List of contemporary ethnic groups

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The following is a list of contemporary ethnic groups. There has been constant debate over the classification of ethnic groups. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be associated with shared cultural heritage, ancestry, history, homeland, language or dialect, the term culture specifically including aspects such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, etc.

By the nature of the concept, ethnic groups tend to be divided into ethnic subgroups, which may themselves be or not be identified as independent ethnic groups depending on the source consulted. Multiracial groups (such as Métis and Coloureds) should be listed as subgroups of the ethnic groups they are descended from.

Ethnic groups[edit]

The groups commonly identified as "ethnic groups" (as opposed to ethno-linguistic phyla, national groups, racial groups or similar). Smaller groups (i.e. less than 100,000) are often indigenous peoples.

Name Native language (primary language) Primary homeland Population (millions; estimate) Subgroups Majority (plurality) religion and sect
Abazins Northwest CaucasianAbazgiAbaza Abazinia (Russia) 0.2 million[citation needed] Askharua, Tapanta IslamSunni Islam
Abkhazians Northwest CaucasianAbazgiAbkhaz Abkhazia (Georgia)[1] 0.2 million[citation needed] Bzyb, Abzhui, Zamurzakan ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Acoli Nilo-SaharanNiloticLuoAcholi Acoliland (Uganda, South Sudan) 1.2 million[citation needed] Christianity
Afar AfroasiaticCushiticAfar Afaria (Ethiopia), Djibouti, Eritrea 2.3–4.2 million[citation needed] Islam
African Americans Indo-EuropeanGermanicEnglishAfrican-American English United States[2] (Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Washington, D.C., North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee, Arkansas) 40.9 million[3] Gullah, Black Hebrew Israelites, Americo-Liberians, Black Nova Scotians (specifically descendants of Black Loyalists), Krio,[4] Black Seminoles ChristianityProtestantism
Afrikaners Indo-EuropeanGermanicDutchAfrikaans South Africa (Northern Cape, Western Cape), Namibia 3.5 million[5][6] Boers, Coloureds[7] (including Cape Coloureds, Griqua, Basters, Oorlam, and Goffal) ChristianityProtestantism
Agaw AfroasiaticCushiticAgaw[8] Agew Awi (Ethiopia) 0.9 million[citation needed] Bilen, Awi, Qemant ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Ahom Kra–DaiTaiAhom[9] Assam (India) 3 million[citation needed] Hinduism
Akan Niger–CongoKwaPotou-TanoAkan Ghana, Ivory Coast 20 million[10][11] Asante, Akuapem, Akyem, Wassa, Abron, Anyi, Baoulé, Sefwi, Nzema, Ahanta, Tchaman, Abbé, along with numerous slave descendants in Jamaica[12] (including Afro-Costa Ricans)[13] and Suriname (including Saramaka and Ndyuka) Christianity
Albanians Indo-EuropeanAlbanian Albania, Kosovo[14], Republic of Macedonia 7–11.6 million[citation needed] Ghegs, Tosks, Kosovars, Cham Albanians, Arbëreshë, along with other significant populations in Turkey, Italy, Greece (including Arvanites),[15] Germany, Switzerland and United States Islam
Ambundu Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuKimbundu Angola 4 million[citation needed][11] Angolares, along with numerous slave descendants in Brazil[16] (including Pardo Brazilians) Christianity
Amhara AfroasiaticSemiticAmharic Amharia (Ethiopia) 30 million[citation needed] ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Anuak Nilo-SaharanNiloticLuoAnuak Anuakia (Ethiopia), Boma (South Sudan) 0.3 million[citation needed] Christianity
Apache Dené–YeniseianNa-DeneApachean[8][17] United States (Yavapai-Apache Nation, Apache Nation) 0.1 million[18] Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains Apache, Western Apache Native American religionNative American Church
Arabs AfroasiaticSemiticArabic Arabia[19] (Yemen, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates) 450 million[20][21] Bedouins, Druze, Bahrainis,[22] Shirazi[23] (including Zanzibaris), Iraqis[24] (including Marsh Arabs), Jordanians, Kuwaitis, Lebanese[25] (including Maronites), Omanis, Qataris, Saudis, Syrians[24] (including Alawites), Emiratis, Yemenis (including Hadhrami), along with significant poulations in Brazil, Indonesia, Sudan,[26] Chad,[27] Iran, Turkey, India, Venezuela, and the United States Islam
Armenians Indo-EuropeanArmenian Armenia, Republic of Artsakh 6[28]–8 million[29] Hemshin,[30] Cherkesogai, Karabakhis, along with significant populations in Russia, United States, France, Georgia (including the Javakheti Armenians), Lebanon, and Germany Christianity
Aromanians Indo-EuropeanRomanceAromanian Southern Balkans[31] 0.3 million[32] significant populations in Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Serbia ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Asmat Trans-New GuineaAsmat[8] Asmatia (Indonesia) 0.1 million[citation needed] Melanesian mythology
Assyrians AfroasiaticSemiticAssyrian Neo-Aramaic Assyria (Iraq, Iran, Syria, Turkey) 2[33]–4 million[34][35] Mandaeans, Iraqis[24] (including Marsh Arabs), Syrians[24] (including Alawites), Rûm,[36] along with significant populations in the United States and Sweden Christianity
Austrians Indo-EuropeanGermanicAustro-Bavarian Austria 8-8.5 million[citation needed] South Tyroleans, along with significant populations in United States, Canada, and Australia ChristianityCatholicism
Avars Northeast CaucasianAvar–AndicAvar Avaristan (Russia) 1.5 million[citation needed] IslamSunni Islam
Aymara AymaranAymara Bolivia, Peru, Chile 1.8 million[citation needed][37] ChristianityCatholicism
Azerbaijanis TurkicOghuzAzerbaijani Azerbaijan, Iranian Azerbaijan (Iran) 30–35 million[38] Qarapapaqs, Bayat,[39] Shahsevan, Karadaghis, Ayrums, along with significant populations in Georgia and Russia IslamShia Islam
Balanta Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBakBalanta Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and The Gambia 0.4 million[citation needed] Islam, Traditional African religions
Balinese AustronesianSunda–SulawesiBalinese Bali (Indonesia) 4.2 million[citation needed] HinduismBalinese Hinduism
Balkars TurkicKipchakKarachay-Balkar[40] Kabardino-Balkaria (Russia) 0.1 million[citation needed] IslamSunni Islam
Balochis Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianBalochi Balochistan (Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan) 10 million[citation needed] significant populations in the United Arab Emirates and Turkmenistan IslamSunni Islam
Balti Sino-TibetanTibeticLadakhi-BaltiBalti Gilgit-Baltistan (Pakistan) 0.5 million[citation needed] IslamShia Islam
Bamars Sino-TibetanLolo-BurmeseBurmishBurmese Myanmar 30 million[citation needed] Anglo-Burmese[41] BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Bambara Niger–CongoMandeMandingBambara Mali 2.7 million[citation needed] Haratin[42] Islam
Banda Niger–CongoUbangianBanda[8] Central African Republic, South Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1.3 million[citation needed] Christianity
Banjarese AustronesianMalayo-SumbawanBanjarese Banjar Regency, Banjarbaru, Banjarmasin (Indonesia) 5.8 million[citation needed] IslamSunni Islam
Bari Nilo-SaharanEastern SudanicNiloticBari South Sudan, Uganda 1 million[citation needed] Pojulu, Kakwa, Nyangwara, Mandari, Kuku Christianity
Bariba Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoSavannasBariba Borgu (Benin, Nigeria) 1.4 million[citation needed] Islam
Bassa Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoKruBassa Bassaland (Liberia) 0.6 million[citation needed] ChristianityProtestantism
Bashkirs TurkicKipchakBashkir Bashkortostan (Russia) 2 million[43] Islam
Basques Basque Basque Country (Spain, France) 2.4 million[citation needed][44] signiifcant populations in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, and Uruguay ChristianityCatholicism
Beja AfroasiaticCushiticBeja Sudan, Egypt, Eritrea 1.2 million[45] Bishari, Ababda, Hadendoa, Hedareb, Amarar, Beni-Amer IslamSunni Islam
Belarusians Indo-EuropeanSlavicBelarusian[46] Belarus 9.5–10 million[citation needed] significant populations in the United States, Ukraine, and Russia ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Bembe Niger–CongoBantuLega–BinjaBembe Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania 0.6 million[citation needed] Christianity, Traditional African religions
Bengalis Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanBengali Bangladesh, India (West Bengal, Tripura, Barak Valley) 260 million[47] Sylhetis, Bangladeshis, along with significant populations in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Malaysia, the United Kingdom, and the United States Islam, Hinduism
Berbers AfroasiaticBerber[8] Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisa, Libya, Mauritania, Western Sahara) 25[48]–50 million[49][50] Tuaregs, Kabyle, Chaoui, Arab-Berbers[51] (including Algerians, Libyans, Moroccans, Sahrawi, Tunisians), along with significant populations in France (including Arabs in France),[52] Belgium (including Moroccans in Belgium), and the Netherlands (including Moroccan-Dutch) IslamSunni Islam
Berta Nilo-SaharanBerta Benishangul-Gumuz Region (Ethiopia) 0.2 million[citation needed] Islam
Beti Niger–CongoBantuBeti[53] Cameroon 1 million[54] Ewondo, Eton Christianity
Bissa Niger–CongoMandeBissa Burkina Faso 0.7 million[citation needed] Islam
Bodo Sino-TibetanSalBodo-GaroBodo Bodoland (India) 1.5 million[55] Bathouism
Bosniaks Indo-EuropeanSlavicSerbo-CroatianBosnian Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sandžak (Serbia, Montenegro) 3–4.5 million[citation needed] significant populations in Serbia, Turkey, Austria, Germany and the United States IslamSunni Islam
Brahui DravidianBrahui Pakistan 2.4 million[56] Islam
Bretons Indo-EuropeanCelticBrittonicBreton[57] Brittany (France) 6–8 million[citation needed] ChristianityCatholicism
Bubi Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuBube Bioko (Equatorial Guinea) 0.1 million[citation needed][58] Fernandino Christianity, Traditional African religions
Bulgarians Indo-EuropeanSlavicBulgarian Bulgaria 9–10 million[59] Pomaks, along with significant populations in Turkey, Ukraine and Moldova, Romania and Serbia, Germany, Spain and the United States ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Butonese AustronesianCelebicButonese[8] Buton (Indonesia) 0.3 million[citation needed] Islam
Catalans Indo-EuropeanRomanceCatalan Catalan Countries (Spain, France) 8–10 million[citation needed][44] Valencians, Balearics, Andorrans ChristianityCatholicism
Chamorro AustronesianSunda-SulawesiChamorro Mariana Islands (United States) 0.2 million[60] ChristianityCatholicism
Chechens Northeast CaucasianNakhVainakhChechen Chechnya (Russia) 2 million[61] Kists IslamSunni Islam
Cherokee IroquoianCherokee[17] United States (North Carolina, Tennessee)[62] 0.3 million[63][64] Cherokee Nation, Eastern Band, United Keetoowah Band Christianity
Chin Sino-TibetanKuki-Chin–NagaKuki-Chin[8] Chin State (Myanmar) 2.1 million[citation needed] Kukis, Thadou, Paite, Simte, Zou, Lamkang, Kom, Lushai, Hmar, Anal, Koireng, Zomi, Mizo Christianity
Choctaw MuskogeanChoctaw[17] Choctaw Nation (United States) 0.2 million[65] Native American religion
Chokwe Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuChokwe Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia 1.3 million[66] Christianity, Traditional African religions
Chutiya Sino-TibetanSalBodo-GaroDeori[9] Assam (India) 2.5 million[67] Deori Hinduism
Chuukese AustronesianMicronesianChuukicChuukese Chuuk Lagoon (Federated States of Micronesia) 0.1 million[citation needed] ChristianityCatholicism
Chuvash TurkicOghurChuvash Chuvashia (Russia) 2 million[citation needed] Virjal, Anatri ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Circassians Northwest CaucasianCircassian Circassia (Russia) 4–8 million[citation needed] Adygeans, Kabardians, Cherkess, Shapsugs IslamSunni Islam
Chewa Niger–CongoBantuNyasaChewa Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique 12 million[citation needed] Christianity, Traditional African religions
Cornish Indo-EuropeanCelticBrittonicCornish[68] Cornwall (United Kingdom) 6–11 million[69] significant populations in the United States and Australia Christianity
Corsicans Indo-EuropeanRomanceCorsican[57] Corsica (France) 0.3 million[citation needed] Christianity
Cree AlgicAlgonquianCree[70] Creeland (Canada), Montana 0.4 million[citation needed] Métis (including Métis in Canada), Oji-Cree, Innu Christianity
Croats Indo-EuropeanSlavicSerbo-CroatianCroatian Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina 7.5–8.5 million[citation needed] Bunjevci, Krashovani, Janjevci, Sokci, along with significant populations in Italy (including Molise Croats), Austria, United States, Chile, Argentina, Germany, Australia and Canada ChristianityCatholicism
Czechs Indo-EuropeanSlavicCzech Czech Republic 10–12 million[citation needed] Bohemians, Moravians, Silesians, along with significant populations in United States and Canada ChristianityCatholicism
Dagaaba Niger–CongoGurOti–VoltaDagaare Ghana, Burkina Faso 1 million[citation needed] Traditional African religions, Islam, Christianity
Danes Indo-EuropeanGermanicDanish Denmark 7 million[citation needed] significant populations in the United States, Canada, Greenland, and Germany. ChristianityProtestantism
Dargins Northeast CaucasianDarginDargwa Darginstan in Dagestan (Russia) 0.7 million[citation needed] Islam
Dayak AustronesianSabahanDayak languages[8] West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan (Indonesia) 6 million[citation needed] Sarawakian-Dayak, Bidayuh, Punan, Ngaju, Apo Kayan, Ot Danum, Christianity
Dinka Nilo-SaharanNiloticDinka Dinkaland (South Sudan) 5 million[citation needed] Christianity, Traditional African religions
Duala Niger–CongoBantuSawabantuDuala Littoral Region (Cameroon) 0.4 million[citation needed] Kole, Mboko, Kwe, Wovea, Subu, Mungo, Limba Christianity, Traditional African religions
Dutch Indo-EuropeanGermanicDutch Netherlands, Flanders (Belgium) 16–29 million[71] Flemings, Arubans, Mennonites,[72] Surinamese, Indo, along with significant populations in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand Christianity
Dyula Niger–CongoMandeMandingDyula Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Mali 2.2 million[citation needed] IslamSunni Islam
Efik Niger–CongoCross RiverIbibio-EfikEfik Cross River State (Nigeria) 0.6 million[73] Christianity, Traditional African religionsEfik mythology
Egyptians AfroasiaticEgyptianCoptic[74] Egypt 100 million[75] Sa'idis, Copts IslamSunni Islam
English Indo-EuropeanGermanicAnglicEnglish England (United Kingdom) 100 million[citation needed] Australians, Canadians, Americans, New Zealanders, Anglo-Burmese[41] ChristianityProtestantism
Estonians UralicFinnicEstonian Estonia 1.2 million[citation needed] Võros, Setos ChristianityProtestantism
Evenks TungusicEvenki Evenkia (Russia) 0.1 million[76] ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Ewe Niger–CongoGbeEwe Togo, Ghana 6.7 million[77] Christianity
Fang Niger–CongoBantuBetiFang Río Muni (Equatorial Guinea), Gabon 1 million[54] Christianity
Fijians AustronesianOceanicCentral PacificFijian Fiji 0.6 million[citation needed] ChristianityProtestantism
Finns UralicFinnicFinnish Finland 7 million[citation needed] Kvens, Forest Finns, along with significant populations in Sweden (including Tornedalians), Russia, United States, and Canada. ChristianityProtestantism
Fon Niger–CongoGbeFon Dahomey (Benin) 4.1 million[11] Saramaka, along with numerous slave descendants in Cuba[78] (including Arará) and Haiti[79] (including Louisiana Creoles and Creoles of color)[80] Traditional African religionsWest African Vodun
French Indo-EuropeanRomanceFrench France, Romandy (Switzerland), Wallonia-Brussels (Belgium), Aosta Valley (Italy) 100 million[81] Walloons, Romands, Arpitans, Pieds-Noirs, Waldensians, Quebecers, Acadians (including Cajuns), Métis (including Métis in Canada), French West Indians, French Guianese, along with significant populations in the United States (including Louisiana Creoles and Creoles of color),[80] Madagascar, and Australia ChristianityCatholicism
Frisians Indo-EuropeanGermanicFrisian[8] Frisia (Netherlands, Germany) 1.5 million West Frisians, East Frisians, North Frisians ChristianityProtestantism
Friulians Indo-EuropeanRomanceRhaeto-RomanceFriulian Friuli (Italy) 0.6 million ChristianityCatholicism
Fula Niger–CongoAtlantic-CongoSenegambianFula West Africa[82] (Guinea, Senegal, Mali) 20-25 million[citation needed] Wodaabe, Haratin,[42] Toucouleur Islam
Fur Nilo-SaharanDarfuranFur Darfur (Sudan) 1 million[citation needed] IslamSunni Islam
Ga-Adangbe Niger–CongoKwaGa-Dangme[8] Greater Accra (Ghana) 2 million Ga, Adangbe Christianity
Gagauz TurkicOghuzGagauz Gagauzia (Moldova), Budjak (Ukraine) 0.2 million ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Galicians Indo-EuropeanRomanceGalician Galicia (Spain) 3.2 million[44] ChristianityCatholicism
Ganda Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuGanda Buganda (Uganda) 6.3 million Abayudaya[83] Christianity, Traditional African religions
Garifuna ArawakanIgneriGarifuna Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[84] 0.6 million Black Caribs ChristianityCatholicism
Gbagyi Niger–CongoVolta–NigerNupoidGwari Nigeria 0.4 million Christianity, Islam, Traditional African religions
Gedeo AfroasiaticCushiticGedeo Gedeo Zone (Ethiopia) 1 million ChristianityProtestantism
Georgians KartvelianGeorgian Georgia 5–7 million[citation needed] Adjarians, Mingrelians, Svans, Bats, Meskhetians[85] ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Germans Indo-EuropeanGermanicGerman Germany, Switzerland, Liechtenstein 100–150 million[86] Bavarians, Franconians, Hessians, Swabians, Alsatians, German Swiss, Liechtensteiners, Pomeranians, Volga Germans, Baltic Germans, Silesian Germans, Carpathian Germans, Danube Swabians, Transylvanian Saxons, Amish, Hutterites, Mennonites,[72] along with significant populations in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, Chile, Kazakhstan, Austria, Belgium, and Denmark. Christianity
Gorontaloan AustronesianGorontalo-MongondowGorontaloan Gorontalo (Indonesia) 1.9 million IslamSunni Islam
Greeks Indo-EuropeanGreek Greece, Cyprus 14–17 million Greek Cypriots, Pontic Greeks, Cappadocian Greeks, Sarakatsani, Urums,[87] Griko, along with significant populations in Albania (including Northern Epirotes), Ukraine, Georgia, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, and Canada ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Guaraní TupianTupi-GuaraniGuarani Paraguay, Misiones (Argentina), Bolivia (Gran Chaco, Luis Calvo, Cordillera, Germán Busch), Brazil 0.3-4.9 million[88][89] Paraguayans, Chiriguanos ChristianityCatholicism
Gujarati Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanGujarati Gujarat (India) 60 million[90] Gujarati Americans, Zarabes Hinduism
Gumuz Nilo-SaharanKomuzGumuz Benishangul-Gumuz Region (Ethiopia) 0.2 million Traditional African religion
Gurage AfroasiaticSemiticGurage[8] Guragia (Ethiopia) 3.6 million Christianity
Gurma Niger–CongoGurOti–VoltaGurma[8] Gurmaland (Burkina Faso), Niger 3.3 million Islam
Gurunsi Niger–CongoGurGurunsi[8] Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo 0.9 million Kabye, Tem, Lamba, Nuna, Kassena Traditional African religions, IslamSunni Islam
Hajongs Sino-TibetanSalBodo–GaroHajong[91] India (Assam, Meghalaya, West Bengal), Bangladesh 0.2 million Hinduism
Han Sino-TibetanSiniticChinese China, Taiwan 1,300 million[92] Cantonese (including Taishanese, Hongkongers, and Macanese),[93] Chuanqing, Fujianese (including Fuzhounese, Hainanese, Hoklo, Hui'an maidens, Putianese, and Teochew), Gaoshan Han, Gan, Hakka (including Ngái), Hebei, Hunanese, Jianghuai, Shandong, Sichuanese, Wu (including Shanghainese, Ningbonese, and Wenzhou), Han Taiwanese, Hui[94] (including Dungan), along with significant populations in the United States, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand,[95] Indonesia, Myanmar (including Panthays), Canada, the Philippines (including Sangley), Peru, Australia, Vietnam, Japan, Russia, France (including Chinois), the United Kingdom, South Africa, Italy, Germany, Korea, Spain, India, Laos, Brazil, the Netherlands, and Panama Chinese folk religion[96]
Harari AfroasiaticSemiticEthiopianHarari Hararia (Ethiopia) 0.2 million Islam
Hausa AfroasiaticChadicHausa Hausaland (Niger, Nigeria) 50 million Islam
Hawaiians AustronesianPolynesianHawaiian[97] Hawaii (United States) 0.5 million Christianity
Hazaras Indo-EuropeanIranianPersianHazaragi Afghanistan 7–8 million IslamShia Islam
Herero Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuHerero Hereroland (Namibia), Angola 0.3 million OvaHimba, Ovambanderu Christianity
Hmong Hmong–MienHmongic[8] China (Guizhou, Hunan, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi, Hainan, Guangdong, Hubei), Vietnam, Laos, Thailand 14-15 million A-Hmao, Gha-Mu, Xong Hmong Americans Hmong folk religion
Huli Trans–New GuineaEnganHuli Southern Highlands Province (Papua New Guinea) 0.3 million Christianity
Hungarians UralicUgricHungarian Hungary, Székely Land (Romania), Felvidék (Slovakia) 13.1–14.7 million Jasz, Palóc, along with significant populations in Romania (including Székelys and Csangos), Slovakia, Serbia, Ukraine, Croatia, Slovenia, Germany, the United States, and Canada ChristianityCatholicism
Hutu Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuRwanda-Rundi[98] Rwanda, Burundi, Kivu (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 18.5 million Christianity
Ibibio Niger–CongoCross RiverIbibio-EfikIbibio Akwa Ibom State (Nigeria) 5 million Christianity
Icelanders Indo-EuropeanGermanicIcelandic Iceland 0.5 million ChristianityProtestantism
Igbo Niger–CongoIgboidIgbo Igboland (Nigeria) 34 million[11] numerous slave descendants in Trinidad and Tobago[99] (including Dougla) Christianity
Ijaw Niger–CongoIjaw[8] Nigeria (Rivers, Bayelsa, and Delta States) 10 million Christianity
Ingush Northeast CaucasianNakhVainakhIngush Ingushetia (Russia) 0.7 million IslamSunni Islam
Inuit Eskimo–AleutInuit[8] Greenland (Denmark), Canada (Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, Nunavik, NunatuKavut), Alaska (United States) 0.2 million Greenlandic Inuit (including Kalaallit), Iñupiat, Inuktitut Christianity
Irish Indo-EuropeanCelticGoidelicIrish[68] Ireland (Republic of Ireland, United Kingdom) 70–80 million[100] Irish Travellers and significant populations in the United States,[101] the United Kingdom,[102] Australia, Canada, Argentina, Mexico and New Zealand ChristianityCatholicism
Iroquois Iroquoian[103][17][70] Haudenosauneega (United States, Canada) 0.2 million Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, Tuscarora Longhouse Religion
Italians Indo-EuropeanRomanceItalian Italy[104], Ticino (Switzerland) 60–140 million[105] Sicilians, Waldensians, along with significant populations in Argentina, Brazil, the United States, Venezuela, Canada, France, Peru, Uruguay, Australia, Germany, Chile and the United Kingdom ChristianityCatholicism
Japanese JaponicJapanese Japan 129 million[106] Kantō, Kansai, Hokkaido, Tōhoku, Hōnichi, Satsugū, Chūgoku, Echigo, Tōkai, Shinshuu, Hokuriku, Hachijō, Nikkei Shinto
Javanese AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianJavanese Java (Indonesia) 105 million[107] Cirebonese, Osing, Tenggerese, Boyanese, Samin, Banyumasan, Javanese Malaysians IslamSunni Islam
Jews AfroasiaticSemiticCanaaniteHebrew[108] Israel 14.4–17.5 million[109] Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Teimanim, Etiopim, Italkim, Romaniotes, Juhurim, Krymchaks, Bene Israel, along with significant populations in the United States, France, Canada, the United Kingdom, Argentina, Russia, Germany, and Australia Judaism
Jingpo Sino-TibetanSalJingpho Kachin State (Myanmar), Yunnan (China) 1.1 million Animism
Jola Niger–CongoAtlantic-CongoBak-BijagoJola Jolaland (Senegal) 0.5 million Traditional African religions
Kalanga Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuKalanga Zimbabwe, Botswana 0.9 million Nambya Traditional African religion, Christianity
Kalenjin Nilo-SaharanNiloticNandi–Markweta[110] Rift Valley Province (Kenya) 5 million Keiyo, Tugen, Marakwet, Nandi, Kipsigis, Sabaot, Pökoot,[111] Sebei,[111] Okiek[111] Christianity
Kanaks AustronesianOceanicKanak[8] Kanakia 0.1 million ChristianityCatholicism
Kannadigas DravidianKannada Karnataka (India) 45–50 million[112][113] Hinduism
Kanuri Nilo-SaharanSaharanKanuri Kanuriland (Nigeria), Niger, Chad, Cameroon 10 million Kanembu Islam
Karachays TurkicKipchakKarachay-Balkar[114] Karachay-Cherkessia (Russia) 0.2 million IslamSunni Islam
Karakalpaks TurkicKipchakKarakalpak Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan) 0.6 million IslamSunni Islam
Karelians UralicFinnicKarelian Karelia (Finland, Russia) 0.1 million ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Karen Sino-TibetanKaren[8] Karen State (Myanmar), Thailand 7 million S'gaw Karen, Pwo Karen BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Karenni Sino-TibetanKarenni Kayah State (Myanmar) 0.2 million Kayan Animism, BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Kashmiris Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanDardicKashmiri Kashmir (India, Pakistan) 5.6 million[115][116] Kashmiri Pandits, Kashmiris of Punjab IslamSunni Islam
Kashubians Indo-EuropeanSlavicPomeranianKashubian Kashubia (Poland) 0.6 million ChristianityCatholicism
Kazakhs TurkicKipchakKazakh Kazakhstan 17 million significant populations in China, and Russia IslamSunni Islam
Khas Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanNepali Nepal 12.9 million Chhetri, Bahun, Gurkha Hinduism
Khakas TurkicSiberian TurkicKhakas Khakassia (Russia) 0.1 million ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Khamti Kra–DaiTaiKhamti Myanmar, India 0.2 million BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Khmer AustroasiaticKhmer Cambodia 15–17 million significant populations in the United States and Vietnam BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Kikuyu Niger–CongoBantuNortheast BantuKikuyu Kenya 9.9 million Christianity
Komi UralicPermicKomi Komi Republic, Permyakia (Russia) 0.6 million Komi-Zyrians, Komi-Permyaks, Izhma Komi ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Konkani Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanKonkani Goa (India) 7.4 million Hinduism
Kongo Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuKongo Kongoland (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Angola) 10 million[11] Lari, Vili, Mayombe, Saramaka, along with numerous slave descendants in Cuba,[78] Brazil[16] (including Pardo Brazilians), the Dominican Republic,[117] and in Trinidad and Tobago[99] (including Dougla) Christianity, Traditional African religionsKongo religion
Konjo Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuKonjo Rwenzori Mountains (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda) 1.5 million[118] Nande Christianity
Koreans KoreanicKorean Korea 82.5 million[119] Jeju Islanders, along with significant populations in the United States, China, Russia, Japan, Canada, Australia, Vietnam, and the Philippines Buddhism, Christianity
Kumyks TurkicKypchakKumyk Kumykia (Russia) 0.5 million IslamSunni Islam
Kunama Nilo-SaharanKunama Eritrea, Ethiopia 0.3 million ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Kurds Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianKurdish Kurdistan (Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria) 30–45 million Kurmanjis, Sorans, Zazas, Feylis, Lakis, Yazidis, Shabak, along with significant populations in France and Germany. IslamSunni Islam
Kyrgyz TurkicKipchakKyrgyz Kyrgyzstan 4.5 million IslamSunni Islam
Laks Northeast CaucasianLak Lakia in Dagestan (Russia) 0.2 million IslamSunni Islam
Lango Nilo-SaharanNiloticLuoLango Uganda 1.8 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Lao Kra–DaiTaiLao Laos 4 million BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Latvians Indo-EuropeanBalticLatvian Latvia 1.5–1.6 million Latgalians, Kursenieki, Selonians ChristianityProtestantism
Laz KartvelianZanLaz Lazistan (Turkey, Georgia) 0.2–1 million IslamSunni Islam
Lega Niger–CongoBantuLega–BinjaLega Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.5 million Traditional African religions
Lezgins Northeast CaucasianLezgicLezgian Lezgistan (Russia, Azerbaijan) 1 million IslamSunni Islam
Lithuanians Indo-EuropeanBalticLithuanian Lithuania 3.7–4.1 million Samogitians, Aukstaitians, Lietuvninkai ChristianityCatholicism
Luba Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuLuban[8] Lubaland (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 13 million Luba-Kasai, Luba-Katanga, Hemba, Songe Christianity, Traditional African religions
Luo Nilo-SaharanNiloticLwoianLuo Kenya, Tanzania 7 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Luxembourgers Indo-EuropeanGermanicHigh GermanLuxembourgish Luxembourg, Arelerland (Belgium) 0.5 million significant populations in Brazil, and United States ChristianityCatholicism
Lurs Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianLuri Iran 5 million IslamShia Islam
Maasai Nilo-SaharanNiloticEastern NiloticMaasai Maasailand (Tanzania, Kenya) 1.7 million Samburu Maasai faith
Macedonians Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicMacedonian Republic of Macedonia 2.5 million Torbesh, Mijaks, along with significant populations in Australia and Greece ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Madi Nilo-SaharanCentral SudanicMoru–MadiMa'di Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, Uganda 0.4 million Christianity
Mafa AfroasiaticChadicBiu–MandaraMafa Cameroon 0.8 million Christianity
Makassarese AustronesianMakassaricMakassarese South Sulawesi (Indonesia) 3 million Sunni Islam
Malays AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianMalay Malay world (Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia) 30 million Kedahans, Pattani, Kelantanese, Terengganuans, Pahang, Perakians, Berau, Bruneians, Cape Malays[120] IslamSunni Islam
Malayali DravidianMalayalam Kerala (India) 35–40 million[121][122] significant populations in the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait and Bahrain Hinduism
Maldivians Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanMaldivian Maldives 0.4 million Mahls IslamSunni Islam
Maltese AfroasiaticSemiticArabicSiculo-ArabicMaltese Malta 0.7 million Gozitans ChristianityCatholicism
Manchu TungusicManchu[123] Manchuria (China) 10.4 million Manchu shamanism, Buddhism
Mandinka Niger–CongoMandeManding[8] Mali, The Gambia, Guinea, Senegal, Ivory Coast 13 million[11] Cape Verdeans,[124] along with numerous slave descendants in Trinidad and Tobago[99] (including Dougla) Islam
Manx Indo-EuropeanCelticGaelicManx[68] Isle of Man 0.1 million significant populations in Australia, United States, and Canada ChristianityProtestantism
Māori AustronesianPolynesianMāori[125] New Zealand 0.9 million Cook Islanders Christianity
Mapuche AraucanianMapudungun Patagonia (Chile, Argentina) 1.7 million[37] Huilliche Christianity
Marathi Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanMarathi Maharashtra (India) 80–85 million[126][127] Mahar Hinduism
Mari UralicMari Mari El (Russia) 0.6 million Meadow Mari, Hill Mari ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Masa AfroasiaticChadicMasa[8] Cameroon, Chad 0.5 million Christianity, Islam
Masalit Nilo-SaharanMabanMasalit Sudan, Chad 0.5 million IslamSunni Islam
Mayans Mayan[8] Guatemala, Belize, Mexico (Yucatán, Campeche, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Chiapas), Honduras, El Salvador 7 million[37] Achi, Chuj, Ch'orti', Itza, K'iche', Q'eqchi', Xinca, Tektitek, Huastecan, Mopan, Lacandon, Chontal, Akatek, Jakaltek, Q'anjob'al, Tzeltal, Mocho', Tojolab'al, Mam, Ixil, Tzotzil, Poqomam, Yucatecan,[128] Motozintlecos, Awakatek, Kaqchikel, Sakapultek, Sipakapense, Uspantek, Ch'ol, Tz'utujil, Hispanic Belizeans, Guatemalans ChristianityCatholicism, Maya religion
Mbaka Niger–CongoUbangianNgbakaMbaka Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.3 million ChristianityCatholicism, Traditional African religions
Meitei Sino-TibetanMeitei India (Manipur, Assam, Tripura), Myanmar, Bangladesh 1.5 million Loi HinduismVaishnavism
Mende Niger–CongoMandeSouthwestern MandeMende Sierra Leone (Southern and Eastern Provinces) 1.9 million Islam
Merina AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianMalagasy Antananarivo Province (Madagascar) 5 million Christianity
Mijikenda Niger–CongoBantuSabakiMijikenda Coast Province (Kenya), Tanga Region (Tanzania) 2 million Chonyi, Giriama, Digo, Segeju Christianity
Minahasan AustronesianPhilippineMinahasan Minahassa Peninsula (Indonesia) 1.4 million ChristianityProtestantism
Minangkabau AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianMinangkabau Indonesia 8 million IslamSunni Islam
Mishing Sino-TibetanTaniMishing India (Assam, Arunachal Pradesh) 0.7 million Donyi-Polo
Miskito MisumalpanMiskito Mosquito Coast (Nicaragua, Honduras) 0.2 million ChristianityProtestantism, Animism
Mixtec Oto-MangueanMixtecanMixtec Mexico 0.9 million Trique, Cuicatecs ChristianityCatholicism
Mon AustroasiaticMonicMon Mon State (Myanmar) 1.1 million BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Mongo Niger–CongoBantuBangi-NtombaMongo[129] Democratic Republic of the Congo 12 million Iyaelima, Mbole, Mpama, Nkutu, Dengese, Tetela Christianity, Traditional African religions
Mongols Mongolic[8] China (Inner Mongolia, Dzungaria), Mongolia, Russia (Buryatia, Kalmykia) 11 million Buryats, Oirats, Kalmyks, Daur, Moghol, Hamnigan, Monguor, Yugur, Khatso, Santa, Bonan, Sart Kalmyks, Soyot, Sichuan Mongols, Sogwo Arig, Altai Uriankhai, Ordos, Kanja BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Mongondow AustronesianPhilippineMongondowicMongondow Mongondowia (Indonesia) 0.3 million Bintauna, Korompot, Buhang, Mokodompis, Kaidipang IslamSunni Islam
Montenegrins Indo-EuropeanSlavicSerbo-CroatianMontenegrin Montenegro 0.6 million significant populations in Serbia, and United States ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Mordvins UralicMordvinic[8] Mordovia (Russia) 0.8 million Erzyas, Mokshas, Teryukhans, Qaratays ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Mossi Niger–CongoGurOti–VoltaMossi Mossiland (Burkina Faso) 7.6 million Islam
Munanese AustronesianCelebicMunanese[8] Muna (Indonesia) 0.3 million Islam
Murut AustronesianSouthwest SabahanMurutic[8] Murutia (Malaysia) 0.1 million Okolod, Keningau, Tagal, Paluan, Selungai, Timugon, Serudung, Sembakung, Tidong, Kalabakan, Bulungan, Bookan ChristianityCatholicism
Muscogee MuskogeanMuscogee Muscogee (Creek) Nation (United States) 0.1 million Coushatta, Alibamu, Hitchiti, Natchez, Seminole (including Black Seminoles), Yuchi, Shawnee, Creoles of color Native American religionCreek mythology
Naga Sino-TibetanKuki-Chin–Naga[130] India (Nagaland, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam), Myanmar 4 million Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Konyak, Lotha, Mao, Maram, Poumai, Rongmei, Sangtam, Sumi, Tangkhul, Tangsa, Zeliang Christianity
Nahuas Uto-AztecanNahuanNahuatl Mexico (Mexico City, State of Mexico, Morelos, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Hidalgo (state), Guerrero, San Luis Potosí, Veracruz) 2.5 million ChristianityCatholicism
Nama KhoeKhoekhoe Namaland (Namibia), South Africa 0.3 million[6] Damara, Coloureds[7] (including Cape Coloureds, Griqua, Basters, Oorlam, and Goffal) Christianity
Navajo Dené–YeniseianNa-DenéAthabaskanNavajo Navajo Nation (United States) 0.3 million ChristianityCatholicism
Ngalop Sino-TibetanTibeticDzongkha Bhutan 0.7 million Kheng, Bumthang BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Nias AustronesianNorthwest SumatranNias Nias island (Indonesia) 1 million Christianity
Nogais TurkicCommon TurkicKipchakNogai Dagestan, Karachay-Cherkessia, Chechnya, Stavropol District, Astrakhan Oblast (Russia) 0.1 million Ak Nogai, Karagash IslamSunni Islam
Norwegians Indo-EuropeanGermanicNorwegian Norway 12 million significant populations in the United States, and Norwegian Canadians ChristianityProtestantism
Nubians Nilo-SaharanNubian[8] Nubia (Egypt, Sudan) 2–15 million Hill Nubians Islam
Nuer Nilo-SaharanNiloticWestern NiloticNuer Nuerland (South Sudan) 2.9 million Traditional African religions
Nuristanis Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianNuristani[8] Nuristan (Afghanistan) 0.3 million IslamSunni Islam
Occitans Indo-EuropeanItalicRomanceOccitan<[57] Occitania (France, Italy, Spain) 16 million Aranese Christianity
Odia Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanOdia Odisha (India) 32 million[131] Hinduism
Ojibwe AlgicAlgonquianOjibwe Anishinaabeland (Canada, United States) 0.2 million Oji-Cree, Odawa, Potawatomi, Mississaugas Midewiwin
Oromo AfroasiaticCushiticOromo Oromia (Ethiopia), Kenya 35–45 million[132] Boran, Barentoo IslamSunni Islam
Ossetians Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianOssetian South Ossetia (Georgia),[133] North Ossetia-Alania (Russia) 0.8 million Iron, Digor ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Otomi Oto-MangueanOtomianOtomi Mexico 0.7 million ChristianityCatholicism, Mesoamerican religion
Ovambo Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuOshiwambo Ovamboland (Namibia), Angola 1.6 million ChristianityProtestantism
Ovimbundu Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuUmbundu Angola 6 million Christianity
Pamiris Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianPamir[8] Pamir Mountains (Tajikistan, Afghanistan, China) 0.3 million IslamShia Islam
Pa'O Sino-TibetanKarenicPa'O Myanmar 1.8 million BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Pashtuns Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianPashto Pashtunistan (Afghanistan, Pakistan) 40–60 million[134] Pashtun Americans IslamSunni Islam
Persians Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianPersian Iran 49 million[citation needed] IslamShia Islam
Poles Indo-EuropeanSlavicWest SlavicPolish Poland 58–60 million[135] significant populations in the United States, Brazil, Germany, Canada, Iceland, Sweden, France, the United Kingdom, Argentina, Belarus, Russia, Australia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Ireland, and Norway ChristianityCatholicism
Portuguese Indo-EuropeanRomancePortuguese Portugal 42–125 million[136] Azoreans, Madeirans, Brazilians, Cape Verdeans, Luso-Indians, Macanese,[93] along with significant populations in the United States, Venezuela, France, Canada, South Africa, Angola, the United Kingdom, and Portuguese Luxembourger. ChristianityCatholicism
Punjabis Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanPunjabi East and West Punjab (Pakistan, India) 120 million[137][138] Sikhs, along with significant populations in the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. Islam, Sikhism
Purépecha Purépecha Michoacán (Mexico) 0.2 million ChristianityCatholicism
Qashqai TurkicOghuzQashqai Iran 1 million IslamShia Islam
Quechua Quechuan[8] Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador 10 million[citation needed] ChristianityCatholicism
Rajbongshi Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanRangpuri India (Assam, West Bengal) 3.8 million Hinduism
Rakhine Sino-TibetanTibeto-BurmanBurmishRakhinenese Rakhine State (Myanmar) 3.5 million BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Rejangese AustronesianBidayuhRejang Rejang Lebong Regency (Indonesia) 1.2 million IslamSunni Islam
Rohingyas Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanRohingya Rakhine State (Myanmar) 2.4 million[139] Islam
Roma Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanRomani Europe[140] (Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Slovakia, Czech Republic) 12 million[citation needed] Roma, Iberian Kale, Finnish Kale, Welsh Kale, Romanichal, Sinti, Manush, Romanisæl, Ashkali and Balkan Egyptians, Boyash, Lom, Dom, along with significant populations in[141] Turkey, the United States, and Brazil. Christianity[142]
Romanians Indo-EuropeanRomanceRomanian Romania, Moldova 24 million[143] Moldovans, along with significant populations in Italy, Germany, Spain, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and France. ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Russians Indo-EuropeanSlavicEast SlavicRussian Russia 130–150 million[144] Cossacks,[145] Pomors, Lipovans, along with significant populations in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Germany, the United States, Uzbekistan, Israel, Brazil, Belarus, Canada, Latvia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Estonia, Turkmenistan, France, Lithuania and Azerbaijan. ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Ryukyuans JaponicRyukyuan[8] Ryukyu islands (Japan) 1.9 million Amami, Miyako, Yonaguni, Yoron, Ishigaki, Yaeyama, Kikai Ryukyuan religion
Rusyns Indo-EuropeanSlavicRusyn Carpathian Ruthenia (Ukraine, Slovakia, Poland) 0.1 million[146][147][148] Pannonian Rusyns, Lemkos, Hutsuls, Boykos [149] Christianity
Saho AfroasiaticCushiticSaho Eritrea 0.5 million Islam
Samoans AustronesianPolynesianSamoan Samoan Islands (Samoa, American Samoa) 0.6 million American Samoans Christianity
San Kx'a[8][150] Southern Africa (Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Angola) 0.1 million[6] ǃKung, Coloureds[7] (including Cape Coloureds, Griqua, Basters, Oorlam, and Goffal) Traditional African religionsSan religion
Sangirese AustronesianPhilippineSangiricSangirese Sangihe Islands (Indonesia) 0.6 million ChristianityProtestantism
Sami UralicFinno-UgricSami[8] Sápmi (Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia) 0.1 million Inari Sami, Kildin Sami, Lule Sami, Northern Sami, Pite Sami, Skolt Sami, Southern Sami, Ter Sami, Ume Sami ChristianityProtestantism
Sara Nilo-SaharanCentral SudanicSara[8] Chad, Central African Republic 3–4 million[citation needed] Traditional African religions
Sardinians Indo-EuropeanRomanceSardinian Sardinia (Italy) 1.7 million[151] ChristianityCatholicism
Scottish Indo-EuropeanCelticGoidelicScottish Gaelic[152] Scotland (United Kingdom) 28–40 million[100] Ulster Scots,[153], Orcadians, Shetlanders, Highlanders, along with significant populations in the United States (including Scotch-Irish Americans), Canada, Australia, and Argentina ChristianityProtestantism
Senufo Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoSenufo[8] Mali, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso 3 million Nafana Traditional African religions
Serbs Indo-EuropeanSlavicSerbo-CroatianSerbian Serbia, Republika Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Montenegro 9.6–12.5 million[citation needed] Kosovo Serbs, Triestine Serbs, along with significant populations in Croatia, Germany, Austria, France, and Sweden ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Serer Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoSenegambianSerer Senegal 1.8 million Noon, Laalaa, Ndut, Niominka, Palor, Saafi, Toucouleur Islam
Shan Kra–DaiTaiSouthwestern TaiShan Shan State (Myanmar) 4—6 million[citation needed] BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Shilluk Nilo-SaharanNiloticLuo NiloticShilluk South Sudan 1.5 million ChristianityCatholicism
Shona Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuShona Mashonaland (Zimbabwe) 10.7–11.7 million Manyika, Ndau Christianity, Traditional African religions
Sidama AfroasiaticCushiticSidaama Sidamia (Ethiopia) 8.5 million[citation needed] Christianity
Silesian Indo-EuropeanSlavicLechiticSilesian Silesia (Poland), Czech Silesia (Czech Republic) 2 million[citation needed] Cieszyn Vlachs, Silesian Gorals ChristianityCatholicism
Siddi Niger–CongoBantuSwahiliSidi[154] Pakistan (Baluchistan, Sindh), India (Karnataka, Gujarat, Hyderabad) 0.4 million Islam
Silt'e AfroasiaticSemiticEthiopian SemiticSilt'e Siltia (Ethiopia) 1 million Islam
Sindhis Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanSindhi Sindh (Pakistan) 40 million[citation needed] Indian Sindhis Islam
Sinhalese Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanSinhalese Sri Lanka 16 million[155] British Sri Lankans BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Sioux SiouanSioux Lakota (United States) 0.2 million Lakota, Dakota, Nakoda, Assiniboine Native American religion
Slovaks Indo-EuropeanSlavicSlovak Slovakia 6 million[citation needed] significant populations in Czech Republic, Serbia, Hungary, United States and Canada ChristianityCatholicism
Slovenes Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicSlovene Slovenia 2.5 million[citation needed] Carinthian Slovenes, Italy Slovenes ChristianityCatholicism
Soga Niger–CongoBantuGreat Lakes BantuSoga Busoga (Uganda) 2.1 million[citation needed] Christianity, Traditional African religions
Somalis AfroasiaticCushiticSomali Greater Somalia (Somalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Kenya) 16–20 million[citation needed] Hawiye, Darod (including Majeerteen), Isaaq, Dir, Rahanweyn, Madhiban, Yibir, along with significant populations in the United States, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Canada Islam
Songhai Nilo-SaharanSonghai Mali, Niger 4.5 million[citation needed] Zarma Islam
Soninke Niger–CongoMandeSoninke Mali 1 million Haratin[42] Islam
Sotho Niger–CongoBantuSotho-TswanaSotho Free State (South Africa), Lesotho 5.3–6.4 million[citation needed] Pedi Christianity, Traditional African religions
Spaniards Indo-EuropeanRomanceSpanish Spain 47[156]–500 million Castilians, Andalusians, Asturians, Leonese, Cantabrians, Aragonese,[157] Extremadurans, Mirandese, Canary Islanders[158] (including Isleños), Mexicans, Colombians, Argentines, Peruvians, Venezuelans, Chileans, Ecuadorians, Guatemalans, Cubans, Bolivians, Dominicans,[159] Hondurans, Paraguayans, Salvadorans, Nicaraguans, Costa Ricans, Panamanians, Uruguayans, Hispanic Belizeans, Fernandino along with significant populations in France, Brazil, and the United States (including Hispanic and Latino Americans, Californios, Tejanos, Hispanos of New Mexico, and Puerto Ricans) ChristianityCatholicism
Sundanese AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianSundanese Java (Indonesia) 40 million[citation needed] Bantenese, Baduy, Cirebonese IslamSunni Islam
Sukuma Niger–CongoBantuSukuma Tanzania 5.5 million[citation needed] Christianity, Traditional African religions
Surma Nilo-SaharanEastern SudanicSurmic[160] Ethiopia, South Sudan 0.2 million Me'en, Mursi Traditional African religions
Swahili Niger–CongoBantuSabakiSwahili Swahili coast (Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Comoros) 0.5[161]-1.8 million[162] Shirazi[23] (including Zanzibaris) Islam
Swazi Niger–CongoBantuNguniSwazi Mpumalanga (South Africa), Swaziland 2.4 million[citation needed] Christianity, Traditional African religions
Swedes Indo-EuropeanGermanicNorth GermanicSwedish Sweden 14.2 million Scanians, Jamtish, Gutnish, along with significant populations in Finland (including Åland Swedes), the United States, Canada, Argentina and the United Kingdom ChristianityProtestantism
Tabasaran Northeast CaucasianSamurTabasaranese Tabasaranstan (Russia) 0.2 million IslamSunni Islam
Tagalogs AustronesianPhilippineTagalog Philippines 30 million[citation needed] Filipino Americans ChristianityCatholicism
Tahitians AustronesianPolynesianTahitian[57] Tahiti (France) 0.2 million Christianity
Tajiks Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianTajik Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan 18–27 million IslamSunni Islam
Tama Nilo-SaharanEastern SudanicTamanTama Chad, Sudan 0.3 million Islam
Tamils DravidianTamil Tamil Nadu (India), Sri Lanka (Northern and Eastern Provinces) 75 million[163][164] Indian Tamils, Sri Lankan Tamils, along with significant populations in Malaysia, South Africa, the United States, Singapore, Canada, the United Kingdom, and France (including Malbars). Hinduism
Tankas Sino-TibetanSiniticChineseYue Chinese China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Hainan, Zhejiang, Hong Kong, Macau) 4.6 million[citation needed] Fuzhou Tankas Chinese folk religion
Tatars TurkicKipchakTatar Tatarstan (Russia) 6.8 million Volga Tatars, Crimean Tatars, Lipka Tatars, Siberian Tatars, Mishar Tatars, Finnish Tatars, Dobruja Tatars, Chinese Tatars, Nagaybak, Kryashens IslamSunni Islam
Telugu DravidianTelugu India (Andhra Pradesh, Telangana) 80–85 million[165][166] Hinduism
Temne Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoMelTemne Sierra Leone 2.2 million Islam
Thais Kra–DaiThai Thailand 59 million Southern, Khorat, Lanna, Isans, Tai Lü, Thai Americans Buddhism
Tibetans Sino-TibetanTibeto-KanauriBodishTibetic[8] Tibet (China) 6.2 million[citation needed] BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Tigrayans AfroasiaticSemiticTigrinya Eritrea, Tigrayia (Ethiopia) 9 million[citation needed] ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Tigre AfroasiaticSemiticEthiopicTigre Eritrea 1.8 million Islam
Tiv Niger–CongoAtlantic-CongoTivoidTiv Nigeria 7 million Christianity
Tiwa Sino-TibetanSalBodo-GaroTiwa India (Assam, Meghalaya) 0.2 million[citation needed] Hinduism
Toraja AustronesianSunda–SulawesiToraja Indonesia (North Toraja Regency, Sulawesi) 1.1 million Christianity
Toubou Nilo-SaharanSaharanTebu[8] Toubouland (Chad, Niger, Sudan, Libya) 0.7 million[citation needed] Daza, Teda IslamSunni Islam
Tsonga Niger–CongoBantuTswa-RongaTsonga Mozambique, South Africa 6 million[citation needed] Traditional African religions
Tswana Niger–CongoBantuSotho-TswanaTswana South Tswanaland (South Africa), Botswana 6 million[citation needed] Balete, Mangwato, Bangwaketse, Rolong Christianity
Turkana Nilo-SaharanNiloticEastern NiloticTurkana Turkanaland (Kenya) 1 million ChristianityCatholicism
Turks TurkicOghuzTurkish Turkey, Northern Cyprus 79 million[167] Turkish Cypriots, Meskhetian Turks,[168] Yörüks, along with significant populations in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, the United States, Syria,[169] and Iraq[169] IslamSunni Islam
Turkmens TurkicOghuzTurkmen Turkmenistan 6 million[citation needed] IslamSunni Islam
Tutsi Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuRwanda-Rundi[98] Rwanda, Burundi, Kivu (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 3 million[citation needed] Banyamulenge Christianity, Islam
Tuvans TurkicSiberianTuvan Tuva (Russia) 0.3 million Tozhu Tuvans, Todzhans Tuvans BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Twa Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuRwanda-Rundi[98] Rwanda, Burundi, Kivu (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 0.1 million Traditional African religions
Udmurts UralicPermicUdmurt Udmurtia (Russia) 0.6 million Besermyan ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Ukrainians Indo-EuropeanSlavicEast SlavicUkrainian Ukraine 38–59 million[170] Boykos, Hutsul, Poleshuks, Cossacks,[145] along with significant populations in the United States, Brazil, Kazakhstan, Argentina, Germany, Italy, the Czech Republic, and Romania ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Uyghurs TurkicKarlukUyghur Uyghuristan (China) 10 million Uyghurs in Kazakhstan IslamSunni Islam
Uzbeks TurkicKarlukUzbek Uzbekistan 25 million[citation needed] Uzbeks in Russia IslamSunni Islam
Venda Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuTshivenda Vendaland (South Africa) 1 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Vietnamese AustroasiaticVieticVietnamese Vietnam 84 million[171] significant populations in the United States, Cambodia, France, Australia, Canada, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Germany and Laos BuddhismMahayana, Vietnamese folk religion
Wa AustroasiaticPalaungicWaicWa Wa State (Myanmar) 1.2 million Buddhism, Animism
Welayta AfroasiaticOmoticOmetoWolayitta Wolayitia (Ethiopia) 2 million[citation needed] Christianity
Welsh Indo-EuropeanCelticBrittonicWelsh[172] Wales (United Kingdom) 6–16.3 million[citation needed] significant populations in Argentina, the United States, Canada, and Australia. ChristianityProtestantism
Wolof Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoSenegambianWolof Senegambia (Senegal, The Gambia) 6.2 million[11] Haratin,[42] along with numerous slave descendants in the Americas IslamSunni Islam
Xhosa Niger–CongoBantuNguniXhosa Xhosaland (South Africa) 8 million[citation needed] Christianity, Traditional African religions
Yakuts TurkicSiberian TurkicYakut Yakutia (Russia) 0.5 million[citation needed] ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Yoruba Niger–CongoVolta-NigerEdekiriYoruba Yorubaland (Nigeria, Benin) 43 million[11] Egun, Ijesha, Egba, Yewa, Igbomina, Awori, Akoko, Okun, Ana, Ekiti, Ilaje, Oku, along with numerous slave descendants in Cuba[78] (including Lucumí), and Brazil[16] (including Pardo Brazilians) Christianity, Islam
Zaghawa Nilo-SaharanSaharanZaghawa Chad 0.4 million IslamSunni Islam
Zande Niger–CongoZande Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, South Sudan 1.1 million[citation needed] Christianity
Zapotec Oto-MangueanZapotecan[8] Oaxaca (Mexico) 1.1 million[citation needed] ChristianityCatholicism
Zhuang Kra–DaiTaiZhuang[8] Zhuangia (China) 18 million[citation needed] Moism
Zulu Niger–CongoBantuNguniZulu KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) 10–11 million[citation needed] Northern Ndebele Christianity, Traditional African religions

Lists of ethnic groups[edit]

by status
regional lists

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Abkhazia is currently a de facto independent state.
  2. ^ While African Americans can be found all throughout the United States (especially in the urban areas), their population have historically been mostly located in the former slave-dominated American South. The following states are not listed despite being part of the American South: Florida (a former Spanish colony, although many African Americans fled there in order to escape slavery), West Virginia (where slavery was non-existent), Louisiana (a former French colony whose slave population mostly originated from Haiti), Oklahoma (originally designated as territory for Native Americans, although the Muscogee did had an African American slave population), and Texas (a former Mexican territory where slavery did not exist until the creation of the Empresario system).
  3. ^ "ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES: 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
  4. ^ Many Krio are also the descendants of other liberated/freed slaves.
  5. ^ "Afrikaners constitute nearly three million out of approximately 53 million inhabitants of the Republic of South Africa, plus as many as half a million in diaspora." Afrikaner – Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
  6. ^ a b c Not including the 6.3 million Coloureds.
  7. ^ a b c In addition to being an Afrikaner- and Khoisan-descendant community, many Coloureds also share ancestry with at least one of the major ethnic groups residing in South Africa, Namibia, and Zimbabwe, particularly the San, who were historically grouped with the Nami by academics.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am Language family. With some exceptions, the speakers of the various languages within this family are typically seen as one singular ethnicity.
  9. ^ a b As an Assamese ethnic group, the vast majority only speak Assamese.
  10. ^ ""Cote d'Ivoire", CIA - The World Factbook". Cia.gov. "Akan 42.1%" of a population of 22.0 million. ""Ghana", CIA - The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-24. "Akan 45.3%" of a population of 24.6 million.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h The population number here most likely does not include descendants of those who were sold in the Atlantic slave trade. While many African groups were enslaved and brought to the Americas, this group in particular made up a large portion of the American slave population.
  12. ^ Many other African groups were also enslaved and brought to Jamaica, most notably the Igbo and the Kongo.
  13. ^ The ethnonym Afro-Costa Rican mostly refers to the Jamaican diaspora population in Costa Rica; the descendants of original slave population in Costa Rica have largely integrated into the majority white/mestizo population.
  14. ^ Kosovo is currently a de facto independent state.
  15. ^ Since the 19th century, the Arvanites have viewed themselves as being Greek.
  16. ^ a b c Many other African groups were also enslaved and brought to Brazil, most notably the Fon.
  17. ^ a b c d Due to the a long history of forced assimilation by the American government, the vast majority only speak English.
  18. ^ "The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010" (PDF). census.gov. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
  19. ^ While the Arab world as a whole is considered to be the primary homeland, as many of these countries are actually populated by Arabized non-Arabs, this article will only list countries that are universally seen as part of the Arabian Peninsula.
  20. ^ Margaret Kleffner Nydell Understanding Arabs: A Guide For Modern Times, Intercultural Press, 2005, ISBN 1931930252, page xxiii, 14
  21. ^ This number, largely retrieved from the Arab League population, may include members who are actually of non-Arab descent, such as the Arab-Berbers and the Egyptians, and those who don't even see themselves as Arab, such as the Somalis and the Afar.
  22. ^ The Baharna also have notable Persian, Jewish, and Assyrian ancestry.
  23. ^ a b Although the Shirazi claim to have originated from Iran, they are mainly of Arab and Swahili descent.
  24. ^ a b c d The ethnonyms Iraqis and Syrians refers to those of Arab and Assyrian descent who make up the majority of both countries' populations. Both groups primarily identify themselves as being Arab.
  25. ^ Although the Lebanese are usually considered to be an Arab subgroup, this is not an universal position as some Lebanese, especially the Maronites, reject this notion and view themselves as being the descendants of the ancient Phoenician population (see Phoenicianism). Although genetic studies have shown the majority of Lebanese, regardless of religion, are in fact the descendants of the Phoenicians, the idea that they are a separate ethnic group remains largely confined to Lebanese Christians.
  26. ^ Although the Sudanese Arabs are mostly made up of ethnic Arabs who had migrated into Sudan, a significant portion of them are actually Arabized Nubians.
  27. ^ The Baggara also include some non-Arab members such as the Fula.
  28. ^ Dennis J.D. Sandole (24 January 2007). Peace and Security in the Postmodern World: The OSCE and Conflict Resolution. Routledge. p. 182. ISBN 9781134145713. The nearly 3 million Armenians in Armenia (and 3–4 million in the Armenian Diaspora worldwide) "perceive" the nearly 8 million Azerbaijanis in Azerbaijan as "Turks."
  29. ^ Von Voss, Huberta (2007). Portraits of Hope: Armenians in the Contemporary World. New York: Berghahn Books. p. xxv. ISBN 9781845452575. ...there are some 8 million Armenians in the world...
  30. ^ Because the Hemshin are largely Muslim and have largely hidden their Armenian ancestry, they are sometimes considered a separate ethnic group.
  31. ^ The Aromanians are considered to be descendants of the Romanised people of Southern Balkans and they live scattered in many settlements of that region.
  32. ^ Puig, Lluis Maria de (17 January 1997). "Report: Aromanians". Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly. Doc. 7728.
  33. ^ Ronald Roberson. "The Eastern Catholic Churches 2016" (PDF). Catholic Near East Welfare Association. Retrieved 29 November 2016. Information sourced from Annuario Pontificio 2016 edition
  34. ^ "Assyria". Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. unpo.org.
  35. ^ Not including Iraqi and Syrians who identify themselves as Arab despite being partly Assyrian descent.
  36. ^ Although the Rûm are also referred to as Antiochian Greek Christians, the designation "Greek" refers to the Rûm's usage of Koine Greek in their liturgy.
  37. ^ a b c The population number here most likely does not include Mestizos, an identity that includes Hispanicized indigenous members with no Spanish ancestry.
  38. ^ Sela, Avraham (2002). The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Continuum. p. 197. ISBN 0-8264-1413-3. 30–35 million
  39. ^ The Bayat have also been seen as a sub-group of the Turkmens and the Turks.
  40. ^ Refers specifically to the Balkar dialect.
  41. ^ a b Although the Anglo-Burmese is largely used for those of English and Bamar descent, the term can also be used for anyone with European and Burmese (as in any of ethnic groups within Myanmar) ancestry.
  42. ^ a b c d Because the Haratin tend to follow their former master's culture, the former slave population, who are either of Bambara, Fula, Soninke, of Wolof descent, are sometimes classified as being Arab-Berbers.
  43. ^ Lewis, M. Paul (ed.) (2009). "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition". Dallas, Tex.: SIL International.
  44. ^ a b c This number may not include the millions of Latin Americans descendants, who due to the length of time may identify their European ancestry as simply Spanish.
  45. ^ "Bedawiyet". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  46. ^ Unlike the rest of the Soviet Union republics, who were able to maintain their native language despite de facto Russianization, the Russian language has almost completely replaced Belarusian in everyday use.
  47. ^ List of contemporary ethnic groups at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
  48. ^ "North Africa's Berbers get boost from Arab Spring". Fox News. 5 May 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  49. ^ Tej K. Bhatia, William C. Ritchie (2006). The Handbook of Bilingualism. John Wiley & Sons. p. 860. ISBN 0631227350. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
  50. ^ These numbers may not include the Arab-Berbers, who largely identify as being Arab.
  51. ^ The ethnonym Arab-Berbers refer to the Arab-speaking populations of Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Western Sahara, and Tunisia who largely identify themselves as being Arab despite being mostly Berber descent and with little Arabic ancestry.
  52. ^ The Arab population in France is predominantly Arab-Berber.
  53. ^ Refers specifically to the Ewondo and Eton dialects.
  54. ^ a b Anthony Appiah; Henry Louis Gates (2010). Encyclopedia of Africa. Oxford University Press. pp. 177–178, 460. ISBN 978-0-19-533770-9.
  55. ^ "2011 Estimates as per Census report 2001" (PDF).
  56. ^ "Brahui". ethnologue.com. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  57. ^ a b c d Due to France's long history of promoting the French language at the expense of others, the vast majority only speak French.
  58. ^ Not including the unknown number of Fernandinos.
  59. ^ "Native Peoples of the World". google.bg.
  60. ^ "The Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Population: 2010" (PDF). census.gov. US Census Bureau. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  61. ^ "Chechnya 'has no troops in Ukraine'". Bbc.com. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2018 – via www.bbc.com.
  62. ^ Due to the forced relocation of the Cherokee, the majority now reside in Oklahoma.
  63. ^ "Pocket Pictorial". Archived April 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Oklahoma Indian Affairs Commission. 2010: 6 and 37. (retrieved June 11, 2010).
  64. ^ Number of enrolled tribal members. About 0.8 million claim to have Cherokee ancestry.
  65. ^ "American Indian, Alaska Native Tables from the Statistical Abstract of the United States" (PDF). Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2004–2005. US Census Bureau (124th ed.). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-02-11. Retrieved 2007-09-20.
  66. ^ Chowke people, Encyclopædia Britannica
  67. ^ "Chutiyas to shun Cong".
  68. ^ a b c Due to a long history of English dominance within Great Britain, the Celtic languages within the islands have seen steady decline in use, with some of them eventually going extinct. Although all of them have since seen major language revivals, English continues to be main language for the majority of this group.
  69. ^ "The Cornish Transnational Communities Project". University of Exeter. Archived from the original on 20 January 2011.
  70. ^ a b Due to the a long history of forced assimilation by the Canadian government, the vast majority can only either speak English or French.
  71. ^ In the 1950s (the peak of traditional emigration) about 350,000 people left the Netherlands, mainly to Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the United States, Argentina and South Africa. About one-fifth returned. The maximum Dutch-born emigrant stock for the 1950s is about 300,000 (some have died since). The maximum emigrant stock (Dutch-born) for the period after 1960 is 1.6 million. Discounting pre-1950 emigrants (who would be about 85 or older), at most around 2 million people born in the Netherlands are now living outside the country. Combined with the 13.1 million ethnically Dutch inhabitants of the Netherlands, there are about 16 million people who are Dutch, in a minimally accepted sense. Autochtone population at 1 January 2006, Central Statistics Bureau, Integratiekaart 2006', (external link) Archived 16 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine. (in Dutch)
  72. ^ a b The Mennonites has seen dramatic increase of non-Dutch/German members.
  73. ^ Joshua Project - Efik of Nigeria Ethnic People Profile
  74. ^ The original ancient Egyptian language, which around the 1st century AD became the Coptic language, died out as a spoken language around the 17th century and is now only used for religious ceremonies. Today, the Egyptians (including the Copts) speak Arabic.
  75. ^ "مصر في المركز الـ13 عالميا في التعداد السكاني". BBC News Arabic. 2017-09-30. Retrieved 2018-09-01.
  76. ^ Ethnic groups in Russia, 2010 census, Rosstat. Retrieved 15 February 2012 (in Russian)
  77. ^ James Minahan (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups Around the World A-Z. ABC-CLIO. pp. 589–590. ISBN 978-0-313-07696-1.
  78. ^ a b c Many other African groups were also enslaved and brought to Cuba, most notably the Efik.
  79. ^ Many other African groups were also enslaved and brought to Haiti, most notably the Yoruba and the Kongo.
  80. ^ a b Unlike most usage of the word creole, the ethnonym simply refers to non-Acadian descendants of those who inhabited Louisiana prior to the Louisiana Purchase and does not imply racial mixing (although the mixed-race Creoles of color did make up a significant portion of the Louisiana Creoles). The Louisiana Creoles also include descendants of Spanish colonists who arrived following the transfer of Louisiana to Spain, as well as descendants of the original Louisiana slave population prior to the large immigration wave of Haitians following the Haitian Revolution (this original slave population were largely made up of the Wolof, the Mandinka, and the Kongo).
  81. ^ Estimates range from anywhere between 66 and 106 million. The French language has an estimated 75 million native speakers. The CIA Factbook does not report any French ethnicity (considering it a nationality), giving the ethnic composition of France as "Celtic and Latin with Teutonic". [1]
  82. ^ As semi-nomadic people with rather disperse settlements, it's impossible to claim any specific area as a primary homeland of the Fula beyond West Africa. The countries listed here are the present-day locations of famous Fula states: Futa Jallon, Futa Toro, Great Fulo, and Massina. (The Sokoto Caliphate was founded on traditionally Hausa land, which is why Nigeria is not listed.)
  83. ^ Unlike most Jewish populations, the Abayudaya are acknowledged to be entirely made up of Ganda converts to Judaism. The Abayudaya themselves do not claim to possess any ancient Israelite ancestry.
  84. ^ Due to large-scale deportations of the Garifuna, only a few live in Saint Vincent; the vast majority now reside in Honduras, Belize, Guatemala, and Nicaragua.
  85. ^ Not including Meskhetian Turks, who for the most part are mostly ethnically Turks.
  86. ^ Jeffrey Cole (2011). Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 171. ISBN 9781598843026. "Estimates of the total number of Germans in the world range from 100 million to 150 million, depending on how German is defined..."
  87. ^ Turkish-speaking ethnic Greeks in Georgia and Ukraine,
  88. ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/19/language/gug/
  89. ^ The former is an estimate of the total number of people who identify as Guaraní, while the latter is an estimate of the total number of native speakers of Guarani. Unlike other Mestizo populations, who have largely abandoned their native languages, the Paraguayans have continued to use Guarani in their everyday lives, meaning it's entirely possible for a non-ethnic Guaraní to be a native Guarani speaker.
  90. ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe (2016-05-09). "Narendra Modi between Hindutva and subnationalism: The Gujarati asmita of a Hindu Hriday Samrat". India Review. Taylor & Francis Group. 15 (2): 196–217.
  91. ^ It is believed that around the late 19th century, the Hajong language shifted from being a Sino-Tibetan language to an Indo-Ayran one.
  92. ^ James B. Minahan (2014). Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 89–95. ISBN 9781610690188.
  93. ^ a b The Macanese also have notable Malay and Sinhalese ancestry.
  94. ^ Because of their Islamic faith, the Hui tend to be seen as a separate ethnic group (particularly by the Chinese government).
  95. ^ Due to frequent intermarriages, many of the Thai Chinese have significant amount of Thai ancestry.
  96. ^ As a group numbering more than a billion people with a diaspora population in almost every country, whose own native country is officially atheist, and has a long history of religious syncretism as well as two schools of thoughts that may or may not constitute as a religion, it is extremely difficult to determine the majority religion of the Han.
  97. ^ Since Hawaii's annexation into the United States, English has almost completely supplanted Hawaiian.
  98. ^ a b c Refers specifically to the Kinyarwanda and Kirundi dialects. The other speakers of the dialects within the Rwanda-Rundi continuum are considered to be separate from the Hutu, Tutsi, and Twa peoples.
  99. ^ a b c any other African groups were also enslaved and brought to Trinidad and Tobago, most notably the Ibibio and the Yoruba.
  100. ^ a b [email protected], Scottish Government, St. Andrew's House, Regent Road, Edinburgh EH1 3DG Tel:0131 556 8400 (29 May 2009). "The Scottish Diaspora and Diaspora Strategy: Insights and Lessons from Ireland". www.scotland.gov.uk. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  101. ^ An unknown number of them are actually Scottish. Until the arrival of Irish immigrants fleeing the Great Famine, the descendants of the Ulster Scots referred to themselves as Irish.
  102. ^ Not including the Northern Irish.
  103. ^ Refers specifically to the languages of the six nations that made up the Iroquois Confederacy: Mohawk, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca, and Tuscarora.
  104. ^ Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country, James D. Fearon. Department of Political Science, Stanford University
  105. ^ Figures cited range anywhere between some 60 and 140 million, the latter figure including citizens of Brazil and the United States who identify as of partial Italian ancestry. The Italian language has some 60 million native speakers.[2]
  106. ^ List of contemporary ethnic groups at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
  107. ^ 102 million in Indonesia (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate); small numbers in Malaysia, Suriname and elsewhere.
  108. ^ Despite the successfully revival of the Hebrew language, many Jews continue to speak the various languages that have developed by the diaspora populations, including Yiddish, Ladino, and Judeo-Arabic. In addition, English served as the lingua franca of Israel.
  109. ^ Dashefsky, Arnold; DellaPergola, Sergio; Sheskin, Ira, eds. (2017). World Jewish Population, 2016 (Report). Berman Jewish DataBank. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  110. ^ Also known as Kalenjin proper. However, the Kalenjin ethnicity is sometimes extended to speakers of the other branches of the larger Kalenjin language family: Elgon, Ogiek, and Pökoot.
  111. ^ a b c Not part of the Nandi–Markweta language family.
  112. ^ List of contemporary ethnic groups at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
  113. ^ 2011 Indian census
  114. ^ Refers specifically to the Karachay-Baksan-Chegem dialect.
  115. ^ ORGI. "Census of India: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues −2001". www.censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2017-04-30.
  116. ^ Shakil, Mohsin. "Languages of Erstwhile State of Jammu Kashmir (A Preliminary Study)".
  117. ^ Many other African groups were also enslaved and brought to the Dominican Republic, most notably the Fon and the Yoruba.
  118. ^ Including 0.9 million Nande speakers.
  119. ^ 50 million in South Korea, 25 million in North Korea, roughly 7 million in diaspora.
  120. ^ As a group that historically have been seen as part of the Coloured community, the Cape Malays also have significant amount of non-Malayan ancestry, particularly the major ethnic groups residing in South Africa that were traditionally Muslim.
  121. ^ List of contemporary ethnic groups at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
  122. ^ 2011 Indian census
  123. ^ Manchu is a critically endangered language; the vast majority of Manchu speak Chinese.
  124. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20130501115847/http://asemana.sapo.cv/spip.php?article53126&ak=1
  125. ^ Although the Māori have been able to halt the extinction of their language, the majority still only speak English fluently.
  126. ^ List of contemporary ethnic groups at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
  127. ^ 2011 Indian census
  128. ^ The ethnonym Maya usually refers to speakers of what of the Yucatec Maya language.
  129. ^ The Lingala language is often used by urban-residing Mongo.
  130. ^ Refers specifically to the languages not part of the Kuki-Chin branch; the other four branches are Ao, Angami–Pochuri, Tangkhulic, and Zeme.
  131. ^ "Odia". ethnologue.com. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  132. ^ About 38 million in Ethiopia, ~2 million in Kenya, roughly half a million in diaspora. Afan Oromo language has an estimated 45 million native speakers.
  133. ^ South Ossetia is currently a de facto independent state.
  134. ^ About 30 million in Pakistan and 12 million in Afghanistan; Penzl and Sloan, Pashto Grammar (2009) estimated a total number of Pashto speakers between 40 and 60 million. SIL Ethnologue in 2011 estimated an ethnic population of 49 million.
  135. ^ 37.5–38 million in Poland and 21–22 million ethnic Poles or people of ethnic Polish extraction elsewhere. "Polmap. Rozmieszczenie ludności pochodzenia polskiego (w mln)" Archived 2017-08-15 at the Wayback Machine.
  136. ^ Portuguese ethnicity is more clear-cut than Spanish ethnicity, but here also, the case is complicated by the Portuguese ancestry of populations in the former colonial empire. Portugal has 11 million nationals. The 42 million figure is due to a study estimating a total of an additional 31 million descendants from Portuguese grandparents; these people would be eligible for Portuguese citizenship under Portuguese nationality law (which grants citizenship to grandchildren of Portuguese nationals). Emigração: A diáspora dos portugueses Archived 28 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. (2009)
  137. ^ List of contemporary ethnic groups at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
  138. ^ 2011 Indian census
  139. ^ David Mathieson (2009). Perilous Plight: Burma's Rohingya Take to the Seas. Human Rights Watch. p. 3. ISBN 9781564324856.
  140. ^ Although they are believed to have originated from India, as a nomadic group the Romani are usually seen as not having a primary homeland beyond Europe. The following countries are listed due to having a very large Romani population.
  141. ^ This article will only list populations outside of Europe.
  142. ^ Gall, Timothy L, ed. (1998), Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life, 4. Europe, Cleveland, OH: Eastword, pp. 316, 318, ‘Religion: An underlay of Hinduism with an overlay of either Christianity or Islam (host country religion)’; Roma religious beliefs are rooted in Hinduism. Roma believe in a universal balance, called kuntari... Despite a 1,000-year separation from India, Roma still practice 'shaktism', the worship of a god through his female consort...
  143. ^ "Romanian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  144. ^ Estimates range between 130 and 150 million. 111 million in the Russian Federation (2010 census), about 16 million ethnic Russians in post-Soviet states (8 M in Ukraine, 4.5 M in Kazakhstan, 1 M in Belarus, 0.6 M Latvia, 0.6 M in Uzbekistan, 0.6 M in Kyrgyzstan. Up to 10 million Russian diaspora elsewhere (mostly Americas and Western Europe).
  145. ^ a b The Cossacks also include other members native to Eastern Europe.
  146. ^ Number includes self-identified Rusyns and Lemkos in the national censuses of Slovakia, Serbia, Poland, Czech Republic, Croatia and Ukraine, although the number of people with Rusyn ancestry is considered to be much larger.
  147. ^ [3]
  148. ^ [4]
  149. ^ The classification of Hutsuls and Boykos under Rusyns is disputed by Ukrainians and some members of their communities.
  150. ^ The San also includes speakers of the Tuu languages.
  151. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". www.demo.istat.it. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  152. ^ The Scottish were predominantly Gaelic-speaking until the 11th century, when it was gradually phased out by the Kingdom of Scotland, which promoted the usage of Middle English. This version, which eventually developed into a separate language called Scots, was also gradually phased out following the complete unification of Scotland and England. Today, the large majority of Scottish have been native speakers of English.
  153. ^ Although they are sometimes referred to as Scotch-Irish, the Ulster Scots have very little Irish ancestry.
  154. ^ The Sidi language has been extinct since the 20th century and now tend to speak the dominant language of their region.
  155. ^ "Sinhala". ethnologue.com. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  156. ^ There is no clear definition of Spanish ethnicity, although the Castilians are universally considered to be a part of it. In Spain, ethnic identity is divided into regional groups, and internationally, Spanish ethnicity is not clearly delineated from "Spanish ancestry" in the territories of the former colonial empire, so that a large portion of Latin Americans who claim to be Spanish are actually either Basque, Catalan, or Galician. Not helping is the expansion of the Mestizo identity within Latin America to incorporate everyone who's not a part of an indigenous culture, including those who are fully ethnically indigenous as well as those who have no Spanish or indigenous ancestry. There are 41 million Spanish nationals in Spain, and some 2 million living abroad. The total worldwide rounds to more than 47 million.
  157. ^ Although their language is considered to be separate from Spanish, because the marriage between Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon is often seen as the start of the Unification of Spain, the Aragonese tend to be viewed as being part of the Spanish ethnicity.
  158. ^ The Canary Islanders also have notable Berber ancestry.
  159. ^ the Dominicans also have significant amounts of African and Taíno ancestry.
  160. ^ Refers specifically to the three languages that form the Surma language family: Me'en, Mursi, and Suri. The ethnonym Surma is usually applied to the speakers of the Suri language.
  161. ^ "Swahili facts, information, pictures - Encyclopedia.com articles about Swahili". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
  162. ^ The number of ethnic Swahili is unknown, although most publications tend to stick with 500,000. Either way, it is universally believed that ethnic Swahili population is significantly smaller than the 100 million people who use Swahili in their everyday lives, including the 2 to 15 million native speakers.
  163. ^ 2011 India Census
  164. ^ List of contemporary ethnic groups at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
  165. ^ List of contemporary ethnic groups at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
  166. ^ 2011 Indian census
  167. ^ List of contemporary ethnic groups at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
  168. ^ Although the Meskhetian Turks are mostly made up of ethnic Turks who had once inhabited Meskheti, a significant portion of them are actually Turkified Georgians.
  169. ^ a b Despite their name, the Syrian and Iraqi Turkmens have little to do the main ethnic group of Turkmenistan.
  170. ^ Project, Joshua. "Ukrainian – Joshua Project". www.joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  171. ^ 80 million in Vietnam (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate), roughly 4 million in diaspora.
  172. ^ Although Welsh is the only Celtic language in the United Kingdom not to suffer threats of extinction, many of the Welsh speak English.
  • Levinson, David (1998). Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-57356-019-1.


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