Human coronavirus 229E

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Human coronavirus 229E
Virus classification e
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Phylum: incertae sedis
Order: Nidovirales
Family: Coronaviridae
Genus: Alphacoronavirus
Subgenus: Duvinacovirus
Human coronavirus 229E

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) is a species of coronavirus which infects humans and bats.[1] The infecting virus is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus which enters its host cell by binding to the APN receptor.[2] Along with Human coronavirus OC43, it is one of the viruses responsible for the common cold.[3][4] The species is a member of the genus Alphacoronavirus and subgenus Duvinacovirus.[5][6]


HCoV-229E transmits via droplet-respiration and fomites.

Signs and symptoms[edit]

HCoV-229E is associated with a range of respiratory symptoms, ranging from the common cold to high-morbidity outcomes such as pneumonia and bronchiolitis. However, such high morbidity outcomes are always seen in cases with coinfection with other respiratory pathogens with a single reported exception; although infection with 229E alone is almost exclusively associated with asymptomatic or mild disease there is a single published case report to date of a 229E infection that caused acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in an otherwise healthy patient having no detectable coinfection with another pathogen.[7] HCoV-229E is also among the coronaviruses most frequently codetected with other respiratory viruses, particularly with human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV).[8][9][10]


HCoV-229E is one of the seven human coronaviruses which include HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1 and SARS-CoV-2 and are globally distributed.[11][12] However, the viruses were detected in different parts of the world at different times of the year.[13][14][15]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Lim, Yvonne Xinyi; Ng, Yan Ling; Tam, James P.; Liu, Ding Xiang (2016-07-25). "Human Coronaviruses: A Review of Virus–Host Interactions". Diseases. 4 (3): 26. doi:10.3390/diseases4030026. ISSN 2079-9721. PMC 5456285. PMID 28933406. See Table 1.
  2. ^ Fehr AR, Perlman S (2015). Maier HJ, Bickerton E, Britton P (eds.). "Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis". Methods in Molecular Biology. Springer. 1282: 1–23. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-2438-7_1. ISBN 978-1-4939-2438-7. PMC 4369385. PMID 25720466. See Table 1.
  3. ^ Susanna K. P. Lau, Paul Lee, Alan K. L. Tsang, Cyril C. Y. Yip,1 Herman Tse, Rodney A. Lee, Lok-Yee So, Yu-Lung Lau, Kwok-Hung Chan, Patrick C. Y. Woo, and Kwok-Yung Yuen. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Coronavirus OC43 Reveals Evolution of Different Genotypes over Time and Recent Emergence of a Novel Genotype due to Natural Recombination. J Virology. 2011 November; 85(21): 11325–11337.
  4. ^ E. R. Gaunt,1 A. Hardie,2 E. C. J. Claas,3 P. Simmonds,1 and K. E. Templeton. Epidemiology and Clinical Presentations of the Four Human Coronaviruses 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43 Detected over 3 Years Using a Novel Multiplex Real-Time PCR Method down-pointing small open triangle. J Clin Microbiol. 2010 August; 48(8): 2940–2947.
  5. ^ "Virus Taxonomy: 2018 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). October 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  6. ^ Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Huang, Yi; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung (2010-08-24). "Coronavirus Genomics and Bioinformatics Analysis". Viruses. 2 (8): 1804–1820. doi:10.3390/v2081803. ISSN 1999-4915. PMC 3185738. PMID 21994708. Figure 2. Phylogenetic analysis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (Pol) of coronaviruses with complete genome sequences available. The tree was constructed by the neighbor-joining method and rooted using Breda virus polyprotein.
  7. ^ A Rare Case of Human Coronavirus 229E Associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in a Healthy Adult. Vassilara F, Spyridaki A, Pothitos G, Deliveliotou A, Papadopoulos A. Case Rep Infect Dis. 2018 Apr 15;2018:6796839. doi: 10.1155/2018/6796839. eCollection 2018. PMID: 29850307 Free PMC Article
  8. ^ Pene, F., A. Merlat, A. Vabret, F. Rozenberg, A. Buzyn, F. Dreyfus, A. Cariou, F. Freymuth, and P. Lebon. 2003. Coronavirus 229E related pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:929–932. [PubMed]
  9. ^ Vabret, A., T. Mourez, S. Gouarin, J. Petitjean, and F. Freymuth. 2003. An outbreak of coronavirus OC43 respiratory infection in Normandy, France. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36:985–989. [PubMed]
  10. ^ Woo, P. C. Y., S. K. P. Lau, H. Tsoi, Y. Huang, R. W. S. Poon, C. M. Chu, R. A. Lee, W. K. Luk, G. K. M. Wong, B. H. L. Wong, V. C. C. Cheng, B. S. F. Tang, A. K. L. Wu, R. W. H. Yung, H. Chen, Y. Guan, K. H. Chan, and K. Y. Yuen. 2005. Clinical and molecular epidemiological features of coronavirus HKU1 associated community acquired pneumonia. J. Infect. Dis. 192:1898–1907. [PubMed]
  11. ^ Fields, B. N., D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley (ed.). 1996. Fields virology, 3rd ed. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, PA.
  12. ^ van der Hoek, L., P. Krzysztof, and B. Berkhout. 2006. Human coronavirus NL63, a new respiratory virus. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 30:760–773. [PubMed]
  13. ^ Esper, F., C. Weibel, D. Ferguson, M. L. Landry, and J. S. Kahn. 2006. Coronavirus HKU1 infection in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:775–779. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  14. ^ Gerna, G., E. Percivalle, A. Sarasini, G. Campanini, A. Piralla, F. Rovida, E. Genini, A. Marchi, and F. Baldanti. 2007. Human respiratory coronavirus HKU1 versus other coronavirus infections in Italian hospitalised patients. J. Clin. Virol. 38:244–250. [PubMed]
  15. ^ Kaye, H. S., H. B. Marsh, and W. R. Dowdle. 1971. Seroepidemiologic survey of coronavirus (strain OC 43) related infections in a children's population. Am. J. Epidemiol. 94:43–49. [PubMed]

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