Justin Amash

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Justin Amash
Justin Amash official photo.jpg
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Michigan's 3rd district
Assumed office
January 3, 2011
Preceded byVern Ehlers
Member of the Michigan House of Representatives
from the 72nd district
In office
January 1, 2009 – January 1, 2011
Preceded byGlenn Steil
Succeeded byKen Yonker
Personal details
Born (1980-04-18) April 18, 1980 (age 39)
Grand Rapids, Michigan, U.S.
Political partyIndependent (2019–present)
Other political
Republican (until 2019)
Spouse(s)Kara Day
EducationUniversity of Michigan (BA, JD)
WebsiteHouse website

Justin Amash (/əˈmɑːʃ/; born April 18, 1980) is an American lawyer and politician serving as the U.S. Representative for Michigan's 3rd congressional district since 2011. Originally a member of the Republican Party, Amash became an independent in July 2019.

A native of Grand Rapids, Michigan, Amash was born to Arab Christian parents who had immigrated to the United States. After high school, he studied economics at the University of Michigan, then earned a law degree at the University of Michigan Law School and worked as a corporate lawyer before entering politics.

Amash represented the 72nd district in the Michigan House of Representatives for one term before being elected to Congress in 2010. His congressional district includes Amash's home in Cascade Township as well as Grand Rapids; it includes much of the territory represented by former President Gerald Ford. A conservative libertarian, Amash chaired the Liberty Caucus and is regarded as one of the House's most ideologically libertarian members. Amash received national attention when he became the first Republican congressman to call for the impeachment of Donald Trump, a position he maintained after leaving the party.

Early life and education[edit]

Justin Amash was born in 1980 in Grand Rapids, Michigan.[1] His father, Attallah Amash, is a Palestinian Christian who immigrated to the United States in 1956 through the sponsorship of an American pastor and his family.[2] His mother, Mimi, is a Syrian Christian who met his father through family friends in Damascus; they married in 1974.[3][4]

Amash grew up in Kentwood, Michigan. He attended Kelloggsville Christian School in Kelloggsville and graduated as class valedictorian from Grand Rapids Christian High School. He then attended the University of Michigan, graduating in 2002 with a Bachelor of Arts in economics with high honors. Amash stayed at Michigan to attend the University of Michigan Law School, graduating with a Juris Doctor in 2005.[4]

Amash and his wife, Kara (née Day), attended high school together; they married after he graduated from Michigan and she from Calvin College. They have a son and two daughters.[5] They are Eastern Orthodox Christians.

Pre-Congress work[edit]

After graduating from law school, Amash spent less than a year as an attorney at the Grand Rapids law firm Varnum.[4] He then became a consultant to Michigan Industrial Tools Inc. (also known as Tekton Inc.), a company his father founded and owned.[6] He worked as a corporate attorney for his family's business for a year before being elected to the Michigan House of Representatives in 2008.[7][8] Amash's two brothers also have positions at Michigan Industrial Tools, and the three share ownership of Dynamic Source International, a Chinese company with offices worldwide that is a supplier to Michigan Industrial Tools.[4][9]

Michigan House of Representatives[edit]


Amash ran for the Michigan House of Representatives in 2008 in Michigan's 72nd House District. During this time, he donated to the presidential campaigns of Congressman Ron Paul and Senator John McCain.[citation needed] In the Republican primary, he won a five-way election with 41% of the vote, defeating opponent Ken Yonker by 723 votes, a 6.3% margin. The incumbent Republican, Glenn D. Steil Jr., was unable to run due to term limits.[10] In the general election, Amash defeated Democrat Albert Abbasse, 61–36%.[11]


During his initial tenure in the State House, Amash sponsored five resolutions and 12 bills, but none of them passed.[12] While in the State House, he began using his Twitter and Facebook pages to report his floor votes and explain his reasoning.

U.S. House of Representatives[edit]



Amash as a freshman during the 112th Congress (2011)

On August 3, 2010, Amash won the five-way Republican primary for the seat vacated by retiring Republican Vern Ehlers with over 40% of the vote. He was endorsed by the Club for Growth,[13] Ron Paul,[14] and FreedomWorks PAC[15] during his primary campaign.

In the general election Amash campaigned on a Tea Party platform.[4] He defeated Democratic nominee Patrick Miles Jr. 60–37%.[16]

In its October 25, 2010, issue, Time magazine named Amash one of its "40 under 40 – Rising Stars of U.S. Politics".[17] At age 30 Amash was the youngest federal officeholder in the United States on Time's list.[18]


Amash won reelection to the U.S. House in 2012, defeating Steve Pestka 53–44%.[19][20]


After initial speculation that he might run for the U.S. Senate, Amash confirmed that he would run for reelection to the House of Representatives in 2014.[21][22]

Amash was endorsed by the fiscally conservative Club for Growth PAC, which spent over $500,000 supporting Amash in his Republican primary against former East Grand Rapids School Trustee Brian Ellis, who was endorsed by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and spent more than $1 million of his own money on the race.[23][24][25]

After Amash defeated Ellis in the August primary, with 57% of the vote to Ellis's 43%, Amash was highly critical of Ellis and former Congressman Pete Hoekstra, who had backed Ellis. Of Hoekstra, Amash said, "You are a disgrace. And I'm glad we could hand you one more loss before you fade into total obscurity and irrelevance." Amash took exception to one of Ellis's television ads that quoted California Republican Congressman Devin Nunes calling Amash "Al Qaeda's best friend in Congress"; he demanded an apology from Ellis for running what he called a "disgusting, despicable smear campaign."[26][27] As Friedersdorf of The Atlantic notes, "Amash voted against the reauthorization of the Patriot Act, favored a measure to repeal indefinite detention, and opposed reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act."[27]

In the general election, Amash won reelection with 58% of the vote, defeating Democratic candidate Bob Goodrich (who received 39%) and Green Party candidate Tonya Duncan (3%).[28]


Amash won reelection to the U.S. House in 2016 for his fourth term, defeating Democratic candidate Douglas Smith 59–38%. Taxpayers Party candidate Ted Gerrard finished with 3%.[29]


Amash won reelection to the U.S. House in 2018 for his fifth term, defeating Cathy Albro, 54–43%. U.S. Taxpayers party candidate Ted Gerrard finished 3rd with 2.4% of the vote. Amash was unopposed in the Republican primary.[30]


Amash has been noted for his attendance. From January 2011 to January 2019, Amash missed only one of 5,374 roll call votes.[31][32]

Political positions[edit]

Amash has described himself as a libertarian,[33][34][35] dissenting from both Republican and Democratic leaderships more frequently than the vast majority of Republican members of Congress. Amash is regarded as one of the most conservative members of Congress, receiving high scores from conservative interest groups such as the Club for Growth, Heritage Action for America, and Americans for Prosperity, and praise from conservative think tanks and nonprofit organizations.[36][37][38][39] He was a founding member of the House Freedom Caucus,[40] a group of hard-line conservative Republicans in the House.[41][40] In June 2019 Amash left the caucus.[42] On July 4, 2019, he announced that he was leaving the Republican Party to become an independent.[43]

Before leaving the GOP, Amash gained a reputation as a gadfly within the Republican Party; his staunchly libertarian and sometimes contrarian views resulted at times in disagreements with party leadership and other members of the Michigan congressional delegation.[44][45]

Amash has called economists F. A. Hayek and Frédéric Bastiat his "biggest heroes" and political inspirations,[18] and has described himself as "Hayekian libertarian".[46] When The New York Times asked him to explain his approach to voting on legislation, he replied, "I follow a set of principles. I follow the Constitution. And that's what I base my votes on. Limited government, economic freedom, and individual liberty."[47]


Amash opposes abortion and federal funding for abortion.[48] He describes himself as "100 percent pro-life"[49] and in 2017 voted in favor of federal legislation to ban most abortions after 20 weeks of pregnancy.[50]

Amash voted "present" rather than "yes" or "no" on the 2011 Full Year Continuing Appropriations Act, which provided for the cessation of federal funding to Planned Parenthood. Although he supports eliminating federal funding for Planned Parenthood, he abstained from defunding legislation, arguing that "legislation that names a specific private organization to defund (rather than all organizations that engage in a particular activity) is improper" and an "arguably unconstitutional" bill of attainder.[47][51]


Amash opposes government bailouts and tax increases.[18]

He was one of four Republicans who joined 161 Democrats to oppose a Constitutional amendment that would require a yearly balanced budget, due to serious concerns[clarification needed] with that specific proposal.[52] Earlier that year, Amash had introduced H.J. Res. 81, an alternative balanced-budget amendment that addressed those concerns.[53]

Energy and environment[edit]

Amash has criticized the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), arguing that many environmental regulations are overreaching.[54] He voted in favor of the Energy Tax Prevention Act of 2011, which would have amended the Clean Air Act of 1963 to prohibit the EPA from regulating specified greenhouse gases as air pollutants.[55] In a 2017 debate Amash "exaggerated uncertainty around the basics of climate science"—specifically, the scientific consensus that carbon emissions cause climate change.[56] He opposed Obama's decision to sign the Paris Agreement to combat climate change.[57] Amash voted against legislation to block Trump's decision to withdraw the U.S. from the Paris Agreement[58] and in favor of legislation "expressing the sense of Congress that a carbon tax would be detrimental to the United States economy."[58]

Amash voted against Great Lakes restoration legislation.[54]

Amash was the only representative from Michigan to oppose federal aid in response to the Flint water crisis, arguing that "the U.S. Constitution does not authorize the federal government to intervene in an intrastate matter like this one." Instead, Amash contended that "the State of Michigan should provide comprehensive assistance to the people of Flint."[59]

Foreign policy[edit]

Amash speaking at the 2016 Young Americans for Liberty National Convention in Washington, D.C.

Amash supports decreasing U.S. military spending, and believes there is significant waste in the U.S. Department of Defense.[60]

He believes only Congress has the power to declare war, criticizing President Obama's intervention in Syria against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant for proceeding without a Congressional declaration of war.[61]

In 2011 Amash was one of six members of Congress who voted against House Resolution 268 reaffirming U.S. commitment to a negotiated settlement of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict through direct Israeli–Palestinian negotiation, which passed with 407 members in support.[2][62] In 2014 he was one of eight members of Congress who voted against a $225 million package to restock Israel's Iron Dome missile defenses, which passed with 398 members in support.[63] He supports a two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.[2]

Amash joined 104 Democrats and 16 Republicans in voting against the 2012 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), which specified the budget and expenditures of the Department of Defense,[64] calling it "one of the most anti-liberty pieces of legislation of our lifetime".[65] Amash co-sponsored an amendment to the NDAA that would ban indefinite military detention and military trials so that all terror suspects arrested in the United States would be tried in civilian courts. He expressed concern that individuals charged with terrorism could be jailed for prolonged periods of time without ever being formally charged or brought to trial.[66]

On March 14, 2016, Amash joined the unanimous vote in the House to approve a resolution declaring the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) to be committing genocide against religious minorities in the Middle East (it passed 383–0), but joined Representatives Tulsi Gabbard (D-HI) and Thomas Massie (R-KY) in voting against a separate measure creating an international tribunal to try those accused of participating in the alleged atrocities (it passed 392–3).[67]

In 2017 Amash criticized U.S. involvement in Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, arguing that "Al Qaeda in Yemen has emerged as a de facto ally of the Saudi-led militaries with whom [Trump] administration aims to partner more closely."[68]

In July 2017, Amash was one of only three House members to vote against the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act, a bill that imposed new economic sanctions against Russia, Iran, and North Korea. The bill passed the House on a 419–3 vote, with Representatives Thomas Massie (R-KY) and John Duncan Jr. (R-TN) also voting no.[69][70] Trump initially opposed the bill, saying that relations with Russia were already "at an all-time and dangerous low", but ultimately signed it.[70]

In 2019 Amash signed a letter led by Representative Ro Khanna and Senator Rand Paul to Trump arguing that it is "long past time to rein in the use of force that goes beyond congressional authorization" and that they hoped this would "serve as a model for ending hostilities in the future–in particular, as you and your administration seek a political solution to our involvement in Afghanistan."[71][72]


Amash opposes political gerrymandering, saying in 2018 that he strongly supported adopting "an independent process for drawing districts" based on geographic considerations, so that districts would be "as compact and contiguous as possible."[73] As of February 2019, Amash was the only Republican member of Michigan's congressional delegation who did not join a federal lawsuit challenging the state's political boundaries.[74]

Health care[edit]

On May 4, 2017, Amash voted in favor of repealing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) and to pass a revised version of the American Health Care Act.[75] Amash initially opposed the American Health Care Act, describing it as "Swampcare",[76] tweeting that "It didn't take long for the swamp to drain @realDonaldTrump"[77] and criticizing House leadership for attempting to "ram it through."[78] Nevertheless, Amash voted for the updated AHCA plan before the Congressional Budget Office could determine its impact or cost.[79]


In July 2018, House Republicans introduced a resolution supporting the officers and personnel of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). Amash was the only Republican in the chamber to vote against the resolution.[46][80] He tweeted, "The House voted today on an inane resolution regarding ICE. The resolution makes several dubious claims and denounces calls to abolish ICE. I wouldn't abolish ICE without an alternative, but there's no reason to treat a federal agency as though it's beyond reproach and reform."[80]

In December 2018, Amash was one of eight House Republicans to vote against a stopgap government funding bill that included $5.7 billion in border wall funding. Amash tweeted, "This massive, wasteful spending bill–stuffed with unrelated items–passed 217–185. It's amazing how some wall funding causes my fellow Republicans to embrace big government."[81]

In February 2019, Amash was the only House Republican to co-sponsor a resolution to block Trump's declaration of a national emergency to redirect funds to build a wall on the U.S.-Mexico border without a congressional appropriation for such a project. He wrote, "A national emergency declaration for a non-emergency is void", and "[Trump] is attempting to circumvent our constitutional system."[82] On February 25, Amash was one of 13 House Republicans to vote to block Trump's declaration.[83]

Marijuana legalization and forfeiture[edit]

Amash and fellow U.S. Representative Ted Lieu (D-CA) introduced a bill[84] to block the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) from financing its Cannabis Eradication Program through civil-asset forfeitures.[85]

Amash took aim at civil-asset forfeiture in a statement, saying that the practice allows for "innocent people to have their property taken without sufficient due process".[86]

Amash co-sponsored H.R. 1227, the Ending Federal Marijuana Prohibition Act of 2017. The bill was introduced by U.S. Representative Thomas Garrett (R-VA).[87]

Same-sex marriage[edit]

Amash supported a repeal of the Defense of Marriage Act, saying that the "real threat" to traditional marriage and religious liberty is government, not gay couples.[48][88]

Security and surveillance[edit]

Amash has been a frequent critic of the National Security Agency's anti-terrorism surveillance programs.[3][89][90]

He voted against the 2011 reauthorization of the USA PATRIOT Act,[91] the 2012 reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act,[92] and the USA Freedom Act.[93]

In 2013 Amash and 15 other members of Congress filed an amicus brief in Federal Intelligence Surveillance Court supporting the release of the Court's unpublished opinions regarding the "meaning, scope, and constitutionality" of Section 215 of the Patriot Act.[94]

Amash opposed President Donald Trump's 2017 executive order to ban citizens of seven majority-Muslim countries from entering the United States. Amash said: "Like President Obama's executive actions on immigration, President Trump's executive order overreaches and undermines our constitutional system."[95]

Amash proposed an amendment to the reauthorization bill of Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.[96] The Amash amendment would have required the government in criminal cases to seek a warrant based on probable cause before searching surveillance data for information about Americans.[97][98] While the Amash amendment received bipartisan support as well as support from civil liberties groups including the American Civil Liberties Union,[99] the amendment ultimately failed by a vote of 183 to 233.[100]

Suicide prevention hotline[edit]

In July 2018, Amash was the only member of the U.S. House to vote against creating a three-digit national suicide prevention hotline. He argued that Congress lacked the constitutional power to pass the legislation.[101]

2012 and 2016 presidential endorsements[edit]

Amash is an ally of Ron Paul,[102] endorsing Paul in his campaign for the Republican presidential nomination in 2012.[103] Ron Paul's brother, David Paul, formerly an assistant pastor in Amash's district, introduced the two men.[32] Amash endorsed Paul's son, Senator Rand Paul, for president in 2016.[102] After Paul dropped out of the Republican primary race, Amash endorsed Senator Ted Cruz in his bid for the presidency.[104]

Criticism of Donald Trump[edit]

In 2016 Amash made headlines by joining the list of Republicans who opposed the GOP nominee for President, Donald Trump.[105][106][107] After Trump was elected president, the Huffington Post profiled him in an article with the following title, "The One House Republican Who Can't Stop Criticizing Donald Trump". Amash said, "I'm not here to represent a particular political party; I'm here to represent all of my constituents and to follow the Constitution."[108][109]

After Representative John Lewis (D-GA) said that Trump was not a "legitimate president," Trump sent out a series of tweets on January 14, 2017, criticizing Lewis. Amash responded to Trump's tweets with one of his own: "Dude, just stop."[110] Amash later explained, "The reason I did it is he wouldn't stop ... The way he feels so slighted about everything I think is not healthy for our country." Amash felt that Lewis's comments were "inappropriate" but said that Trump's response should have been "dignified and conciliatory to the extent possible" instead of "personal jabs, attacking his district".[111]

In April 2017, Dan Scavino, a senior White House aide, called for Amash to be defeated in a Republican primary challenge. Amash later called Trump a "childish bully", saying that his attacks would be "constructive in the fifth grade. It may allow a child to get his way, but that's not how our government works."[108][112]

In May 2017, Trump was accused of pressuring fired FBI director James Comey to end an investigation into former national security adviser Michael Flynn. Amash was reported as the first Republican congressman to publicly state that the allegations, if proven true, merited impeachment.[113] This report was contested by the office of Representative Carlos Curbelo, who claimed that he was the first to say that.[114][115]

In June 2018, the Huffington Post asked House Republicans, "If the president pardoned himself, would they support impeachment?" Amash was the only Republican who said "definitively he would support impeachment".[116] In July 2018, Amash strongly criticized Trump's press conference with Russian president Vladimir Putin. He tweeted, "The impression it left on me, a strong supporter of the meeting, is that 'something is not right here.' The president went out of his way to appear subordinate. He spoke more like the head of a vassal state."[117]

When Trump's former attorney Michael Cohen testified before the House Oversight Committee on February 27, 2019, Amash asked him, "What is the truth President Trump is most afraid of people knowing?" Democrat Krystal Ball wrote, "Amash showed how someone actually can exercise oversight responsibility and try to get to the truth, even if the truth might not be in his party's short-term best interest."[118] CNN editor Chris Cillizza wrote, "The Michigan Republican did something on Wednesday that almost none of his GOP colleagues seemed willing to even try: Ask Cohen questions about his relationship with Trump that might actually shed some new light on not only their relationship but on the President of the United States."[119]

Comments on the Mueller Report[edit]

In May 2019, Amash said that Trump "has engaged in impeachable conduct" based on the obstruction of justice findings of the Mueller Report, which, Amash said, "few members of Congress have read".[120] Amash also said that Attorney General William Barr "deliberately misrepresented" the report's findings[121] and that partisanship was making it hard to maintain checks and balances in the American political system.[122] Amash was the first Republican member of Congress to call for Trump's impeachment.[123] In response, Trump called Amash a "loser", accused him of "getting his name out there through controversy", and falsely stated that the Mueller report had concluded that there was no obstruction of justice.[122][36] Ronna McDaniel, chairwoman of the Republican National Committee, accused Amash of "parroting the Democrats' talking points on Russia."[122] She did not explicitly express support for a primary challenge against Amash, but tweeted, "voters in Amash's district strongly support this president."[36] House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy, a Republican, claimed that Amash "votes more with Nancy Pelosi than he ever does with me"; PolitiFact evaluated this as false.[124] Republican Senator Mitt Romney described Amash's statement as "courageous", though he disagreed with Amash's conclusions.[125] The New York Times reported that while many Republicans supported Trump in public, they criticized his actions in private.[126] Amash received a standing ovation from the majority of his constituents who attended a town hall meeting shortly after Amash's comments on impeachment. He told the crowd that Trump was setting a bad example for the nation's children.[127]

Two days after Amash's comments, state representative James Lower announced that he will challenge Amash in the 2020 Republican primary, saying he wanted to "make sure people in the community knew there was a pro-Trump conservative ready to take him on."[128] Another challenger in the Republican primary is Army National Guard member Thomas Norton, who announced his candidacy in April.[129] It was reported in August 2019 that there were five Republicans seeking the nomination to oppose Amash.[130]

Republican Party departure[edit]

On July 4, 2019, Amash announced in a Washington Post op-ed that he was "declaring his independence" from partisan politics and leaving the Republican Party to become an independent.[131] Citing his extensive differences with both political parties, Amash wrote he felt partisan politics had become so overpowering that Congress no longer functioned as an independent legislative body: "We are fast approaching the point where Congress exists as little more than a formality to legitimize outcomes dictated by the president, the speaker of the House and the Senate majority leader." He did not say whether he would continue to caucus with the Republicans.[132] An aide said he would run for reelection in 2020 as an independent.[133] Amash has also been mentioned as a potential candidate for President of the United States in the 2020 election, either as an Independent or as a member of the Libertarian Party.[134][135][136]

Amash is the only independent in the House of Representatives. He is the first independent in the House since Bernie Sanders of Vermont, who left the House in 2007 after being elected to the Senate. Amash is one of three independents in the United States Congress, along with Sanders and Maine Senator Angus King.[137]

On October 31, 2019, Amash was the only non-Democrat in the House to vote in favor of an impeachment inquiry into the activities of President Trump.[138][139][140]

Committee assignments[edit]

116th Congress[edit]

None (July 8, 2019-present)

Committee on Oversight and Government Reform (January 3, 2019-July 8, 2019)

Amash resigned from on the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform on the same day he announced he would be leaving the Republican Party and become an independent. If he had not resigned, he would have been automatically been removed and replaced with another member upon his departure from the House Republican Conference.[141] House rules state that standing committee memberships "shall be contingent on continuing membership in the party caucus or conference" which assigned the legislator to that committee.[142]

115th Congress[edit]

114th Congress[edit]

113th Congress[edit]

112th Congress[edit]

The House Republican Steering Committee removed Amash from the House Budget Committee in late 2012 as part of a larger party leadership-caucus shift.[143][144] He joined Tim Huelskamp (R-Kansas) and David Schweikert (R-Arizona) in a letter to Speaker of the House John Boehner, demanding to know why they had lost their committee positions.[145]

A spokesperson for Republican Congressman Lynn Westmoreland of Georgia said that Amash, Huelskamp, and Schweikert had been removed for "their inability to work with other members." Politico said that the three were "the first members pulled off committees as punishment for political or personality reasons in nearly two decades".[146][147]:p.2

On July 8, 2019, days after announcing that he was leaving the Republican Party, Amash formally submitted his resignation to Republican Leader Kevin McCarthy and House Republican Conference Leader Liz Cheney. In the process, he resigned his seat on the Committee on Oversight and Reform.

Caucus memberships[edit]

See also[edit]


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  2. ^ a b c Tim Mak. "Justin Amash casts himself in Ron Paul's mold". Politico.
  3. ^ a b Tim Murphy (November–December 2013). "Will GOP Rebel Justin Amash Bring Down the NSA–and His Own Party?". Mother Jones.
  4. ^ a b c d e Jim Harger (October 24, 2010). "Profile: 3rd Congressional district candidate Justin Amash". The Grand Rapids Press. M Live.
  5. ^ Steve Gunn (November 4, 2018). "GOP congressman Amash is challenged by Democrat Albro".
  6. ^ "Justin Amash Got A Big Raise From His Dad Just Before Loaning His Campaign Money". Huffington Post. July 2, 2014. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  7. ^ Newlin, Eliza. "Rep. Justin Amash (R-MI, 3rd District)". National Journal. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
  8. ^ Amash, Justin. "Justin Amash Full Biography". amash.house.gov. House of Representatives. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  9. ^ "Justin Amash schedules event to counter fellow Congressional candidate Patrick Miles' ads accusing him of owning Chinese factory". MLive. October 5, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  10. ^ "MI State House 072 – R Primary Race". Our Campaigns. August 5, 2008. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
  11. ^ "MI State House 072 Race". Our Campaigns. November 4, 2008. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
  12. ^ "Justin Amash sponsored legislation 2009–2010". Legislature.mi.gov.
  13. ^ Connolly, Michael. "Club for Growth PAC Endorses Justin Amash in Michigan-03". Retrieved March 12, 2012.
  14. ^ "Ron Paul Endorses Justin Amash for Congress". eon.businesswire.com. June 21, 2010. Archived from the original on October 17, 2010.
  15. ^ "FreedomWorks PAC Endorses Justin Amash, Candidate in Michigan's Third Congressional District". Business Wire. July 29, 2010. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
  16. ^ "2010 Official Michigan General Election Results – 3rd District Representative in Congress 2 Year Term (1) Position". Michigan Department of State. Archived from the original on January 29, 2014. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
  17. ^ "40 under 40 – Rising Stars of U.S. Politics – Justin Amash". TIME Magazine. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
  18. ^ a b c "Time Magazine names Justin Amash one of its 40 Rising Stars". Time. October 14, 2010.
  19. ^ "Official Michigan Generaral Candidate Listing". Miboecfr.nuctusa.com. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
  20. ^ "2012 Election Results Map by State – Live Voting Updates". Politico.com. June 21, 2013.
  21. ^ Alberta, Tim (September 17, 2013). "Justin Amash Will Not Run for Senate in Michigan". National Journal. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
  22. ^ Doherty, Brian (October 12, 2013). "Justin Amash Targeted by Michigan GOP Business Establishment for Lacking Party Discipline". Reason. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
  23. ^ "Justin Amash (MI-03) profile". PAC Candidates. Club for Growth PAC. Archived from the original on February 8, 2014. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
  24. ^ Livingston, Abby (July 31, 2014). "Club For Growth Back on TV for Justin Amash". Roll Call. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
  25. ^ "Congressional Races – Michigan District 03 Race – Summary Data". Open Secrets. The Center for Responsive Politics. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
  26. ^ Blake, Aaron (August 6, 2014). "Justin Amash's absolutely amazing victory speech". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
  27. ^ a b Friedersdorf, Conor (August 6, 2014). "Why Justin Amash's Primary Victory Matters" (online staff comment). The Atlantic. Retrieved March 15, 2016. Representative Justin Amash, a Michigan Republican, is one of the most important civil libertarians in the House of Representatives. He isn't just a staunch opponent of the NSA's mass surveillance of Americans – he actually has a sophisticated understanding of surveillance policy (unlike the vast majority of his congressional colleagues) as well as a record of bringing forth actual reform proposals./Amash voted against the reauthorization of the Patriot Act, favored a measure to repeal indefinite detention, and opposed reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act. Little wonder that an ACLU staffer told Mother Jones that he's 'a game changer.'
  28. ^ "2014 Michigan Election results". Michigan Department of State. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
  29. ^ "2016 Michigan Election results". Michigan Department of State. November 28, 2016. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  30. ^ "2018 Michigan Election Results". Lansing: Department of State, Michigan. November 20, 2018. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  31. ^ "Justin Amash". govtrack.us. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
  32. ^ a b Mak, Tim (December 8, 2011). "Justin Amash casts himself in Ron Paul's mold". Politico.
  33. ^ Marans, Daniel; Fuller, Matt (January 11, 2018). "House Reauthorizes Controversial Surveillance Law". Huffington Post.
  34. ^ Welch, Matt; McDaniel, Mark (July 28, 2017). "Rep. Justin Amash: The Two-Party System Needs to Die". Reason.com.
  35. ^ Glasser, Susan B. "The End of the Libertarian Dream?". Politico Magazine. No. March/April 2017.
  36. ^ a b c Andrew Desiderio (May 18, 2019). "Michigan GOP congressman says Trump's conduct impeachable". Politico.
  37. ^ Rebecca Shabad (May 20, 2019). "Amash's impeachment call comes with a political price. How high?". NBC News. Amash, 39, who identifies as a libertarian Republican, is considered among the most conservative members of the House. ... Conservative groups like the Club for Growth, Heritage Action for America and Americans for Prosperity have awarded him lifetime ratings of more than 85 percent.
  38. ^ Amber Phillips (May 20, 2019). "Why Justin Amash's impeachment comments probably won't change Nancy Pelosi's mind". The Washington Post. Amash is one of the most conservative lawmakers in Congress, which gives him street cred when he calls for impeaching a Republican president. But Amash is also a different strain of conservative; he leans libertarian.
  39. ^ McMillin, Zane (July 8, 2013). "Rep. Justin Amash 'most liberal Republican,' GOP strategist Karl Rove says". MLive Media Group. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  40. ^ a b c Bialik, Carl; Bycoffe, Aaron (September 25, 2015). "The Hard-Line Republicans Who Pushed John Boehner Out". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved September 28, 2015.
  41. ^ Wilson Andrews; Matthew Bloch; Haeyoun Park (March 24, 2017). "Who Stopped the Republican Health Bill?". New York Times. 15 were hard-line conservatives who wanted a complete repeal of the Affordable Care Act. They are all members of the House Freedom Caucus, who are among the most conservative members of the House ... Justin Amash, MI-3
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  43. ^ Amash, Justin (July 4, 2019). "Justin Amash: Our politics is in a partisan death spiral. That's why I'm leaving the GOP". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
  44. ^ Tim Mak, Amash casts himself in Paul's mold, Politico (December 8, 2011): "With an unconventional approach to politics, Amash has chosen personal preferences over fealty to the Capitol Hill 'community' – alienating and isolating him from House leadership, his state's delegation and special interest groups ... As a congressman and earlier as a state representative, he made a name for himself as a contrarian who bucks party leadership based on inviolable personal beliefs."
  45. ^ Glenn Thrush, Impeachment Appeal Pushes Justin Amash From G.O.P. Gadfly to Insurgent, New York Times (May 20, 2019): "Amash ... has made a political career of going it alone. ... a libertarian with a contrarian streak."
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  50. ^ "House Vote 549 – Bans Most Abortions After 20 Weeks of Pregnancy". ProPublica. October 3, 2017.
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  52. ^ "Balanced-budget amendment comes up short in House vote". The Hill. November 19, 2011. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
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  54. ^ a b Climate change dominates U.S. Rep. Justin Amash's 8th town hall, MLive.com (April 13, 2017).
  55. ^ "H.R.910 – 112th Congress (2011–2012): Energy Tax Prevention Act of 2011". Congress.gov. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
  56. ^ Scott Waldman, Climate change dogging Republicans at town halls, E&E News (April 17, 2017).
  57. ^ Jennifer Bowman, Justin Amash says the U.S. wasn't 'validly' in Paris climate agreement, Battle Creek Enquirer (June 2, 2017).
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  61. ^ Friedersdorf, Conor (August 29, 2013). "President Obama Faces Mounting Pressure to Stay Out of Syria" (online article). The Atlantic. Retrieved March 15, 2016. President Obama faces increasing pressure from lawmakers, foreign-policy experts, constitutional scholars, and anti-war activists to refrain from striking Syria. Opponents of war worry that an insular group of hawkish Washington, D.C., elites will succeed in prompting an intervention the consequences of which they cannot anticipate, despite widespread public opposition to U.S. involvement. The concerns of Syria anti-interventionists vary, but all agree that the president should not unilaterally decide to attack tyrant Bashar al-Assad's regime, even granting that recent chemical weapons attacks on civilians were atrocious.
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  66. ^ "How Smith-Amash NDAA Amendment Bans Indefinite Detention (Fact Sheet)". Human Rights First. November 5, 2012.
  67. ^ Shaw, Adam; Pergram, Chad (March 16, 2016). "House declares ISIS committing genocide against Christians, other minorities". Fox News. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
  68. ^ "America's Support for Saudi Arabia's War on Yemen Must End". The Nation. April 5, 2017.
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  70. ^ a b "Meet the 5 Lawmakers Who Voted Against the Russia Sanctions Bill". IVN.us. August 3, 2017.
  71. ^ Everett, Burgess (April 3, 2019). "Rand Paul, Ocasio-Cortez praise Trump for Syria withdrawal". Politico.
  72. ^ Bolton, Alexander (April 3, 2019). "Rand Paul teams up with Ocasio-Cortez, Omar to press Trump on Syria withdrawal". The Hill.
  73. ^ Oosting, Jonathan (October 3, 2018). "Amash: Partisan redistricting an 'ugly' process". The Detroit News. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
  74. ^ Oosting, Jonathan (February 4, 2019). "Supreme Court rejects GOP delay bid in gerrymandering lawsuit". The Detroit News. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  75. ^ "How the House voted to pass the GOP health-care bill". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
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  77. ^ Kamisar, Ben, "Freedom Caucus member fires back: The swamp drained Trump", The Hill, March 30, 2017; retrieved May 9, 2017.
  78. ^ Shelbourne, Mallory (March 8, 2017). "Amash: GOP wants to 'ram' ObamaCare plan through Congress". The Hill. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
  79. ^ Kliff, Sarah. "Congress is voting Thursday on a bill to replace Obamacare. The CBO still hasn't scored it". Vox. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
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  85. ^ Mark Ram (October 5, 2015). "Civil Forfeiture for Marijuana Businesses". Mark Ram. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  86. ^ Steven Nelson (September 23, 2015). "Congressmen Want to Save Pot Plants From DEA Sickle". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  87. ^ "Text – H.R.1227 – 115th Congress (2017–2018): Ending Federal Marijuana Prohibition Act of 2017". Congress.gov. March 16, 2017. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  88. ^ "Justin Amash Backs DOMA Repeal On Twitter". Huffington Post. March 29, 2013.
  89. ^ Fung, Brian (July 25, 2013). "Justin Amash almost beat the NSA. Next time, he might do it". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
  90. ^ "How a Palestinian-American won a GOP primary". aljazeera.com.
  91. ^ "S. 990 (112th): PATRIOT Sunsets Extension Act of 2011 – House Vote #376". May 26, 2011. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
  92. ^ "H.R. 5949 (112th): FISA Amendments Act Reauthorization Act of 2012 – House Vote #569". September 12, 2012. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
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  95. ^ Blake, Aaron (January 31, 2017). "Whip Count: Here's where Republicans stand on Trump's controversial travel ban". The Washington Post.
  96. ^ "Amendment in the Nature of a Substitute to Rules Committee Print 115-53 Offered by Mr. Amash of Michigan" (PDF).
  97. ^ Charlie Savage (January 10, 2018). "Surveillance and Privacy Debate Reaches Pivotal Moment in Congress". The New York Times. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  98. ^ "House rejects Amash measure on warrantless surveillance". Detroit News. January 11, 2018. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  99. ^ "House votes to renew a surveillance law that collects Americans' emails". USA Today. January 11, 2018. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
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  101. ^ Burr, Thomas (July 24, 2018). "House passes Rep. Stewart's bill to create a national suicide prevention hotline". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
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  103. ^ Jim Harger (September 19, 2011). "U.S. Rep. Justin Amash endorses Ron Paul's bid for the GOP presidential nomination". MLive.
  104. ^ Jesser Byrnes (February 23, 2016). "Rep. Amash endorses Cruz". The Hill.
  105. ^ Britzky, Haley; Barr, Luke; Dunn, Andrew (April 29, 2016). "Republicans who vow to never back Trump". The Hill. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
  106. ^ Andrews, Natalie (February 20, 2017). "Justin Amash Emerges as Leading Critic of Fellow Republican Donald Trump". wsj.com. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
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  114. ^ Seitz-Wald, Alex (May 31, 2017). "Republican Carlos Curbelo Wants You to Know He Called for Impeachment First". NBC News.
  115. ^ Vicens, A. J. (May 17, 2017). "Two GOP Congressmen Suggest Trump May Have Committed Impeachable Offense". Mother Jones.
  116. ^ Reilly, Ryan; Delaney, Arthur; Fuller, Matt (June 7, 2018). "What Will House Republicans Do If Trump Pardons Himself? We Asked Them". Huffington Post. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
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  120. ^ Watkins, Eli. "GOP congressman: Trump 'has engaged in impeachable conduct'". CNN.com. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
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  129. ^ Mcvicar, Brian (May 23, 2019). "Former village president, National Guard member challenging Justin Amash". mlive.com.
  130. ^ Gamble, Audra (August 6, 2019). "District Three candidate uses slur in press release". Ionia Sentinel-Standard. Ionia, MI. Retrieved September 17, 2019. Norton is one of five Republicans running in a primary to unseat Rep. Justin Amash, I-Cascade, who left the Republican party in July.
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  132. ^ Burman, Max (July 4, 2019). "Rep. Justin Amash announces he's leaving Republican Party". NBC News. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
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  142. ^ "Free For Coffee? These Lawmakers Have No Committee Seats". Bloomberg Government. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
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External links[edit]

Michigan House of Representatives
Preceded by
Glenn Steil
Member of the Michigan House of Representatives
from the 72nd district

Succeeded by
Ken Yonker
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Vern Ehlers
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Michigan's 3rd congressional district

U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded by
Bill Foster
United States Representatives by seniority
Succeeded by
Karen Bass

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