Imelda Marcos

Wikipedia open wikipedia design.

Imelda Marcos
photograph of Imelda Marcos
Imelda Marcos in 1966
10th First Lady of the Philippines
In office
30 December 1965 – 25 February 1986
President Ferdinand Marcos
Preceded by Eva Macapagal
Succeeded by Vacant (Ballsy Aquino-Cruz, de facto)
Member of Parliament
for Region IV (Metro Manila)
In office
12 June 1978 – 5 June 1984
President Ferdinand Marcos
Preceded by Office created
as members of the National Assembly: Leon G. Guinto, Alfonso E. Mendoza
Succeeded by as Mambabatas Pambansa for Manila: Eva Estrada-Kalaw, Carlos Fernando, Mel Lopez, Gonzalo Puyat II, and Arturo Tolentino
1st Governor of Metro Manila
In office
27 February 1975 – 25 February 1986
President Ferdinand Marcos
Preceded by Office created
Succeeded by Joey Lina (acting)
Member of the Philippine House of Representatives from Leyte's 1st District
In office
30 June 1995 – 30 June 1998
President Fidel Ramos
Preceded by Cirilo Roy Montejo
Succeeded by Alfred Romuáldez
Member of the Philippine House of Representatives from Ilocos Norte's 2nd District
Assumed office
30 June 2010
Preceded by Ferdinand Marcos Jr.
Personal details
Born Imelda Remedios Romuáldez y Trinidad
(1929-07-02) 2 July 1929 (age 89)
Manila, Philippine Islands
Nationality Filipino
Political party Nacionalista (1965–1978; 2009–present)
Other political
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (1978–2013)
Spouse(s) Ferdinand Marcos (m. 1954; d. 1989)
Children Imee Marcos
Ferdinand “Bongbong” Marcos Jr.
Aimee Marcos (adopted)
Irene Marcos
Residence Makati
Musical career
Genres Kundiman
Instruments Vocals
Years active 1950–present

Imelda Marcos (née Romuáldez, born 2 July 1929) is a Filipino politician and the widow of[1] Ferdinand Marcos, the 10th president and former dictator of the Philippines.[2] She served as First Lady from 1965 to 1986 during the presidency of her husband. She remains one of the richest politicians in the Philippines through her collection of clothing, artwork, and jewelry, along with money in offshore bank accounts under the pseudonym "Jane Ryan". As a result, she has been called a kleptocrat by her critics who accuse her of plunder.[3]

Marcos was born in Manila but moved to Tacloban prior to World War II after the death of her mother. She returned to Manila in 1950 to pursue a career as a singer and as a beauty queen. In 1954, she married Ferdinand Marcos, who became president of the Philippines in 1965, and in 1972 declared martial law. As first lady, she built developments in and around the metropolis of Manila while spending much of her time abroad on state visits and shopping sprees.

The assassination of opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr. in 1983 and electoral fraud in the 1986 presidential election caused mass protests that eventually led to the People Power Revolution. The Marcos family were forced into exile, and Aquino's widow Corazon, who also stood for the election, was inaugurated as president. After the death of her husband Ferdinand, Marcos returned to the Philippines and was later elected four times to the House of Representatives as a congresswoman for Leyte in 1995 and for Ilocos Norte in 2010, 2013 and 2016.

Marcos is infamous for her extravagance. This included owning more than a thousand pairs of shoes, some of which are now housed in a museum in Marikina. She worked as a fashion designer and model. She has sometimes been referred to as the "Steel Butterfly" by her supporters.[4]

Early life[edit]

Birth and family background[edit]

Imelda Marcos beauty.jpg

Imelda Remedios Visitacion Romuáldez[5] was born at dawn in the San Miguel district of Manila on July 2, 1929.[5][6] Her parents were Vicente Orestes Romuáldez, a lawyer, and his second wife, Remedios Romuáldez. Vicente's first wife, Juanita, had allegedly died of leukaemia on August 3, 1926. Imelda is the sixth of Vicente's eleven children, and Remedios' firstborn.[7]

Born into the Romuáldez political dynasty from the province of Leyte, Imelda grew up in a wealthy clan of católicos cerrados (literally, “Closed Catholics”), a Filipino term for strict and devout Latin-Rite Catholics.[6] For Imelda's birth, her father hired two physicians and reserved a suite at an extravagant rate of 25 pesos per day. Vicente justified the high cost to relatives by saying, "This child will be important."[5] She was immediately baptized the day after her birth by Monsignor Juan Somera in the nearby San Miguel Church. Her grandmother, Doña Trinidad López de Romuáldez, was the clan matriarch. She and her husband, Daniel Romuáldez Arcilla, were considered the first of the clan to have lived in Tolosa, Leyte, originally for the purpose of Daniel's health,[6] but soon became the mark for the flourish of the Romuáldez clan in said municipality.

Some other notable members of Imelda's family are her uncle Norberto Romualdez, who was Philippine Supreme Court Associate Justice and the first of the Romualdezes to achieve national prominence,[6] and her younger brother Benjamin "Kokoy" Romualdez, who served as the Governor of Leyte and also as an ambassador under the Marcos regime.

Early childhood[edit]

Imelda Marcos as the young Rose of Tacloban 1953

At the time of her birth, the Romualdezes had the comforts of material prosperity and had the reputation of wealthy Manilans. However, around 1931–1932,[8][full citation needed] the financial conditions of Imelda's family began to decline.

Imelda's parents were separated for a time and Imelda's mother left their home due to domestic differences between Imelda's mother, Remedios, and her father's first children. During this separation, Remedios worked for the nuns at the Asilo de San Vicente de Paul.[8] Vicente and Remedios reconciled thereafter.

To avoid further conflict, Remedios and her children moved to their house's garage. At 1937 after Conchita's birth, Remedios's health began to fail. On April 7, 1938, she died due to double pneumonia.[8] In her ten years of marriage, Imelda had five siblings – Benjamin, Alita, Alfredo, Armando and Conchita.[9][full citation needed]

On the same year, 1938,[8] Imelda's father gave up Manila due to his declining fortunes in his law practice and returned to Tacloban where he could support his family with a simpler lifestyle. Imelda has been claimed to have met General Douglas MacArthur when he landed in Palo, Leyte during the Philippines Campaign in 1944.[9] She speaks Tagalog and English, the two official languages of The Philippines, as well as Waray, the regional language of Leyte.



Imelda finished Grade One in the nearby Holy Ghost College, where her older half-sisters also studied. Registration records of the College from school year 1936–1937 showed that Imelda did not enrol again. This disappearance was easily accounted for by two sets of pictures of Imelda, which were taken at her First Communion at the Holy Infant Academy in Tacloban, Leyte.[10]

She continued her early studies at Holy Infant Academy, a convent school run by Benedictine Sisters. The old wooden structure of the school still stands today four blocks away from the Romualdez house. At school, Imelda had to face the fact of her family's humiliating poverty. She was frequently among the students who had to apologize for late payments.[11]

High school[edit]

In 1942, the Romualdezes returned to Tacloban, and around that time, Imelda's father refused to let her go back to school.[12] When the Americans came, she lined up with a hundred other young girls in wooden clogs at the Leyte High School, eager to resume her studies. The year was 1944. She finished first year at the provincial high school where she was also chosen Miss I-A; then in her second year. she moved to Holy Infant and stayed there until she graduated.[13]

Imelda continued her higher studies at Holy Infant Academy. Imelda studied with the Sisters from 1938 to 1948, the year she graduated from high school. As a student, her scholastic record shows that she had a general average of 80% throughout her primary and high school.[14] High school ended in the summer of 1948 when her class posed for the last time in the blue-and-white uniform of Holy Infant.[15]


Imelda learned her first political lesson when she ran for president of the student council at St. Paul's College, now the flourishing Divine Word University. That was 1951, only three years before her marriage to Marcos.[16] At that time, she was about to graduate with a Bachelor of Science in Education. She was put up as candidate for the Department of Education, which had an enrollment of 800 students. Even during the nomination, her victory was already a foregone conclusion, but the school authorities insisted that another candidate be put up to make the elections a democratic procedure. That was how the College of Law, with 200 students, put up Francisco Pedrosa.[17]

While an undergraduate, she did some practice teaching at the Chinese high school in town shortly before graduating in 1952. She had won a scholarship to study music at the Philippine Women's University under Maestra Adoracion Reyes, a close friend of Imelda's cousin, Loreto Romualdez Ramos. She had a job at a music store but left this for a better one at the Central Bank. Straight from the Central Bank, she hurried to the University every day.[18] After a few lessons, Adoracion was convinced Imelda had talent and persuaded her to enroll at the College of Music and Fine Arts at PWU, under a special arrangement that would put her on register while Adoracion would continue to give her free lessons.[19]

Life in Manila[edit]

Life in Manila with Danieling Romualdez[edit]

Marcos visit to Thailand

She came back to Manila in 1952 during the regime of President Quirino and stayed in the house of her relative, Danieling Romualdez, who was a formidable politician and the Speaker Protempore of the Lower House of Congress. Danieling Romualdez did not have children on his own but had adopted three orphans. According to the book The Untold Story of Imelda Marcos by Carmen Navarro-Pedrosa, her status in the house of Danieling Romualdez was "higher than servants and lower than family members as a poor relative". During her father's visit to Manila, she worked as a salesgirl in a store called P. E. Domingo where Vicente Romualdez was infuriated at Eduardo Romualdez (the Chairman of Rehabilitation Finance Corporation) and Danieling Romualdez because Vicente thought that his two nephews were "selling his daughter".[20]

A college student, a banker[edit]

First Lady Imelda Marcos with Prime Minister Indira Gandhi

To calm the indignation of Vicente Romualdez, Eduardo and Danieling exercised their political and economic influence to find work for Imelda in the Central Bank where she worked in the Intelligence Division under Braulio Hipuna, the Chief Clerk of the Intelligence Division. She later had vocal lessons in Philippine Women's University and met Adoracion Reyes, a teacher in the College of Music and Fine Arts of Philippine Women's University, who was introduced to her by her cousin, Loreto, and played an important role in getting Imelda to take vocal sessions in the university by providing a chance to get a scholarship. According to Susie Abadilla, who took the same vocal sessions together with Imelda, she was not so friendly, and the reason presumably stemmed from the strict and busy routines back then, and her reluctance to talk about her family and her past. Due to the suggestion of having a performance, which became the first and last performance in a music hall from her cousin, Loreto, in Holy Ghost College, she performed three songs, "Calm is the Night", "Sin Tu Amor", and "False Prophet".[21]

A way to fame[edit]

Her aspiration for fame commenced after she met Angel Anden and was asked to be a cover girl of the Valentine issue of the magazine (printed on Feb 15, 1953) called This Week (now, Chronical Magazine), where Anden was the editor. Imelda was not able to get an approval and acquire a sponsorship to participate in the Miss Manila contest from her cousins (Danieling, Eduardo, and Loreto), but, with the help of Adoracion, gained a sponsorship from Philippine Women's University after a meeting with the president of the university, Mrs. Francisca Benitez. The controversial Miss Manila beauty pageant dawned on Mar 1, 1953, when Imelda and the Reyes spouses were in great despair after hearing news that Norma Jimenez became the candidate of Miss Philippines and the winner of Miss Manila, and sought to meet the mayor of Manila, Aresenio Lacson, who revoked the decision and made Imelda Romualdez the winner of Miss Manila. The mayor announced that there were violations of rules by the International Fair Board, and it is the mayor's authority to nominate the candidate of the City of Manila for the beauty contest. It turned out that Imelda won 655 points whereas Norma Jimenez acquired 453 points. Both Imelda and Norma participated in Miss Philippines; however, the winner of Miss Philippines was Cristina Galang (Caedo, now) from Tarlac, who became one of the members of Imelda's band of women campaigners, Blue Ladies.

Courtship and marriage to Ferdinand Marcos[edit]

Lyndon B. Johnson and Imelda Marcos dancing

Imelda and Ferdinand Marcos officially met on April 6, 1954[22] at the Philippine Congress, during a budget hearing of then President Ramon Magsaysay. Ferdinand was part of the opposition team who led the argument against the budget,[23] while Imelda was there accompanied by her cousin, Paz "Pacing" Romualdez[8] to visit her cousin Danieling, who was the Speaker of the House. During a recess, Imelda caught Ferdinand's eye, and he asked his journalist friend José Guevarra of The Manila Times, to introduce him to Imelda.[23] At that time, Ferdinand already knew of Imelda and her reputation not only as a member of the prominent Romualdez clan, but also as a party in the Miss Manila Controversy of 1953. Imelda, on the other hand, knew very little of the 36-year-old Congressman, despite his prestige.[8] After comparing heights and confirming that he was at least an inch taller than her,[23] Ferdinand immediately decided to pursue her in marriage. This began what was later known as the "Eleven-Day Whirlwind",[23]where Ferdinand, with the help of Guevarra, courted Imelda for eleven days.

Meeting of the Marcoses and the Nixons in 1969 at the Malacañang Palace

Throughout Holy Week of that year, Ferdinand visited Imelda's house once, and when Imelda claimed that she plans to spend the holidays in Baguio, Ferdinand and Guevarra did not hesitate and offered her a ride up to Danieling's family mansion where she planned to stay, while the two booked a room in nearby Pines. For the remainder of that Holy Week, Ferdinand showered Imelda with flowers and gifts and would visit her daily, prodding her to sign the marriage license that would seal the agreement.[8] And on April 16, 1954, Good Friday, after having been asked by Guevarra, allegedly jokingly, if she wanted to be "the First Lady of the Land someday",[23] Imelda finally agreed to sign it. Carmen Ortega, the daughter of the powerful Ortega Dynasty of La Union who was Ferdinand's common law-wife before meeting Imelda, was quietly taken out of the public eye.[24][25] On April 17, 1954, Ferdinand and Imelda were secretly married by a reluctant[8] Francisco Chanco, a judge befriended by Ferdinand, who lived in the area. Only after receiving the blessing of Vicente Orestes, Imelda's father, which Ferdinand asked via telegram on Easter Sunday, did the two wed in church. Their wedding, held on May 1, 1954, was at the San Miguel Pro-Cathedral in Manila where Imelda was christened.[26]

Role in Ferdinand Marcos's 1965 presidential campaign[edit]

Ferdinand Marcos was aided by his wife in his political campaigns. Imelda used her charismatic appeal to get votes for her husband.[27][full citation needed]

Imelda Romualdez-Marcos with former President Ferdinand Marcos and family during the 1965 inauguration

Marcos initially needed to win votes of the delegates of the Nacionalista Party for the presidential candidacy. Imelda assumed the managerial position in her husband's campaign.[27] The other candidates of the party noted her enthusiasm during the campaign; she met with and befriended every single delegate of the 1,347 who would have a say in the Nacionalista Party Convention.[27] She would talk with each of them, visit them in their own homes, and attend gatherings such as birthday parties, anniversaries, and weddings. Of all the presidential candidates' wives, Imelda was the only one who went through a detailed and personal campaign for her husband.[28][full citation needed] On November 21, 1964, Ferdinand Marcos won the presidential nomination for the Nacionalista Party.[29][full citation needed]

Imelda also managed to convince Fernando Lopez to accept the vice-presidential nomination along with presidential candidate Ferdinand Marcos.[27] She first invited Lopez to personally meet with her in his suite. Lopez accepted the invite but preferred to talk with her in her suite instead. To persuade Lopez, her methods include appealing to Lopez's sympathy by telling him the struggles that she and Ferdinand faced during the campaign for Ferdinand's nomination and how she feels being abandoned by Lopez. Lopez refused multiple times until Imelda cried in front of him. Imelda then proceeded to hand him and make him sign a document stating that he accepts the nomination as the Nacionalista vice-presidential candidate.[28]

During the presidential election itself, she delivered votes from the southern province of Leyte, and Manila. She was especially popular with the poor.[7] Imelda also used her voice to appeal to voters, singing during campaigns. Her songs are usually varieties of local folk songs.[7]

Imelda also led the "Blue Ladies", a group initially composed of wives of political men in the Nacionalista Party. The "Blue Ladies" initially numbered about two dozen. When Ferdinand won the nomination, they swelled into a hundred. The unofficial chairman was Pacita Gonzalez.[29] Formed during Christmas season of 1965, the members helped Imelda during campaigns by contributing funds and providing publicity.[6] The campaigns led by Imelda Marcos's "Blue Ladies" highlighted personal touch by organizing teas and receptions. They visited factories and farms to shake hands and have small conversations with the voters, making door-to-door appeals in the slum areas. They also utilized the new innovation brought into politics that year by buying radio and television time in order to campaign for Marcos through the use of little speeches for the voters. The cost was not a problem for Marcos seeing as how most of its members were composed of prominent matrons and/or beautiful youthful girls married to men of means.[30]

Marcos strategists took advantage of Imelda's exceptional charm and youth by incorporating these and her other striking qualities into the presidential candidate's overall tone for the Marcos-led Nacionalista campaign. They were able to use her by attracting normal folk from their daily activities to attend a Marcos rally to see the "beautiful wife of Marcos" themselves. The mere mention of Imelda attending a rally would make people attend the rally and scamper for a place near the stage, not to listen to the speeches, but rather just to see the lovely wife of Ferdinand Marcos. She was asked by the Marcos aides to always appear in public at all times at her best regardless of the type of audience. An integral part of their strategy was for Imelda to wear her standard ternos as part of the campaign design.[30]

Ferdinand acknowledged that she delivered the one million vote margin he needed to be elected.[31][page needed]

The presidential campaign, as described by publicists, was the point at which Imelda became influential as a political figure. She would later be dubbed by a foreign journalist as "the iron butterfly," after Imelda's description of herself as "a butterfly breaking out of its cocoon" — from a political neophyte to her husband Ferdinand's political partner.[8]

As First Lady, Imelda Marcos was summoned more than once from the Palace in order to campaign for her husband and Nacionalista candidates 1985 presidential elections and during the 1967 senatorial and local elections as its results were of importance for the results of the succeeding 1969 presidential election.[32] This was based on what had happened to former President Diosdado Macapagal wherein the defeat of his Senate candidates had presaged his own fall on the following election. Marcos concentrated his efforts in Cebu which indicated that he felt that his most serious rival would be Senator Sergio Osmeña, Jr. Marcos used the First Lady as his special ace and made her campaign in Cebu using her glamor and charm among the Cebuanos. In the 1985 & 1969 presidential elections, Ferdinand even called Imelda Marcos as his "secret weapon."[32] Through the combined efforts of the President and First Lady, they were able to repudiate the leadership of Osmena in his own province. All eight Senatorial candidates of the Nacionalista party in Cebu won and 47 out of 49 Cebu towns were captured by the Marcos-led Nacionalistas.[30]

Imelda knew that her husband Ferdinand Marcos had dreamed of becoming the president of the Philippines ever since he was a congressman. One reason why Marcos married Imelda, aside from her physical charms, was because she was a Romualdez—an aristocrat. Imelda's beauty, as well as her background, was appreciated to a great extent by Marcos and Marcos believed she would not only add light to his daily life but also to his political career.

Imelda, coming from a family who practiced a simple lifestyle, had initial difficulties adjusting to her husband's extravagant lifestyle. She once complained that she was only earning a hundred and twenty pesos a month despite her hard labor. To this, Marcos laughed and said that it was her fault that she was working hard only for such an amount. This was a turning point for Imelda to no longer feel guilty about spending money. From then on, she pushed herself to extreme luxury.[33]

Imelda was expected to be sophisticated, elegant, and well versed by her husband. Marcos knew that having a supportive wife, a trophy that he could be proud of, would gain him more supporters as well as votes. Imelda began dressing herself with expensive clothes and made every effort to become the person whom her husband wanted her to be.[34]

In her efforts to be the perfect wife, she was often given an eye for trying too hard, but at the same time, she became a subject of envy for fellow politicians' wives. Imelda learned how to get people's attention and to focus it on both her and her husband. She reached out to every single person who was seen as essential in Marcos's campaign. Her efforts were not original, but extraordinary. No other politicians' wives shook hands with all the delegates, visited their homes, genuinely understood the concerns they had, aside from Imelda. She bombarded them with gifts when necessary.[35]

Not only was Imelda good with people, she was also a skilled mediator who mended broken relationships that occurred with Marcos. During Marcos's presidency in the Nacionalista Party, Fernando Lopez, back then Marcos's vice presidential running mate, was unwilling to continue his political career. Marcos asked Imelda to help him mend ties with Lopez, and Imelda burst into tears in order to convince Lopez that he should run as the Nacionalista vice presidential candidate.[36]

By the time Marcos was campaigning to become President, Imelda's influence in Marcos's political career was crucial. Her husband may have been a good tactician, but it was Imelda's determination and popularity that ensured votes for him. Marcos heavily relied on Imelda, and as time passed, Imelda was no longer a clone of Marcos. Instead, she had become his political partner.[37]

First Lady[edit]

Ferdinand Marcos was elected as the 10th President of the Philippines on 9 November 1965.[38] When he was inaugurated on December 30, 1965, Imelda officially became the First Lady.

The Romualdez clan had been torn apart by the presidential campaign. To fix this, Imelda allegedly sent out invitations to family members, some of whom supported the opposing party, and told them they were all welcome at their house in Ortega.[9]

Before the Marcoses' departure for the inauguration ceremonies, they held mass in the courtyard of their house in Ortega Street, San Juan. Imelda invited an old German priest, Father Albert Ganzewinkel, who had been her favorite teacher at St. Paul in Tacloban, to hold the mass.[9] Ferdinand and Imelda then went to the Luneta Park for the inauguration ceremonies and were seated at the very center of the Luneta grandstand. They were surrounded by foreign dignitaries and government officials. Allegedly, a mass of anonymous men and women attended the ceremony to glimpse the beauty of the new First Lady. After the ceremony, she was described as someone with "such dignity, such regality."[6]

In the night, a state dinner hosted 60 guests in the reception hall of the Malacañang Palace.[9]

Projects during the first Marcos term (1965–1969)[edit]

Imelda Marcos at the Bataan Death March Memorial

Imelda had her own office in Malacañang, known as the "Music Room", where she received her callers. Here she met various cabinet members, heads of financing institutions, leaders of business communities, etc. She also had established her own foundation which contributed to her numerous projects which were further explained in a pamphlet called "The Compassionate Society." At first, Imelda did the duties expected of a First Lady, the examples set aside by her predecessors. She graced a fashion show, inaugurated a bank, attended the army ladies' tea. Mid-January 1966, she announced her intricate and expansive plans to the public. Ferdinand asked Imelda "to revive the national pride and curb national weaknesses." Imelda's answer was the Cultural Center.[9]

Cultural Center of the Philippines

The Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP) is considered to be the premier symbol of Imelda's unrelenting efforts.[8] It was designed by Architect Leandro Locsin, and was built on a reclaimed land along Roxas Boulevard, Manila and covered an area of about 21 hectares. Ninety thousand pesos was granted by the Philippine-American Culture Foundation for its construction.[9] Upon completion, however, it amounted to Php 50 million — a 333.33% increase from the original budget.[8] Although it is notable that prices of the construction materials such as cement, steel, and tiles increased by 30–40% within this time frame, the escalation in the increase of the expenditures are highly questionable.

In May 1966, Imelda pushed through with campaigning for social welfare. Her plan was to pool together all the social welfare efforts of several dozen social welfare groups. Imelda wanted to build welfare villages to meet the needs of children with problems, and reorient a personnel to staff the villages. The scheme called for 12 million pesos. In November 1966, the cornerstone for the Reception and Study Center in Quezon City was laid. Until 1968, other villages were built: Marilla Hills in Alabang, the Children's Orphanage in Pasay City, the Molave Village in Tanay, a Home for the Aged in Quezon City, and the Philippine Village at the Manila International Airport.[9]

Imelda launched the Maligayang Pasko Drive, a children's festival on Christmas of 1966. The helpers were college students and members of the "Blue Ladies." She spent PHP 50,000 in 1966, PHP 75,000 in 1967, and PHP 150,000 in 1968.[9]

In the first three years of being First Lady, she spent PHP 1 million for the beautification of the Paco Cemetery and 24 million for the beautification of Fort Santiago. She gives 140,00 pesos yearly in prizes for nationwide beautification contests. She set aside 150,000 pesos for an open-air museum in St. Ana Church diggings. For the restoration of the Intramuros gates, Imelda was given PHP 150,000 by the government.[9]

Mid-year of 1967, Imelda started the Seed Disposal Program or Share for Progress, a project that suggested making vegetable gardens out of idle lots all over the country. 309,392 kits containing seeds were distributed in over 1,500 towns by 1968.[9]

Projects during the second Marcos term (1969–1972)[edit]

In July 1974, the annual Ms. Universe pageant was held in Manila, to which then first lady Imelda Marcos allegedly spent PHP 40 million (USD 5.5 million) for the renovation of all public and private infrastructures throughout Manila, and the other cities in which the Ms. Universe pageant participants were subsequently toured.

Imelda also established a network of Philippine Centers in major cities abroad such as New York City, Canberra, Hong Kong, and San Francisco.

Foreign relations[edit]

Since the President hardly left the Malacañang Palace, Ferdinand increasingly sent his wife on official visits to other countries as a de facto vice president.[7]

When the Marcoses went to the United States in September 1966, President Johnson offered Imelda the Philippine war damage claims totaling USD 28 million. President Johnson agreed to have USD 3.5 million be used as funds for the Cultural Center, one of Imelda's projects.

For the inauguration of the CCP, a gala opening of the Golden Salakot, a pageant-drama of a story about the prehistory of the Philippines, occurred on September 8, 1969. The United States of America's President Nixon was invited but instead Ronald Reagan, California's Governor, along with his wife, flew to the country using the Air Force One for the event. There were accounts that the First Lady attempted to bring other celebrities through getting them tickets to ride the Air Force one but she was denied of this luxury by President Nixon. Accounts have also mentioned that this trip of the then California's Governor and wife led to the closeness of the Reagans and Marcoses.[39]

In 1971, Imelda attended Iran's celebration of the founding of the Persian Empire. This trip, according to palace insiders, provided her with a social introduction to some of the world's wealthiest people. In the same year, she initiated the first of many trips to Russia; it was dubbed as "cultural missions" but eventually led to the establishment of diplomatic relations between Russia and the Philippines.[7]

In 1975, after the assassination of King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, Imelda wanted to extend the official condolences. Women were not welcome in the Saudi court, but Imelda, through her connection to the surgeon who previously performed a heart surgery on the new King, managed to be the first woman guest to be honored.[7]

Private life during the first two Marcos terms[edit]


Ferdinand had been involved in affairs after marrying Imelda Marcos. Ferdinand's most public affair was with American actress Dovie Beams in 1966. While staying in one of the President's safe houses, she recorded her affair with the President. These tapes were later played in a press conference, causing great humiliation for Imelda. They stayed married through a deal; Imelda had free rein on her projects in exchange for delivering votes for Ferdinand in the second election.[7]

Social Life[edit]

Imelda would often ask members of the Blue Ladies to accompany her on her trips out of the country. Imelda would also help some of the members in their investments and own businesses.[7] One of her most famous socialite friends was Cristina Ford.[7]

Imelda's Blue Ladies—specifically Maria Luisa, a daughter of the rich Madrigal family and the wife of Dr. Vasquez—contributed to the fashion spending of Imelda. In 1968, Maria Luisa accompanied Imelda on an overseas trip, during which Imelda and daughter Imee spent $3.3 million. It was also at this time that Dr. Daniel Vasquez and Maria Luisa opened a Citibank account. On November of the same year, the couple added Fernanda Vazquez as a joint holder of the bank account. An allegation that Imelda and Fernanda Vasquez are one and the same is validated by the fact that the notations for the bank account had Imelda Marcos's handwriting.[39]

On July 4, 1966, The First Lady also invited The Beatles to perform for a private affair in the Palace but the invitation was rejected. An order to lock down the Manila International Airport was executed as a result of the rejection. This resulted in mobs surging to the personal space of The Beatles. There were also reports that their manager was issued a PHP 100,000 tax assessment.[39]

Imelda's actions preceding martial law[edit]

Early September 1972, former ambassador to Japan Eduardo Quintero accused Imelda of bribing the convention members. In the stress following the accusations and media circus, Imelda suffered a miscarriage. Later, this was revealed to be a hoax to avoid Quintero's charges. According to Ellison, this was "an eloquent example of the lengths to which Imelda would go to support [Ferdinand] and her ambition."[23]

In Ferdinand's diary preceding May, he revealed that he and Imelda were planning to wager all their power and wealth "on a single throw of the dice of fate for the sake of the people and the Republic."[23]

On the eve of September 5, 1972, tourism minister Manuel Elizalde called each member of Manila's foreign press corps to a party. Imelda arrived at the party, allegedly rambling about democracy and how only the Americans could afford it.[23] On that same day, Martial Law was announced.

Ferdinand stated the purpose of the Martial Law was to create a "New Society" with reformed institutions, no inequalities, corruption, or crime. Imelda called it "martial law with a smile."[23]

Days after the announcement, a warrant of arrest was issued for Amelita Cruz, author of the "you-know-who" columns on Imelda. Cruz was told that the orders "came directly from the music room," Imelda's palace study.[23]

As First Lady, she became influential.[2][40] She stirred controversy after an assassination attempt against her occurred on 7 December 1972, when an assailant tried to stab her with a bolo knife but was shot by the police.[41]The motive appeared to have been her role in her husband's presidency but human rights dissidents believed it was staged by the government.[42][43]

Marcos orchestrated public events using national funds to bolster her and her husband's image.[44][45] She secured the Miss Universe 1974 pageant in Manila,[46] which required the construction of the Folk Arts Theater in less than three months.[47][48] She organized the Kasaysayan ng Lahi,[49] a festival showcasing Philippine history.[49] She also initiated social programs, such as the Green Revolution,[50] which was intended to address hunger by encouraging the people to plant produce in household gardens,[50] and created a national family-planning program.[51] In 1972 she took control of the distribution of a bread ration called Nutribun, which actually came from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).[52][53]

In 1978, she was appointed a member of the Interim Batasang Pambansa (National Congress) representing Region IV-A.[54] She was also appointed as Ambassador Plenipotentiary and Extraordinary,[55] allowing her to tour the United States, the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and Cuba.[56][55][57] Throughout her travels, she became friends with Richard Nixon,[58] Muammar Gaddafi, Saddam Hussein, Fidel Castro, and Joseph Tito.[55][57] She traveled to Iraq to secure oil and to Libya for a peace treaty with the Moro National Liberation Front.[55][59]

Imelda Marcos held the position of Minister of Human Settlements, allowing her to construct the Cultural Center of the Philippines, the Philippine Heart Center, the Lung Center of the Philippines, the Philippine International Convention Center, the Coconut Palace, the Manila Film Center,[60] and the Calauit Safari Park.[61] She purchased property in Manhattan in the 1980s, including the US$51 million Crown Building,[62][63] the Woolworth Building in 40 Wall Street, and the US$60 million Herald Centre.[64] She declined to buy the Empire State Building because she felt it was "too ostentatious."[65][66]

Power struggle[edit]

Imelda Marcos was instrumental in the 1980 exile of opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr., who had suffered a heart attack during his imprisonment.[67] Martial law in the Philippines was later lifted in 1981 but Ferdinand Marcos continued to be president.[68] While her husband began to suffer from lupus, she effectively ruled in his place.[69] Aquino returned in 1983 but was assassinated at the Manila International Airport upon his arrival.[70] With accusations against her beginning to rise, Ferdinand created the Agrava Commission, a fact-finding committee, to investigate her, ultimately finding her not guilty.[71][72][73]

On 7 February 1986, snap elections were held between Ferdinand Marcos and Corazon Aquino, the widow of Benigno Aquino Jr.[68] Despite her husband claiming to have won the elections, allegations of vote rigging led to mass protests that would be later known as the People Power Revolution.[68] On 25 February, the Marcos family fled to Hawaii. After she left Malacañang Palace, she was found to have left behind 15 mink coats, 508 gowns, 888 handbags, and many pairs of shoes.[74] Some news reports estimated that there were up to 7,500 pairs,[75] but Time magazine reported that the final tally was only 1,060.[74]

In October 1988, Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos,[76] together with eight associates (including Adnan Khashoggi, a Saudi Arabian businessman and weapons smuggler believed to have been involved with her husband's regime), were indicted by a federal grand jury in Manhattan on charges of racketeering,[77] conspiracy, fraud and obstruction of justice.[78][79] Tobacco heiress Doris Duke posted $5 million bail for the former First Lady.[80][81] The Marcos couple's defense team was led by criminal defense attorney Gerry Spence.[82][83] Actor George Hamilton, an unindicted co-conspirator, testified at trial under a grant of immunity, acknowledging that he had received a $5.5-million loan from an associate of hers.[84] In July 1990, following a three-month trial, she was acquitted of all charges.[83] By that time, Ferdinand had died in exile in Hawaii on 28 September 1989.[71][85][86]

Later years[edit]

Marcos at her residence in Makati

Marcos was allowed to return to the Philippines by Corazon Aquino on 4 November 1991.[87][88] The following year, she ran for president in the presidential elections on 11 May 1992, finishing 5th out of 7 candidates.[89] On 8 May 1995, she was elected as a congresswoman of Leyte, representing the first district, despite facing a disqualification lawsuit in which the Supreme Court ruled in her favor.[90] She sought the presidency again on 11 May 1998, but later withdrew to support the eventual winner Joseph Estrada and she finished 9th among 11 candidates.[91][92] In November 2006, she started her own business, a fashion label that included designing jewelry.[93][94] In March 2008, she was acquitted of charges of having illegally taken money from the country by the Manila Regional Trial Court due to reasonable doubt.[95][96]

Marcos ran for the second district of Ilocos Norte in the elections on 10 May 2010 to replace her son,[97] Ferdinand Jr., who ran for Senate under the Nacionalista Party.[98][99] During her term, she held the position of Millennium Development Goals chairwoman in the Lower House.[100][101] In 2011, the Sandiganbayan's Fifth Division ordered her to return US$280,000 in government funds taken by her and her husband from the National Food Authority.[102] She won re-election on 14 May 2013 in a bid to renew her term.[103][104] On 9 May 2016, she was re-elected again for her third and final term.[105][106]


photograph of Imelda Marcos
Marcos viewing the aftermath of the 2006 Southern Leyte mudslide

Marcos allegedly owned assets worth US$10 billion.[107] On one occasion, she spent $2,000 on chewing gum at the San Francisco International Airport and, on another, she forced a plane to do a U-turn mid-air just because she forgot to buy cheese in Rome.[66] Her collection of shoes[108][109][110] now lies partly in the National Museum of the Philippines and partly in a shoe museum in Marikina.[111][112][113] Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) damaged her ancestral home in Tacloban, which also serves as a museum,[114] although she still retains homes in Ilocos Norte and Makati, where she resides.[3]

She allegedly owns Swiss bank accounts under the pseudonym "Jane Ryan".[115][116] Her claimed fortune came from Yamashita's gold, a semi-mythical treasure trove that is widely believed in the Philippines to be part of the Japanese loot in World War II.[117][118] Her property used to include jewels and a 175-piece art collection,[119] which included works by Michelangelo, Botticelli, Canaletto, Raphael,[120] as well as Monet's L'Église et La Seine à Vétheuil (1881), Alfred Sisley's Langland Bay (1887), and Albert Marquet's Le Cyprès de Djenan Sidi Said (1946).[121][122]

Switzerland's federal tribunal ruled in December 1990 that cash in Swiss banks would only be returned to the Philippine government if a Philippine court convicted her.[123][124][125] In March 2008, a judge in Manila in the Philippines acquitted her of 32 counts of illegal transfers of funds to Swiss bank accounts between 1968 and 1976, determining that the government had failed to prove its case.[126] In 2012, she declared her net worth to be US$22 million and she was listed as the second-richest Filipino politician behind boxer and politician Manny Pacquiao.[127][128][129]

On 17 October 2013, the attempted sale of two Claude Monet paintings,[130] L'Eglise de Vetheuil and Le Bassin Aux Nymphéas, became the subject of a legal case in New York against Vilma Bautista, a one-time aide to Imelda Marcos.[131][132] Bautista was sentenced in 2014 to 2–6 years in prison for attempting to sell "valuable masterpieces that belonged to her country".[133][134][135] On 13 January 2014, three collections of Imelda Marcos's jewelry:[136] the Malacanang collection, the Roumeliotes collection, and the Hawaii collection; along with paintings by Claude Monet were seized by the Philippine government.[137][138] In 2015, a rare pink diamond worth $5 million was discovered in her jewelry collection.[139][140] On 16 February 2016, the government of the Philippines announced that the three collections, valued at about $21 million, were to be auctioned off before the end of Benigno Aquino III's term on 30 June 2016.[141][142] In October 2015, Imelda Marcos still faced 10 criminal charges of graft and 25 civil cases in the Philippines.[143]


Marcos influenced fashion in the Philippines,[71][144][145] although her role as a patroness of the arts and fashion is still controversial.[146][147][148] The second track of Mark Knopfler's 1996 album Golden Heart is a sardonic song about her.[149] She was the subject of the 2003 documentary film, Imelda.[150][151][152] In 2010, British producer Fatboy Slim and musician David Byrne released a concept album about her life called Here Lies Love,[153] which later became a rock musical.[154] In Manila, local performance artist Carlos Celdran performs his Living La Vida Imelda walking tour,[144][155] which was also performed in Dubai during 2012.[156][157] Filipino-American drag artist Manila Luzon impersonated Mrs. Marcos in the "Snatch Game" challenge in the third season of RuPaul's Drag Race.[158]

Foreign honors[edit]


  1. ^ Macaraig, Mynardo. "5 questions on the dictator Ferdinand Marcos". ABS-CBN News. Agence France-Presse.
  2. ^ a b Mijares 1976, p. 1–10.
  3. ^ a b Tully, Shawn (9 January 2014). "My afternoon with Imelda Marcos". Fortune. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  4. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 1–10.
  5. ^ a b c Navarro., Pedrosa, Carmen (1987). Imelda Marcos (1st ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 16–17. ISBN 0312000588. OCLC 14378764.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Pedrosa, Carmen (1987). Rise and Fall of Imelda Marcos. Makati City: Bookmark.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Pedrosa, Carmen (1969). Ang Natatagong Buhay ni Imelda Marcos.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Pedrosa, Carmen (1986). The Untold Story of Imelda Marcos.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Polotan, Kerima (1970). Imelda Romualdez Marcos, A Biography Of The First Lady Of The Philippines.
  10. ^ Navaro-Pedrosa, Carmen (1969). "The Untold Story of Imelda Marcos" (1st).
  11. ^ Navarro Pedrosa, Carmen (1987). The Rise and Fall of Imelda Marcos (Second ed.). Manila: Bookmark. p. 54.
  12. ^ Polotan, Kerima (1970). Imelda Romualdez Marcos (first ed.). Cleveland, Ohio: The World Publishing Company. p. 54.
  13. ^ Polotan, Kerima (1970). Imelda Romualdez Marcos (First ed.). Cleveland, Ohio: The World Publishing Company. p. 56.
  14. ^ Navarro Pedrosa, Carmen (1969). The Untold Story of Imelda MArcos (First ed.).
  15. ^ Polotan, Kerima (1970). Imelda Romualdez Marcos (First ed.). Cleveland, Ohio: The World Publishing Company.
  16. ^ Navarro Pedrosa, Carmen (1987). The Rise and Fall of Imelda Marcos. Manila.
  17. ^ Navarro Pedrosa, Carmen (1969). The Untold Story of Imelda Marcos (First ed.).
  18. ^ Polotan, Kerima (1970). Imelda Romualdez Marcos (First ed.). Cleveland, Ohio: The World Publishing Company. p. 65.
  19. ^ Navarro Pedrosa, Carmen (1987). The Rise and Fall of Imelda Marcos. Manila: Bookmark.
  20. ^ Navarro-Pedrosa, Carmen (1969). The Untold Story of Imelda Marcos. the Philippines: Tandem Pub. Co. p. 118.
  21. ^ Navarro-Pedrosa, Carmen (1969). The Untold Story of Imelda Marcos. the Philippines: Tandem Pub. Co. p. 126.
  22. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 35–48.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Ellison 1988.
  24. ^
  25. ^ Pedrosa, Carmen. The Untold Story of Imelda Marcos.
  26. ^ Ellison, 1988 & p.
  27. ^ a b c d Pedrosa, Carmen Navarro (1986). The untold story of Imelda Marcos. Philippines.
  28. ^ a b Pedrosa, Carmen Navarro (1987). The Rise and Fall of Imelda Marcos. Philippines. ISBN 971-13-4031-3.
  29. ^ a b Polotan, Kerima (1969). Imelda Romualdez Marcos. New York Cleveland: The World Publishing Company.
  30. ^ a b c Crisostomo, Isabelo T. Imelda Romualdez Marcos: Heart of the Revolution. Quezon City, Philippines: J. Kriz Pub., 1980.
  31. ^ Romulo, Beth Day (1987). Inside the palace. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons.
  32. ^ a b Rafael, Vicente L. (1990-01-01). "Patronage and Pornography: Ideology and Spectatorship in the Early Marcos Years". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 32 (2): 282–304. JSTOR 178916.
  33. ^ Navarro Pedrosa, Carmen (1987). The Rise and Fall of Imelda Marcos (Second ed.). Manila: Bookmark. p. 88.
  34. ^ Navarro Pedrosa, Carmen (1987). The Rise and Fall of Imelda Marcos (Second ed.). Manila: Bookmark. p. 90.
  35. ^ Navarro Pedrosa, Carmen (1987). The Rise and Fall of Imelda Marcos (Second ed.). Manila: Bookmark. p. 97.
  36. ^ Navarro Pedrosa, Carmen (1987). The Rise and Fall of Imelda Marcos (Second ed.). Manila: Bookmark. p. 101.
  37. ^ Navarro Pedrosa, Carmen (1987). The Rise and Fall of Imelda Marcos (Second ed.). Manila: Bookmark. p. 103.
  38. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 7–10.
  39. ^ a b c Seagrave, Sterling. The Marcos Dynasty. New York: Harper & Row, 1988.
  40. ^ Pineda, DLS (22 February 2014). "So you think you love Marcos?". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
  41. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 134.
  42. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 140.
  43. ^ "Waiting for the other shoe(s) to drop", Philippine Daily Inquirer. 29 March 2016.
  44. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 89–93.
  45. ^ "Ferdinand Marcos, Former Philippines Dictator, Forced Generals To Perform Drag Show, According To WikiLeaks". The Huffington Post. 9 April 2013.
  46. ^ Powers 2012, p. 302.
  47. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 139.
  48. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 280.
  49. ^ a b Senauth 2012, p. 137.
  50. ^ a b Ellison 1988, p. 119.
  51. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 180.
  52. ^ Masagana 99, Nutribun, and Imelda's 'edifice complex' of hospitals. GMA News. 20 September 2012.
  53. ^ Nutrition and Related Services Provided to the Republic of the Philippines. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. September 1979.
  54. ^ Get to know former First Lady Imelda Marcos on Powerhouse. Power House. GMA Network. 8 July 2013.
  55. ^ a b c d Senauth 2012, p. 136.
  56. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 16.
  57. ^ a b Powers 2012, p. 106.
  58. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 93–97.
  59. ^ Powers 2012, p. 153.
  60. ^ "An insider's guide to Manila: where brutalism meets bamboo", The Guardian. 14 March 2016.
  61. ^ At Philippine Safari Park, Serengeti on South China Sea. Bloomberg Businessweek. 3 December 2013.
  62. ^ "Witness ties Imelda Marcos to Buildings." The Spokesman-Review. 30 January 1986.
  63. ^ "Real Estate Agent Gives Evidence of Marcos Buys."The Bulletin. 10 April 1986.
  64. ^ "Manila After Marcos: Managing a Frail economy; Marco's Mansion Suggests Luxury". The New York Times. 28 February 1986.
  65. ^ "Bling Ring". The New Yorker. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  66. ^ a b "5 Shopping Sprees So Wild, They Made History". New York Magazine. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  67. ^ Imelda Marcos TalkAsia Transcript. CNN. 24 January 2007.
  68. ^ a b c Pedrosa 2013.
  69. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 58.
  70. ^ "Filipino Women Protest Mrs. Marcos' Extravagance." Telegraph Herald. 28 October 1983.
  71. ^ a b c The Steel Butterfly Still Soars. The New York Times. 6 October 2012.
  72. ^ "Sandiganbayan ruling on Ninoy assassination" (PDF). Philippine Consortium for Investigative Journalism. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  73. ^ "Creating a Fact-Finding Board with Plenary Powers to Investigate the Tragedy Which Occurred on August 21, 1983". Presidential Decree No. 1886. Malacanang Palace. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  74. ^ a b "Imeldarabilia: A Final Count". Time. 23 February 1987. Retrieved 30 December 2006.
  75. ^ "The day in numbers: $100". CNN. 7 November 2006.
  76. ^ "Marcos' Wife Also Pleads 5th in Probe", Los Angeles Times. 2 October. 1986.
  77. ^ "Imelda Marcos Racketeering Case Goes to Trial". The Christian Science Monitor. 19 March 1990.
  78. ^ Judge Delays Hearing for Marcos, Not Wife. The New York Times. 28 October 1988.
  79. ^ Lubasch, Arnold (22 October 1988). "Marcos and wife, 8 others : Charged by US with fraud". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  80. ^ Doris Duke Putting Up $5 Million Bail for Her Friend Imelda Marcos, Associated Press (2 November 1988).
  81. ^ Celestine Bohlen, Doris Duke Offers Mrs. Marcos's Bail, New York Times (3 November 1988).
  82. ^ Craig Wolff, The Marcos Verdict; Marcos Is Cleared of All Charges In Racketeering and Fraud Case. The New York Times. 3 July 1990.
  83. ^ a b "From the archive, 3 July 1990: Tears and cheers as Imelda cleared". The Guardian. 2 July 2015. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
  84. ^ William C. Rempel & Kristina M. Luz, Imelda Marcos Saved Mother, Hamilton Says, Los Angeles Times (16 May 1990).
  85. ^ Manila Journal;Queen of the Quirky, Imelda Marcos Holds Court. The New York Times. 4 March 1996.
  86. ^ Imelda Marcos among Newsweek's greediest people. ABS-CBN News. 5 April 2009.
  87. ^ Imelda Marcos Fast Facts. CNN. 10 October 2015.
  88. ^ Imelda Marcos Has an $829 Billion Idea. Bloomberg Businessweek. 24 October 2013.
  89. ^ "Anti-Corruption Campaigner and General Lead in Early Philippine Returns". The New York Times. 13 May 1992. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
  90. ^ Imelda Romualdez Marcos v. Crilo Roy Montejo. Republic of the Philippines: Supreme Court. 18 September 1995.
  91. ^ "Faces of the week." BBC News. 10 November 2006.
  92. ^ Imelda's crown jewels to go under the hammer BBC News, 13 May 2003
  93. ^ Imelda Marcos comes into fashion. BBC. 7 November 2006.
  94. ^ Rowan, Roy (29 March 1979). "Orchid or Iron Butterfly, Imelda Marcos Is a Prime Mover in Manila". People. Retrieved 23 July 2006.
  95. ^ Sandigan OKs Imelda bid for daily hearings on graft cases. GMA News. 21 September 2007.
  96. ^ Imelda Marcos innocent of dollar salting. United Press International. 10 May 2008.
  97. ^ "Imelda Marcos bids for seat as Philippine race begins." BBC News. 26 March 2010.
  98. ^ An audience with the one and only Imelda Marcos. BBC. 27 May 2010.
  99. ^ "INTREVIEW [sic] – Philippines' Marcos fights to get wealth back". Reuters. 13 May 2010.
  100. ^ Imelda Marcos stays as MDG committee chair. ABS-CBN News. 15 September 2010.
  101. ^ Unthinkable: Guess who came to Enrile book launch. Philippine Daily Inquirer. 29 September 2012.
  102. ^ Unthinkable: State lawyers want to know where Marcos funds went Philippine Daily Inquirer. 29 August 2012.
  103. ^ Imelda seeks second term, files COC. ABS-CBN News. 3 October 2012.
  104. ^ Hranjski, Hrvoje; Gomez, Jim (14 May 2013). "Ex-Philippine president wins mayoral race in Manila, Imelda Marcos gets 2nd congressional term". Fox News. Fox News Network, L.L.C. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  105. ^ "Bongbong Marcos, Imelda and family pray for 'poll integrity'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 15 May 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  106. ^ "Imelda, Imee poised for re-election in Ilocos Norte". ABS-CBN News. 9 May 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  107. ^ "The $10bn question: what happened to the Marcos millions?". The Guardian. 7 May 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  108. ^ "Imeldific: Aquino gives guided tour of Palace". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 29 May 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  109. ^ Homage to Imelda's shoes. BBC News. 16 February 2001.
  110. ^ "Global Corruption Report" (PDF). Transparency International. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
  111. ^ "Imelda Marcos's shoe collection gathers mould after years of neglect". The Guardian. 23 September 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  112. ^ "Imelda Marcos shoe collection survives Typhoon Ketsana". The Guardian. 8 October 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  113. ^ Manila: 10 Things to Do 7. Marikina Shoe Museum Time magazine. 21 January 2010.
  114. ^ Yolanda destroys Imelda's ancestral house in Leyte. GMA News. 19 November 2013.
  115. ^ "Some Are Smarter Than Others & The Collection of Jane Ryan and William Saunders: Pio Abad's exploration of the Marcos horde", The Philippine Star. 18 September 2014.
  116. ^ Witness Say Imelda Marcos Used Pseudonym to Open Account, The Daily News, 19 April 1990
  117. ^ Marcos widow claims wealth due to 'Yamashita treasure'. The Bulletin. 3 February 1993.
  118. ^ "On Petition For A Writ Of Certiorari To The United States Court Of Appeals For The Ninth Circuit: Petition For A Writ Of Certiorari." Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  119. ^ Marcoses' Silver Sets Record At Auction. The New York Times. 11 January 1991.
  120. ^ Marcoses' Raphael Sold To Italy for $1.65 Million. The New York Times. 12 January 1991.
  121. ^ Buettner, Russ (20 November 2012). "Imelda Marcos's Ex-Aide Charged in '80s Art Theft". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  122. ^ Shoes, jewels, and Monets: recovering the ill-gotten wealth of Imelda Marcos. Foreign Policy. 16 January 2014.
  123. ^ "Marcos convicted of graft in Manila". The New York Times. 24 September 1993. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  124. ^ Gender Policies And Responses Towards Greater Women Empowerment In The Philippines. University of the Philippines.
  125. ^ The Political Economy of Corruption. University of Hawaii. July 1997.
  126. ^ Imelda Marcos Acquitted, Again. The New York Times. 11 March 2008.
  127. ^ Imelda Marcos claims net worth of US$22 million. Taipei Times. 6 May 2012.
  128. ^ Imelda camp mum on Newsweek's 'greediest' tag. GMA News. 6 April 2009.
  129. ^ What happened to the Marcos fortune?. BBC News. 24 January 2013.
  130. ^ "Imelda Marcos's Ex-Aide Charged in '80s Art Theft." The New York Times. 20 November 2012.
  131. ^ Ex-Imelda Marcos aide on trial in NYC for selling Monet work. Philippine Daily Inquirer. 17 October 2013. Retrieved on 17 October 2013.
  132. ^ PCGG: Gov't, not Marcos victims, owns Monet painting Philippine Daily Inquirer. 21 July 2013. Retrieved on 17 October 2013.
  133. ^ Aide to former Philippine First Lady sentenced to prison for trying to sell country's art. New York Daily News. 14 January 2014.
  134. ^ Ex-Imelda Marcos secretary to be sentenced by NY court. GMA News. 6 January 2014.
  135. ^ Marcos jewels could be sold after court rules they were 'ill-gotten'. The Japan Times. 14 January 2014.
  136. ^ Imelda loses jewels in the Marcos crown. The Age. 17 September 2005.
  137. ^ Show me the Monet: Philippines seeks return of Marcos paintings. Reuters. 14 January 2014
  138. ^ Philippines Seeks Return of Marcos Paintings. Voice of America. 14 January 2014.
  139. ^ "Philippines revalues jewellery seized from Imelda Marcos in 1986". The Guardian. 24 November 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  140. ^ Plucinska (25 November 2015). "Rare 25-Carat Pink Diamond Discovered in Jewelry Once Owned by Imelda Marcos". Time magazine. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  141. ^ Perry, Juliet (16 February 2016). "Philippines to sell Imelda Marcos's 'ill-gotten' jewels, worth millions". CNN. Turner Broadcasting System. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  142. ^ "Philippines to sell jewellery confiscated from Imelda Marcos". The Telegraph. 16 February 2016. Retrieved 27 March 2016.
  143. ^ Cayabyab, Marc Jayson. "Imelda Marcos allowed to travel to Singapore despite graft cases".
  144. ^ a b Fitzpatrick, Liam (7 March 2005). "Walk the Talk". Time magazine. Time Inc. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  145. ^ "The Marcos years: 'Golden age' of PH fashion". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  146. ^ The day I met Imelda Marcos. BBC News. 31 October 2000.
  147. ^ "The Life of Imelda Marcos, in PowerPoint and Plastic." The New York Times. 21 March 2006.
  148. ^ "Imelda Marcos and the 'terno' of her affections". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  149. ^ Golden Heart. Warner Music Group. 26 March 1996.
  150. ^ Review: 'Imelda'. Variety. 17 March 2004.
  151. ^ For a Regal Pariah, Despite It All, the Shoe Is Never on the Other Foot. The New York Times. 9 June 2004.
  152. ^ Director fights for Imelda movie. BBC News. 7 July 2004.
  153. ^ The Imelda Marcos Story — As Told by David Byrne Time magazine. 10 April 2010.
  154. ^ Brantley, Ben. "A Rise to Power, Disco Round Included", The New York Times, 23 April 2013, accessed 9 June 2016
  155. ^ Whaley, Floyd (12 October 2012). "In Manila, 'Livin' La Vida Imelda!'". New York Times. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  156. ^ "Celdran held, questioned over Imelda Marcos art in Dubai". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 7 April 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  157. ^ "Censored in Dubai, Carlos Celdran cancels Imelda show". GMA News. 23 March 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  158. ^ "On the Spot: Manila Luzon".
  159. ^ "President's Week in Review: March 1 – March 9, 1976". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.
  160. ^ "President's Week in Review: April 7 – April 13, 1975". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.
  161. ^ "The Order of pro Merito Melitensi". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on 11 October 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  162. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado. Government of Spain.


External links[edit]

Honorary titles
Preceded by
Evangelina Macapagal
First Lady of the Philippines
Title next held by
Amelita Ramos
Preceded by
as office created
Governor of Manila
Succeeded by
Jejomar Binay
as Chairman of the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA)
House of Representatives of the Philippines
Preceded by
Cirilo Roy C. Montejo
Member of the House of Representatives from Leyte's 1st district
Succeeded by
Alfred S. Romualdez
Preceded by
Ferdinand Marcos, Jr.
Member of the House of Representatives from Ilocos Norte's 2nd district

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by contributors (read/edit).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.