Integral nationalism

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Integral nationalism (French: nationalisme intégral) is a type of nationalism[1][2][3] originated in 19th-century France and opposed to Risorgimento nationalism.


Whereas risorgimento nationalism applies to a nation seeking to establish a liberal state (for example the Risorgimento in Italy and similar movements in Greece, Germany, Poland, Japan in the 19th century or civic nationalism, e.g., American nationalism), integral nationalism results after a nation has achieved independence and has already established a state. Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, according to Alter and Brown, were examples of integral nationalism. Some of the qualities that characterise integral nationalism are anti-individualism, statism, radical extremism, and aggressive expansionist militarism. Integral states are totalitarian and the government or state dominates all aspects of society.

Integral nationalism generally tends to arise in states (such as colonies or countries that do not have sovereignty) where a strong military ethos has become entrenched through a struggle for independence, resulting in the belief that a strong military is required to ensure the security and viability of the new state once the state attains independence. Also, the success of such a liberation struggle results in feelings of national superiority that may lead to extreme nationalism.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ David Brown, Contemporary Nationalism, Routledge, 2003, p. 68.
  2. ^ More recently, Peter Alter discussed integral nationalism in his book Nationalismus (1985).
  3. ^ Integral nationalism is one of five types of nationalism defined by Carlton Hayes in his 1928 book The Historical Evolution of Modern Nationalism.

External links[edit]

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