2. ISBN 9784863370722. Retrieved June 10, 2018. Total population of the Ryukyu Islands.
  283. ^ "CER | Rusyns in Central Europe". www.ce-review.org. Retrieved 2018-11-22.
  284. ^ Paul Magocsi (1995). "The Rusyn Question". Political Thought. 2–3 (6).
  285. ^ "Saho". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 February 2019. Total first-language Saho users in all countries.
  286. ^ "Saharawi". Joshua Project. Retrieved 9 February 2019."Moor". Joshua Project. Retrieved 9 February 2019. Figure taken by combining both sources. The Moor population includes the Haratin.
  287. ^ "Sama, Southern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 December 2018. "Sama, Central". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 December 2018. "Sama, Balangingih". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 December 2018. "Bajau, Indonesian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 December 2018. "Bajau, West Coast". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 December 2018. "Mapun". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 December 2018. "Yakan". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 December 2018. Figure taken by combining all sources, using the total users of Southern Sama and Mapun in all countries and the ethnic population of Central Sama and West Coast Bajau.
  288. ^ "Zambales: Dependency Ratio Down by Five Persons (Results from the 200…". 19 June 2013. Archived from the original on 19 June 2013.
  289. ^ Sami people (14 December 2015). "Sami in Sweden". sweden.se.
  290. ^ "San". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 December 2018. Most estimates exclude the Coloureds due to their special status in South African society.
  291. ^ Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. ISEAS–Yusof Ishak Institute. 2003.
  292. ^ "Chad". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. "Central African Republic". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentage listed with the total population.
  293. ^ "Sardinian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 January 2019. Population total of all users of the Sardinian macrolanguage.
  294. ^ "Hawu". Ethnologue. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  295. ^ "Serer-Sine". Ethnologue. Retrieved 3 January 2019. Includes only the total users of Serer-Sine in all countries.
  296. ^ "Sharchop". Joshua Project. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  297. ^ "Sherbro, Southern Bullom in Sierra Leone". Joshua Project. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
  298. ^ "Shilluk". Joshua Project. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  299. ^ "Shona". Ethnologue. Retrieved 25 December 2018. Total first-language Shona users in all countries.
  300. ^ "Xibe". Ethnologue. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  301. ^ "People Cluster: Sindhi". PeopleGroups.org.
  302. ^ "Sinhala". Ethnologue. Retrieved 22 October 2017. Total first-language Sinhalese users in all countries.
  303. ^ "Somali". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 December 2018. Total first-language Somali users in all countries.
  304. ^ "Mali". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
    "Niger". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentage listed with the total population.
  305. ^ "Soninke". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  306. ^ "Sotho, Southern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 1 December 2018. Total first-language Sotho users in all countries. Does not include the Pedi, who are sometimes considered a separate ethnic group.
  307. ^ "Spanish". Ethnologue. Retrieved 16 December 2018. Total first-language Spanish users in all countries, including non-Spaniard diaspora populations residing in Hispanic America such as Afro-Colombians, Italian Argentines, and German Mexicans as well as Hispanicized indigenous people. There is no clear consensus on which of Spain's autonomous communities (besides the Castilians) form the Spanish ethnicity, although most usually exclude the Galicians, the Basques, and the Catalans.
  308. ^ "Sui". Ethnologue. Retrieved 18 January 2019. Ethnic population.
  309. ^ "Sumba in Indonesia". Joshua Project. Retrieved 19 January 2019. Includes only speakers of the Kambera language.
  310. ^ "Sumbawa in Indonesia". Joshua Project. Retrieved 11 February 2019..
  311. ^ "Susu". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 December 2018. Total Susu users in all countries.
  312. ^ "Guinea". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total populations.
  313. ^ "Swahili facts, information, pictures - Encyclopedia.com articles about Swahili". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
  314. ^ "Swahili". Joshua Project. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
  315. ^ "Swati". Ethnologue. Retrieved 30 November 2018. Total first-language Swazi users in all countries.
  316. ^ "Sylheti". Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 December 2018. Total first-language Sylheti users in all countries.
  317. ^ "Tajik". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 December 2018. "Dari". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 December 2018. Figure taken by combining total users of both languages in all countries.
  318. ^ "Talysh". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  319. ^ "Talysh". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 December 2018. Total first-language Tamil users in all countries.
  320. ^ "Tarok". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  321. ^ "Thai". Ethnologue. Retrieved 20 December 2018. "Thai, Northern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 20 December 2018. "Thai, Southern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 20 December 2018. Figure taken by combining the total number of first-language Thai speakers in all countries (including the Thai Chinese) with the other two populations.
  322. ^ "The Tibetan ethnic minority". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
  323. ^ Tournadre, Nicolas (2014). "The Tibetic languages and their classification". In Owen-Smith, Thomas; Hill, Nathan W. Trans-Himalayan Linguistics: Historical and Descriptive Linguistics of the Himalayan Area. De Gruyter. pp. 103–129. ISBN 978-3-11-031074-0. (preprint)
  324. ^ "Tana Toraja official website" (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on May 29, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-04.
  325. ^ "Tsonga". Ethnologue. Retrieved 1 December 2018. Total first-language Tsonga users in all countries.
  326. ^ "Setswana". Ethnologue. Retrieved 1 December 2018. Total first-language Tswana users in all countries.
  327. ^ "Tupuri". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 February 2019. Total Tupuri users in all countries.
  328. ^ "Turkish". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 December 2018. Total first-language Turkish users in all countries, including a large number of minorities residing in Turkey.
  329. ^ "Turkmen". Ethnologue. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  330. ^ "Urhobo in Nigeria". www.joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  331. ^ "Ukrainian". www.joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  332. ^ Vic Satzewich (2003). The Ukrainian Diaspora. Routledge. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-134-43495-4.
  333. ^ "Uyghur". Ethnologue. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  334. ^ "Uzbek". Ethnologue. Retrieved 25 December 2018. Population total of all users of the Uzbek macrolanguage.
  335. ^ "Venda". Ethnologue. Retrieved 1 December 2018. Total first-language Venda users in all countries.
  336. ^ "Vietnamese". Joshua Project. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  337. ^ "Cebuano". Ethnologue. Retrieved 19 January 2019. "Hiligaynon". Ethnologue. Retrieved 19 January 2019. "Waray-Waray". Ethnologue. Retrieved 19 January 2019. Total users of Cebuano, Hiligaynon, and Waray in all countries. The other Visayans subgroups also use these languages.
  338. ^ Richard Webber. "The Welsh diaspora : Analysis of the geography of Welsh names" (PDF). Welsh Assembly. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  339. ^ "Senegal". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. "Gambia, The". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total populations. Most estimates exclude the African diaspora caused by the Atlantic slave trade due to centuries worth of separation from the rest of the Wolof population.
  340. ^ "Xhosa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 1 December 2018. Total first-language Xhosa users in all countries.
  341. ^ "Lokaa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  342. ^ "Yao". Ethnologue. Retrieved 25 December 2018. Total Yao users in all countries. No relation with the Hmong–Mien group that is listed here under the name Mien.
  343. ^ "The Yi ethnic minority". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
  344. ^ "Yoruba". Ethnologue. Retrieved 25 December 2018. Total first-language Yoruba users in all countries. Most estimates exclude the African diaspora caused by the Atlantic slave trade due to centuries worth of separation from the rest of the Yoruba population.
  345. ^ "Zande". Ethnologue. Retrieved 30 December 2018. Total first-language Zande proper users in all countries.
  346. ^ "Zande". Ethnologue. Retrieved 30 December 2018. "Barambu". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. "Pambia". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. "Nzakara". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. Figure taken by combining the total first-language Zande proper users in all countries with the other populations.
  347. ^ "Zhuang". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 December 2018. Population total of all users of the Zhuang macrolanguage.
  348. ^ "The Zhuang ethnic minority". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
  349. ^ "Zulu". Ethnologue. Retrieved 1 December 2018. Total first-language Zulu users in all countries.
  • Levinson, David (1998). Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-57356-019-1.


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