Harvard UniversityWikipedia Open wikipedia design.
|Latin: Universitas Harvardiana|
Motto in English
|Type||Private nonprofit university|
|Endowment||US$37.1 billion (FY 2017)|
|President||Lawrence S. Bacow|
|Location||Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States|
210 acres (85 ha)
|Newspaper||The Harvard Crimson|
|Athletics||NCAA Division I – Ivy League|
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, and its history, influence, and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities. The Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College primarily trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure (1869–1909) transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university; Harvard was a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant. James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College.
The university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre (85 ha) main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge, approximately 3 miles (5 km) northwest of Boston; the business school and athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are located across the Charles River in the Allston neighborhood of Boston and the medical, dental, and public health schools are in the Longwood Medical Area. The endowment of Harvard's is worth $37.1 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution.
Harvard is a large, highly residential research university. The nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items. Harvard's alumni include eight U.S. presidents, several foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, and 242 Marshall Scholars. To date, some 157 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, and 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or staff. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes, and 108 Olympic medals (46 gold, 41 silver and 21 bronze).
Among global rankings, the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) has ranked Harvard as the world's best university every year since it was first released. When QS and Times Higher Education were published in partnership as the THE-QS World University Rankings during 2004–2009, Harvard had also held the top spot every year. Additionally, the THE World Reputation Rankings have consecutively ranked Harvard as the top institution among the world's "six super brand" universities, the others being Berkeley, Cambridge, MIT, Oxford and Stanford.
- 1 History
- 2 Campuses
- 3 Organization and administration
- 4 Academics
- 5 Student life
- 6 Notable people
- 7 Literature and popular culture
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 External links
Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes. The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650.
A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust"; in its early years trained many Puritan ministers. It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches.
The leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president who was not also a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence.
Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties.:1–4 When the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year later, in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, and the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years later, which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas (defined by traditionalists as Unitarian ideas).:4–5:24
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena. When it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time. The popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" probably also derived from other writings to which Harvard students were exposed, including Platonic treatises by Ralph Cudworth, John Norris and, in a Romantic vein, Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The library records at Harvard reveal that the writings of Plato and his early modern and Romantic followers were almost as regularly read during the 19th century as those of the "official philosophy" of the more empirical and more deistic Scottish school.
Charles W. Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the favored position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. While Eliot was the most crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education, but by Transcendentalist Unitarian convictions. Derived from William Ellery Channing and Ralph Waldo Emerson, these convictions were focused on the dignity and worth of human nature, the right and ability of each person to perceive truth, and the indwelling God in each person.
During the 20th century, Harvard's international reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the university's scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new graduate schools were begun and the undergraduate College expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as sister school of Harvard College, became one of the most prominent schools for women in the United States. Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.
In the early 20th century, the student body was predominantly "old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians"—a group later called "WASPs" (White Anglo-Saxon Protestants). In 1923 a proposal by president A. Lawrence Lowell that Jews be limited to 15% of undergraduates was rejected, but Lowell did ban blacks from living in Harvard Yard; Lowell believed that "forcing" blacks and whites to live together "would increase a prejudice that ... is most unfortunate and probably growing." But by the 1970s, Harvard was much more diversified.
James Bryant Conant (president, 1933–1953) reinvigorated creative scholarship to guarantee its preeminence among research institutions. He saw higher education as a vehicle of opportunity for the talented rather than an entitlement for the wealthy, so Conant devised programs to identify, recruit, and support talented youth. In 1943, he asked the faculty make a definitive statement about what general education ought to be, at the secondary as well as the college level. The resulting Report, published in 1945, was one of the most influential manifestos in the history of American education in the 20th century.
In 1945–1960 admissions policies were opened up to bring in students from a more diverse applicant pool. No longer drawing mostly from rich alumni of select New England prep schools, the undergraduate college was now open to striving middle class students from public schools; many more Jews and Catholics were admitted, but few blacks, Hispanics or Asians.
Harvard graduate schools began admitting women in small numbers in the late 19th century, and during World War II, students at Radcliffe College (which since 1879 had been paying Harvard professors to repeat their lectures for women students) began attending Harvard classes alongside men, The first class of women was admitted to Harvard Medical School in 1945. Since the 1970s Harvard has been responsible for essentially all aspects of admission, instruction, and undergraduate life for women, and Radcliffe was formally merged into Harvard in 1999.
Drew Gilpin Faust, previously the dean of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, became Harvard's president on July 1, 2007. In February 2018, Lawrence Seldon Bacow was designated to take office as its 29th president on July 1, 2018.
Harvard's 209-acre (85 ha) main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge, about 3 miles (5 km) west-northwest of downtown Boston, and extends into the surrounding Harvard Square neighborhood. Harvard Yard itself contains the central administrative offices and main libraries of the university, academic buildings including Sever Hall and University Hall, Memorial Church, and the majority of the freshman dormitories. Sophomore, junior, and senior undergraduates live in twelve residential Houses, nine of which are south of Harvard Yard along or near the Charles River. The other three are located in a residential neighborhood half a mile northwest of the Yard at the Quadrangle (commonly referred to as the Quad), which formerly housed Radcliffe College students until Radcliffe merged its residential system with Harvard. Each residential house contains rooms for undergraduates, House masters, and resident tutors, as well as a dining hall and library. The facilities were made possible by a gift from Yale University alumnus Edward Harkness.
Radcliffe Yard, formerly the center of the campus of Radcliffe College and now home of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard, is adjacent to the Graduate School of Education and the Cambridge Common.
Between 2014 and 2016, Harvard University reported crime statistics for its main Cambridge campus that included 141 forcible sex offenses, 33 robberies, 46 aggravated assaults, 151 burglaries, and 32 cases of motor vehicle theft.
Harvard also has commercial real estate holdings in Cambridge and Allston, on which it pays property taxes. This includes the Allston Doubletree Hotel, The Inn at Harvard, and the Harvard Square Hotel.
The Harvard Business School and many of the university's athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are located on a 358-acre (145 ha) campus in Allston, a Boston neighborhood across the Charles River from the Cambridge campus. The John W. Weeks Bridge, a pedestrian bridge over the Charles River, connects the two campuses. Intending a major expansion, Harvard now owns more land in Allston than it does in Cambridge. A ten-year plan calls for 1.4 million square feet (130,000 square meters) of new construction and 500,000 square feet (50,000 square meters) of renovations, including new and renovated buildings at Harvard Business School; a hotel and conference center; a multipurpose institutional building; renovations to graduate student housing and to Harvard Stadium; new athletic facilities; new laboratories and classrooms for the John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences; expansion of the Harvard Education Portal; and a district energy facility.
Further south, the Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, and the Harvard School of Public Health are located on a 21-acre (8.5 ha) campus in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area about 3.3 miles (5.3 km) south of the Cambridge campus, and the same distance southwest of downtown Boston. The Arnold Arboretum, in the Jamaica Plain neighborhood of Boston, is also owned and operated by Harvard.
Harvard also owns and operates the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, in Washington, D.C.; the Harvard Forest in Petersham, Massachusetts; the Concord Field Station in Estabrook Woods in Concord, Massachusetts and the Villa I Tatti research center in Florence, Italy. Harvard also operates the Harvard Shanghai Center in China.
Organization and administration
|Arts and Sciences||1872|
|Engineering and Applied Sciences||2007|
Harvard is governed by a combination of its Board of Overseers and the President and Fellows of Harvard College (also known as the Harvard Corporation), which in turn appoints the President of Harvard University. There are 16,000 staff and faculty, including 2,400 professors, lecturers, and instructors teaching 7,200 undergraduates and 14,000 graduate students.
The Faculty of Arts and Sciences has primary responsibility for instruction in Harvard College, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the Harvard Division of Continuing Education, which includes Harvard Summer School and Harvard Extension School. There are ten other graduate and professional school faculties, in addition to the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study.[clarification needed]
Joint programs with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology include the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, the Broad Institute, The Observatory of Economic Complexity, and edX.
Harvard has the largest university endowment in the world. In terms of endowment per student, it ranks third in the U.S., after Princeton and Yale. As of September 2011[update], it had nearly regained the loss suffered during the 2008 recession. It was worth $32 billion in 2011, up from $28 billion in September 2010 and $26 billion in 2009. It suffered about 30% loss in 2008–2009. In December 2008, Harvard announced that its endowment had lost 22% (approximately $8 billion) from July to October 2008, necessitating budget cuts. Later reports suggest the loss was actually more than double that figure, a reduction of nearly 50% of its endowment in the first four months alone. Forbes in March 2009 estimated the loss to be in the range of $12 billion. One of the most visible results of Harvard's attempt to re-balance its budget was their halting of construction of the $1.2 billion Allston Science Complex that had been scheduled to be completed by 2011, resulting in protests from local residents. As of 2012[update], Harvard University had a total financial aid reserve of $159 million for students, and a Pell Grant reserve of $4.093 million available for disbursement.
Since the 1970s, several campaigns have sought to divest Harvard's endowment from holdings the campaigns opposed, including investments in apartheid South Africa, the tobacco industry, Sudan during the Darfur genocide, and the fossil fuel industry.
During the divestment from South Africa movement in the late 1980s, student activists erected a symbolic "shantytown" on Harvard Yard and blockaded a speech given by South African Vice Consul Duke Kent-Brown. The Harvard Management Company repeatedly refused to divest, stating that "operating expenses must not be subject to financially unrealistic strictures or carping by the unsophisticated or by special interest groups." However, the university did eventually reduce its South African holdings by $230 million (out of $400 million) in response to the pressure.
Undergraduate admission to Harvard is characterized by the Carnegie Foundation as "more selective, lower transfer-in". Harvard College accepted 5.2% of applicants for the class of 2021, a record low and the second lowest acceptance rate among all national universities. Harvard College ended its early admissions program in 2007 as the program was believed to disadvantage low-income and under-represented minority applicants applying to selective universities, but for the class of 2016, an early action program was reintroduced.
The freshman class entering in the fall of 2017 will be the first to be predominantly (50.8%) nonwhite.
Harvard's undergraduate admission policies on preference for children of alumni has been criticized as favoring white, wealthy candidates. Admission is based on academic prowess, extracurricular activities and "personality" (judged subjectively by admissions officers who have not met the applicants), and it is alleged that this approach discriminates against Asians.
Teaching and learning
Harvard is a large, highly residential research university. The university has been accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges since 1929. The university offers 46 undergraduate concentrations (majors), 134 graduate degrees, and 32 professional degrees. For the 2008–2009 academic year, Harvard granted 1,664 baccalaureate degrees, 400 master's degrees, 512 doctoral degrees, and 4,460 professional degrees.
The four-year, full-time undergraduate program comprises a minority of enrollments at the university and emphasizes instruction with an "arts and sciences focus". Between 1978 and 2008, entering students were required to complete a core curriculum of seven classes outside of their concentration. Since 2008, undergraduate students have been required to complete courses in eight General Education categories: Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding, Culture and Belief, Empirical and Mathematical Reasoning, Ethical Reasoning, Science of Living Systems, Science of the Physical Universe, Societies of the World, and United States in the World. Harvard offers a comprehensive doctoral graduate program, and there is a high level of coexistence[further explanation needed] between graduate and undergraduate degrees. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, The New York Times, and some students have criticized Harvard for its reliance on teaching fellows for some aspects of undergraduate education; they consider this to adversely affect the quality of education.
Harvard's academic programs operate on a semester calendar beginning in early September and ending in mid-May. Undergraduates typically take four half-courses per term and must maintain a four-course rate average to be considered full-time. In many concentrations, students can elect to pursue a basic program or an honors-eligible program requiring a senior thesis and/or advanced course work. Students graduating in the top 4–5% of the class are awarded degrees summa cum laude, students in the next 15% of the class are awarded magna cum laude, and the next 30% of the class are awarded cum laude. Harvard has chapters of academic honor societies such as Phi Beta Kappa and various committees and departments also award several hundred named prizes annually. Harvard, along with other universities, has been accused of grade inflation, although there is evidence that the quality of the student body and its motivation have also increased. Harvard College reduced the number of students who receive Latin honors from 90% in 2004 to 60% in 2005. Moreover, the honors of "John Harvard Scholar" and "Harvard College Scholar" would now be given only to the top 5 percent and the next 5 percent of each class.
University policy is to expel students engaging in academic dishonesty to discourage a "culture of cheating." In 2012, dozens of students were expelled for cheating after an investigation of more than 120 students. In 2013, there was a report that as many as 42% of incoming freshmen had cheated on homework prior to entering the university, and these incidents have prompted the university to consider adopting an honor code.
For the 2012–2013 school year, annual tuition was $38,000, with a total cost of attendance of $57,000. Beginning in 2007, families with incomes below $60,000 pay nothing for their children to attend, including room and board. Families with incomes between $60,000 to $80,000 pay only a few thousand dollars per year, and families earning between $120,000 and $180,000 pay no more than 10% of their annual incomes. In 2009, Harvard offered grants totaling $414 million across all eleven divisions;[further explanation needed] $340 million came from institutional funds, $35 million from federal support, and $39 million from other outside support. Grants total 88% of Harvard's aid for undergraduate students, with aid also provided by loans (8%) and work-study (4%). Tuition only covers 6.4% of Harvard's operating costs.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2013)
Harvard is a founding member of the Association of American Universities and remains a research university with "very high" research activity and a "comprehensive" doctoral program across the arts, sciences, engineering, and medicine. Research and development expenditures in 2011 totaled $650 million, 27th among American universities.
Libraries and museums
The Harvard University Library System is centered in Widener Library in Harvard Yard and comprises nearly 80 individual libraries holding over 18 million volumes. According to the American Library Association, this makes it the largest academic library in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. Houghton Library, the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, and the Harvard University Archives consist principally of rare and unique materials. America's oldest collection of maps, gazetteers, and atlases both old and new is stored in Pusey Library and open to the public. The largest collection of East-Asian language material outside of East Asia is held in the Harvard-Yenching Library.
The Harvard Art Museums comprise three museums. The Arthur M. Sackler Museum includes collections of ancient, Asian, Islamic and later Indian art, the Busch-Reisinger Museum, formerly the Germanic Museum, covers central and northern European art, and the Fogg Museum of Art, covers Western art from the Middle Ages to the present emphasizing Italian early Renaissance, British pre-Raphaelite, and 19th-century French art. The Harvard Museum of Natural History includes the Harvard Mineralogical Museum, Harvard University Herbaria featuring the Blaschka Glass Flowers exhibit, and the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Other museums include the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, designed by Le Corbusier, housing the film archive, the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, specializing in the cultural history and civilizations of the Western Hemisphere, and the Semitic Museum featuring artifacts from excavations in the Middle East.
Among overall rankings, the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) has ranked Harvard as the world's best university every year since it was first released. When QS and Times Higher Education were published in partnership as the THE-QS World University Rankings during 2004–2009, Harvard had also held the top spot every year. Additionally, the THE World Reputation Rankings have consecutively ranked Harvard as the top institution among the world's "six super brand" universities, the others being Berkeley, Cambridge, MIT, Oxford and Stanford.
Regarding rankings of specific indicators, Harvard topped both University Ranking by Academic Performance 2015–2016 and Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities (2011), which measured universities' numbers of alumni holding CEO positions in Fortune Global 500 companies. According to the 2016 poll done by The Princeton Review, Harvard is the second most commonly named "dream college" in the United States, both for students and parents. College ROI Report: Best Value Colleges by PayScale puts Harvard 22nd nationwide in the most recent 2016 edition.
|Hispanics of any race||9%||5%||16%|
In the last six years, Harvard's student population ranged from 19,000 to 21,000, across all programs. Harvard enrolled 6,655 students in undergraduate programs, and over 14,000 students in graduate and professional programs. The undergraduate population is 51% female, while the graduate population is 48% female.
The Harvard Crimson competes in 42 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division I Ivy League. Harvard has an intense athletic rivalry with Yale University culminating in The Game, although the Harvard–Yale Regatta predates the football game. This rivalry is put aside every two years when the Harvard and Yale Track and Field teams come together to compete against a combined Oxford University and Cambridge University team, a competition that is the oldest continuous international amateur competition in the world.
Harvard's athletic rivalry with Yale is intense in every sport in which they meet, coming to a climax each fall in the annual football meeting, which dates back to 1875 and is usually called simply "The Game". While Harvard's football team is no longer one of the country's best as it often was a century ago during football's early days (it won the Rose Bowl in 1920), both it and Yale have influenced the way the game is played. In 1903, Harvard Stadium introduced a new era into football with the first-ever permanent reinforced concrete stadium of its kind in the country. The stadium's structure actually played a role in the evolution of the college game. Seeking to reduce the alarming number of deaths and serious injuries in the sport, Walter Camp (former captain of the Yale football team), suggested widening the field to open up the game. But the stadium was too narrow to accommodate a wider playing surface. So, other steps had to be taken. Camp would instead support revolutionary new rules for the 1906 season. These included legalizing the forward pass, perhaps the most significant rule change in the sport's history.
Harvard has several athletic facilities, such as the Lavietes Pavilion, a multi-purpose arena and home to the Harvard basketball teams. The Malkin Athletic Center, known as the "MAC", serves both as the university's primary recreation facility and as a satellite location for several varsity sports. The five-story building includes two cardio rooms, an Olympic-size swimming pool, a smaller pool for aquaerobics and other activities, a mezzanine, where all types of classes are held, an indoor cycling studio, three weight rooms, and a three-court gym floor to play basketball. The MAC offers personal trainers and specialty classes. It is home to Harvard volleyball, fencing and wrestling.
Weld Boathouse and Newell Boathouse house the women's and men's rowing teams, respectively. The men's crew also uses the Red Top complex in Ledyard, Connecticut, as their training camp for the annual Harvard–Yale Regatta. The Bright Hockey Center hosts the Harvard hockey teams, and the Murr Center serves both as a home for Harvard's squash and tennis teams as well as a strength and conditioning center for all athletic sports.
As of 2013[update], there were 42 Division I intercollegiate varsity sports teams for women and men at Harvard, more than at any other NCAA Division I college in the country. As with other Ivy League universities, Harvard does not offer athletic scholarships.
Older than The Game by 23 years, the Harvard–Yale Regatta was the original source of the athletic rivalry between the two schools. It is held annually in June on the Thames River in eastern Connecticut. The Harvard crew is typically considered to be one of the top teams in the country in rowing. Today, Harvard fields top teams in several other sports, such as the Harvard Crimson men's ice hockey team (with a strong rivalry against Cornell), squash, and even recently won NCAA titles in Men's and Women's Fencing. Harvard also won the Intercollegiate Sailing Association National Championships in 2003.
Harvard's men's ice hockey team won the school's first NCAA Championship in any team sport in 1989. Harvard was also the first Ivy League institution to win a NCAA championship title in a women's sport when its women's lacrosse team won the NCAA Championship in 1990.
Harvard Undergraduate Television has footage from historical games and athletic events including the 2005 pep-rally before the Harvard-Yale Game.
The school color is crimson, which is also the name of the Harvard sports teams and the daily newspaper, The Harvard Crimson. The color was unofficially adopted (in preference to magenta) by an 1875 vote of the student body, although the association with some form of red can be traced back to 1858, when Charles William Eliot, a young graduate student who would later become Harvard's 21st and longest-serving president (1869–1909), bought red bandanas for his crew so they could more easily be distinguished by spectators at a regatta.
Harvard has several fight songs, the most played of which, especially at football, are "Ten Thousand Men of Harvard" and "Harvardiana." While "Fair Harvard" is actually the alma mater, "Ten Thousand Men" is better known outside the university. The Harvard University Band performs these fight songs, and other cheers at football and hockey games. These were parodied by Harvard alumnus Tom Lehrer in his song "Fight Fiercely, Harvard," which he composed while an undergraduate.
2nd President of the United States John Adams (AB, 1755; AM, 1758)
6th President of the United States John Quincy Adams (AB, 1787; AM, 1798)
19th President of the United States Rutherford B. Hayes (LLB, 1845)
26th President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Theodore Roosevelt (AB, 1880)
32nd President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt (AB, 1903)
American author, political activist, and lecturer Helen Keller (AB, Radcliffe College, 1904)
35th President of the United States John F. Kennedy (SB, 1940)
President of Liberia and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (MPA, 1971)
11th Prime Minister of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto (AB, Radcliffe College, 1973)
43rd President of the United States George W. Bush (MBA, 1975)
Founder of Microsoft Bill Gates (COL, 1977; LLD, 2007)
Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon (MPA, 1984)
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States Elena Kagan (JD, Harvard Law School, 1986)
44th President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Barack Obama (JD, 1991)
First Lady of the United States Michelle Obama (JD, 1988)
Co-Founder of Facebook Mark Zuckerberg (COL, 2006)
Harvard's faculty includes scholars such as biologist E. O. Wilson, psychologist Steven Pinker, physicists Lisa Randall and Roy Glauber, chemists Elias Corey, Dudley R. Herschbach and George M. Whitesides, computer scientists Michael O. Rabin and Leslie Valiant, Shakespeare scholar Stephen Greenblatt, writer Louis Menand, critic Helen Vendler, historians Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and Niall Ferguson, economists Amartya Sen, N. Gregory Mankiw, Robert Barro, Stephen A. Marglin, Don M. Wilson III and Martin Feldstein, political philosophers Harvey Mansfield, Baroness Shirley Williams and Michael Sandel, Fields Medalist mathematician Shing-Tung Yau, political scientists Robert Putnam, Joseph Nye, and Stanley Hoffmann, scholar/composers Robert Levin and Bernard Rands, astrophysicist Alyssa A. Goodman, and legal scholars Alan Dershowitz and Lawrence Lessig.
Literature and popular culture
Harvard's legacy as a leading research and educational institution has a significant impact in both academy and popular culture. Furthermore, the perception of Harvard as a center of either elite achievement, or elitist privilege, has made it a frequent literary and cinematic backdrop. "In the grammar of film, Harvard has come to mean both tradition, and a certain amount of stuffiness," film critic Paul Sherman has said.
- William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury (1929) and Absalom! Absalom! (1936) both depict Harvard student life.
- Of Time and the River (1935), Thomas Wolfe's fictionalized autobiography, includes his alter ego's student days at Harvard.
- The Late George Apley (1937; winner of the Pulitzer Prize), by John P. Marquand, parodies Harvard men at the opening of the 20th century.
- The Second Happiest Day (1953), by John P. Marquand, Jr., depicts the Harvard of the World War II generation.
Harvard's policy since 1970 has been to permit filming on its property only rarely, so most scenes set at Harvard (especially indoor shots, but excepting aerial footage and shots of public areas such as Harvard Square) are in fact shot elsewhere.
- Erich Segal's Love Story (1970), which concerns a romance between a wealthy hockey player (Ryan O'Neal) and a brilliant Radcliffe student of modest means (Ali MacGraw), is screened annually for incoming freshmen.
- The Paper Chase (1973)
- 2012 Harvard cheating scandal
- Academic regalia of Harvard University
- Gore Hall
- Harvard College
- Harvard University Police Department
- Harvard University Press
- Harvard/MIT Cooperative Society
- I, Too, Am Harvard
- List of universities by number of billionaire alumni
- Officially unrecognized Harvard College social clubs
- Outline of Harvard University
- President of Harvard University
- Secret Court of 1920
- Harvard's Veritas appears on the university's arms; heraldically speaking, however, a 'motto' is a word or phrase displayed on a scroll in conjunction with a shield of arms. Since 1692 University seals have borne Christo et Ecclesiae (for Christ and the Church) in this manner, arguably making that phrase the university's motto in a heraldic sense. This legend is otherwise not in general use today.
- Julie A. Reuben (1996). The Making of the Modern University: Intellectual Transformation and the Marginalization of Morality. University of Chicago Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-226-71020-4.
- An appropriation of £400 toward a "school or college" was voted on October 28, 1636 (OS), at a meeting which convened on September 8 and was adjourned to October 28. Some sources consider October 28, 1636 (OS) (November 7, 1636 NS) to be the date of founding. Harvard's 1936 tercentenary celebration treated September 18 as the founding date, though 1836 bicentennial was celebrated on September 8, 1836. Sources: meeting dates, Quincy, Josiah (1860). History of Harvard University. 117 Washington Street, Boston: Crosby, Nichols, Lee and Co., p. 586, "At a Court holden September 8th, 1636 and continued by adjournment to the 28th of the 8th month (October, 1636)... the Court agreed to give £400 towards a School or College, whereof £200 to be paid next year...." Tercentenary dates: "Cambridge Birthday". Time. September 28, 1936. Archived from the original on December 5, 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2006.: "Harvard claims birth on the day the Massachusetts Great and General Court convened to authorize its founding. This was Sept. 8, 1637 under the Julian calendar. Allowing for the ten-day advance of the Gregorian calendar, Tercentenary officials arrived at Sept. 18 as the date for the third and last big Day of the celebration;" "on Oct. 28, 1636 ... £400 for that 'school or college' [was voted by] the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony." Bicentennial date: Marvin Hightower (September 2, 2003). "Harvard Gazette: This Month in Harvard History". Harvard University. Archived from the original on September 8, 2006. Retrieved September 15, 2006., "Sept. 8, 1836 – Some 1,100 to 1,300 alumni flock to Harvard's Bicentennial, at which a professional choir premieres "Fair Harvard." ... guest speaker Josiah Quincy Jr., Class of 1821, makes a motion, unanimously adopted, 'that this assembly of the Alumni be adjourned to meet at this place on September 8, 1936.'" Tercentary opening of Quincy's sealed package: The New York Times, September 9, 1936, p. 24, "Package Sealed in 1836 Opened at Harvard. It Held Letters Written at Bicentenary": "September 8th, 1936: As the first formal function in the celebration of Harvard's tercentenary, the Harvard Alumni Association witnessed the opening by President Conant of the 'mysterious' package sealed by President Josiah Quincy at the Harvard bicentennial in 1836."
- As of June 30, 2017. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year (FY) 2017 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY2016 to FY2017" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute. 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 6, 2018.
- Office of Institutional Research. (2009). "Faculty". Harvard University Fact Book (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 25, 2012. ("Unduplicated, Paid Instructional Faculty Count: 2,107. Unduplicated instructional faculty count is the most appropriate count for general reporting purposes.")
- As of 1 March 2018[update]. "Harvard at a Glance". Harvard University. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
- "Harvard at a Glance". Harvard University. Retrieved November 2, 2015.
- Rudolph, Frederick (1961). The American College and University. University of Georgia Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-8203-1285-1.
- Keller, Morton; Keller, Phyllis (2001). Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University. Oxford University Press. pp. 463–481. ISBN 0-19-514457-0.
Harvard's professional schools... won world prestige of a sort rarely seen among social institutions. (...) Harvard's age, wealth, quality, and prestige may well shield it from any conceivable vicissitudes.
- Spaulding, Christina (1989). "Sexual Shakedown". In Trumpbour, John. How Harvard Rules: Reason in the Service of Empire. South End Press. pp. 326–336. ISBN 0-89608-284-9.
... [Harvard's] tremendous institutional power and prestige (...) Within the nation's (arguably) most prestigious institution of higher learning ...
- David Altaner (March 9, 2011). "Harvard, MIT Ranked Most Prestigious Universities, Study Reports". Bloomberg. Retrieved March 1, 2012.
- Collier's Encyclopedia. Macmillan Educational Co. 1986.
Harvard University, one of the world's most prestigious institutions of higher learning, was founded in Massachusetts in 1636.
- Newport, Frank. "Harvard Number One University in Eyes of Public Stanford and Yale in second place". Gallup.
- "ARWU – Harvard University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2015. Retrieved September 3, 2015.
- "The Week in Review: Harvard Ends Early Admissions and Guess Who Wins". The New York Times. September 17, 2006.
The most prestigious college in the world, of course, is Harvard, and the gap between it and every other university is often underestimated.
- Spaulding, Christina (1989). "Sexual Shakedown". In Trumpbour, John. How Harvard Rules: Reason in the Service of Empire. South End Press. pp. 326–336. ISBN 0-89608-284-9.
- Story, Ronald (1975). "Harvard and the Boston Brahmins: A Study in Institutional and Class Development, 1800–1865". Journal of Social History. 8 (3): 94–121. doi:10.1353/jsh/8.3.94.
- Farrell, Betty G. (1993). Elite Families: Class and Power in Nineteenth-Century Boston. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-1593-7.
- "Member Institutions and years of Admission". Association of American Universities. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
- "Faculties and Allied Institutions" (PDF). Office of the Provost, Harvard University. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2010. Retrieved August 27, 2010.
- "Faculties and Allied Institutions" (PDF). Office of the Provost, Harvard University. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 23, 2013. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
- "Carnegie Classifications – Harvard University". The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
- Rimer, Sara; Finder, Alan (December 10, 2007). "Harvard Steps Up Financial Aid". The New York Times.
- "Harvard Library Annual Report FY 2013". Harvard University Library. 2013. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
- "The Nation's Largest Libraries: A Listing By Volumes Held". American Library Association. May 2009. Retrieved August 19, 2009.
- "Speaking Volumes". Harvard Gazette. The President and Fellows of Harvard College. February 26, 1998. Archived from the original on September 9, 1999.
- "Joining the ranks of Rhodes". Harvard Gazette. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
- Janhavi Kumar Sapra (August 11, 2010). "Billionaire Universities". Forbes. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
- "Statistics". www.marshallscholarship.org.
- "The complete list of Fields Medal winners". areppim AG. 2014. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
- "Pulitzer Prize Winners". Harvard University. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
- "Harvard Olympians". gocrimson.com. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities——Harvard University Ranking Profile". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
- Ted Nesi (October 9, 2009). "Brown slips in world university rankings". Providence Business News. Archived from the original on October 15, 2009. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
- Morgan, John. "Top Six Universities Dominate THE World Reputation Rankings".
"The rankings suggest that the top six-...Stanford University and the University of Oxford – form a group of globally recognised "super brands".
- "World Reputation Rankings 2016". Times Higher Education. 2016. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
- "The instrument behind New England's first literary flowering". Harvard University. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- "Rowley and Ezekiel Rogers, The First North American Printing Press" (PDF). Maritime Historical Studies Centre, University of Hull. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- "John Harvard Facts, Information". The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. Retrieved July 17, 2009.
He bequeathed £780 (half his estate) and his library of 320 volumes to the new established college at Cambridge, Mass., which was named in his honor.
- Wright, Louis B. (2002). The Cultural Life of the American Colonies. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-486-42223-7.
- Grigg, John A.; Mancall, Peter C. (2008). British Colonial America: People and Perspectives. ABC-CLIO. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-59884-025-4.
- Harvard Office of News and Public Affairs (July 26, 2007). "Harvard guide intro". Harvard University. Archived from the original on July 26, 2007. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- Gary J. Dorrien. The Making of American Liberal Theology: Imagining Progressive Religion, 1805–1900, Volume 1. Westminster John Knox Press, 2001
- Peter S. Field Ralph Waldo Emerson: The Making of a Democratic Intellectual Rowman & Littlefield, 2003 ISBN 978-0847688425
- Nartonis, David K. (2005). "Louis Agassiz and the Platonist Story of Creation at Harvard, 1795–1846". Journal of the History of Ideas. 66 (3): 437–449. doi:10.1353/jhi.2005.0045. JSTOR 3654189.
- Shoemaker, Stephen P. (2006–2007). "The Theological Roots of Charles W. Eliot's Educational Reforms". Journal of Unitarian Universalist History. 31: 30–45.
- "Arader Galleries Iconic College Views", Rummell, Richard, Littig & Co. 1915
- Jerome Karabel (2006). The Chosen: The Hidden History of Admission and Exclusion at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. p. 23.
- Steinberg, Stephen (September 1, 1971). "How Jewish Quotas Began". Commentary. Retrieved September 10, 2017.
- Johnson, Dirk (March 4, 1986). "YALE'S LIMIT ON JEWISH ENROLLMENT LASTED UNTIL EARLY 1960'S, BOOK SAYS". The New York Times.
- "Lowell Tells Jews Limits at Colleges Might Help Them". The New York Times. June 17, 1922.
- Anita Fay Kravitz, "The Harvard Report of 1945: An historical ethnography", Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1994, 367 pages; AAT 9427558
- Malka A. Older. (1996). Preparatory schools and the admissions process. The Harvard Crimson, January 24, 1996
- Schwager, Sally (2004). "Taking up the Challenge: The Origins of Radcliffe". In Laurel Thatcher Ulrich (ed.). Yards and Gates: Gender in Harvard and Radcliffe History. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 115. ISBN 1-4039-6098-4.
- First class of women admitted to Harvard Medical School, 1945 (Report). Countway Repository, Harvard University Library. Retrieved May 2, 2016.
- Radcliffe Enters Historic Merger With Harvard (Report). Retrieved May 6, 2016.
- Alan Finder; Patrick D. Healy; Kate Zernicke (February 22, 2006). "President of Harvard Resigns, Ending Stormy 5-Year Tenure". The New York Times. Retrieved August 8, 2015.
- Associated Press (February 11, 2007). "Harvard Board Names First Woman President". NBC News. Retrieved August 8, 2015.
- "Harvard University names Lawrence Bacow its 29th president". Fox News. February 11, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
- Biography Archived June 26, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. in the Exeter Bulletin
- Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard. Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard. President and Fellows of Harvard College. 2016. Retrieved October 10, 2016
- "17 asr final cambridge criminal statistics rev 102017.pdf" (PDF). Harvard University Police Department. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
- "Institutional Ownership Map – Cambridge Massachusetts" (PDF).
- "Harvard Purchases Doubletree Hotel Building – News – The Harvard Crimson". www.thecrimson.com.
- Harvard continues its march into Allston, with science complex Tim Logan. Boston Globe. April 14, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2016
- "Allston Planning and Development / Office of the Executive Vice President". Harvard University. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
- Harvard unveils big campus expansion Svea Herbst-Bayliss. Reuters. January 12, 2007. Retrieved September 30, 2016
- "Concord Field Station". mcz.harvard.edu. Harvard University. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- "Villa I Tatti: The Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies". Itatti.it. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
- "Shanghai Center". Harvard.edu.
- Bethell, John T.; Hunt, Richard M.; Shenton, Robert (2009). Harvard A to Z. Harvard University Press. pp. 166–. ISBN 978-0-674-02089-4.
- Burlington Free Press, June 24, 2009, page 11B, ""Harvard to cut 275 jobs" Associated Press
- Office of Institutional Research (2009). Harvard University Fact Book 2009–2010 (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2011. ("Faculty")
- Harvard University. (2010). Financial Report, Fiscal Year 2010 (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 26, 2011. p. 20.
- "Harvard Endowment Rises $4.4 Billion to $32 Billion". Harvard Magazine. Vol. November–December. 2011. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
- "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2013 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2012 to FY 2013" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 1, 2014. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
- Beth Healy (January 28, 2010). "Harvard endowment leads others down". The Boston Globe. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- Hechinger, John (December 4, 2008). "Harvard Hit by Loss as Crisis Spreads to Colleges". Wall Street Journal. p. A1.
- Munk, Nina (August 2009). "Nina Munk on Hard Times at Harvard". Vanity Fair. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- Andrew M. Rosenfield (March 4, 2009). "Understanding Endowments, Part I". Forbes. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- Vidya B. Viswanathan and Peter F. Zhu (March 5, 2009). "Residents Protest Vacancies in Allston". Harvard Crimson. Retrieved February 10, 2011.
- "Locate Colleges Harvard University". Locatecolleges.com.
- Alli Welton (November 20, 2012). "Harvard Students Vote 72 Percent Support for Fossil Fuel Divestment". The Nation. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
- Michael C. George; David W. Kaufman (May 23, 2012). "Students Protest Investment in Apartheid South Africa". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
- Anjali Cadambi (September 19, 2010). "Harvard University community campaigns for divestment from apartheid South Africa, 1977–1989". Global Nonviolent Action Database. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
- John Trumpbour (1989). How Harvard Rules: Reason in the Service of Empire. South End Press. pp. 402–418. ISBN 978-0-89608-283-0.
- Robert Anthony Waters Jr. (March 20, 2009). Historical Dictionary of United States-Africa Relations. Scarecrow Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-8108-6291-3.
- "2,056 Accepted to Harvard Class of 2021". Retrieved May 24, 2017.
- Yaqhubi, Zohra D. "Harvard College Accepts Record Low of 5.8 Percent to the Class of 2017 | News | The Harvard Crimson". Thecrimson.com. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
- Finder, Alan; Arenson, Karen W. (September 12, 2006). "Harvard Ends Early Admission". The New York Times.
- Fernandes, Deirdre (August 3, 2017). "The majority of Harvard's incoming class is nonwhite". The Boston Globe. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
- Golden, Daniel (January 15, 2003). "Admissions Preferences Given to Alumni Children Draws Fire". The Wall Street Journal.
- Golden, Daniel (2006). The Price of Admission: How America's Ruling Class Buys Its Way into Elite Colleges—and Who Gets Left Outside the Gates. ISBN 1-4000-9796-7.
- "Affirmative Dissatisfaction". The Economist: 38. 2018-06-23.
- "Harvard's Ongoing Anti-Asian-American Micro-Aggression". National Review. 2018-06-19. Retrieved 2018-07-17.
- "A lawsuit reveals how peculiar Harvard's definition of merit is". The Economist. Retrieved 2018-07-17.
- Harvard College. "A Brief History of Harvard College". Harvard College. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
- "Roster of Institutions". Commission on Institutions of Higher Education, New England Association of Schools and Colleges. Archived from the original on August 28, 2013. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
- "Fields of Concentration". Handbook for Students. Harvard College. Archived from the original on August 3, 2012. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
- "Degree Programs" (PDF). Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Handbook. pp. 28–30. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 9, 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
- "Degrees Conferred by Program: Academic Year 2008–2009" (PDF). Institutional Research, Office of the Provost, Harvard University. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
- "Academic Information: The Core Curriculum Requirement". Handbook for Students. Harvard College. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
- "Academic Information: Program in General Education Requirement". Handbook for Students. Harvard College. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
- Hicks, D. L. (September 20, 2002). "Should Our Colleges Be Ranked?". The New York Times.
- Merrow, J. (2004). "Grade Inflation: It's Not Just an Issue for the Ivy League". Carnegie Perspectives. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
- "5 Year Academic Calendar". Harvard University. Archived from the original on September 1, 2006. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
- "Academic Information: Rate of Work". Handbook for Students. Harvard College. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
- "Academic Information: The Concentration Requirement". Handbook for Students. Harvard College. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
- "Academic Information: Requirements for Honors Degrees". Handbook for Students. Harvard College. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
- "Prizes". Faculty of Arts & Sciences. Harvard University. 2010.
- Primack, Phil (October 5, 2008). "Doesn't Anybody Get a C Anymore?". The Boston Globe.
- Kohn, A (November 8, 2002). "The Dangerous Myth of Grade Inflation". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Archived from the original on April 9, 2006.
- No author given. (2003). Brevia Archived March 26, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.. Harvard Magazine, January–February 2003.
- Milzoff, R. M., Paley, A. R., & Reed, B. J. (2001). Grade Inflation is Real. Fifteen Minutes March 1, 2001.
- Bombardieri, M. & Schweitzer, S. (2006). "At Harvard, more concern for top grades." The Boston Globe, February 12, 2006. p. B3 (Benedict Gross quotes, 23.7% A/25% A- figures, characterized as an "all-time high.").
- Associated Press. (2004). Princeton becomes first to formally combat grade inflation. USA Today, April 26, 2004.
- Davis, Kevin S. (February 15, 1994). "How Does Harvard Define Cheating?". The Harvard Crimson,. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
...Cheating incidences that appear before the Ad Board almost always result in requirement to withdraw by the student...
- Curry, Coleen (August 31, 2012). "Harvard Students Accused of Cheating on Final Exam Reflects 'Culture of Cheating,' Grad Says". ABC News. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- Hu, Melody Y.; Newcomer, Eric P. (March 24, 2010). "Administrators Discuss College Honor Code". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
"...one thing remains certain: many College administrators are looking for a way to combat academic dishonesty at Harvard—which Harris recently called a real problem"...
- Perez-Pena, Richard (February 1, 2013). "Students Disciplined in Harvard Scandal". The New York Times. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- Moya-Smith, Simon (September 6, 2013). "Survey: 42 percent of Harvard's incoming freshman class cheated on homework". NBC News. Retrieved September 6, 2013.
- Harrington, Rebecca (September 14, 2012). "Song of the Cheaters". The New York Times. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
"...an honor code, a system ... Harvard has long resisted
- "Harvard University Tuition And Costs". Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
- "Tuition at Harvard Schools: FY1990 – FY2010" (PDF). Harvard University. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 10, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
- Cowen, Tyler (September 8, 2017). "Legacy Students Make Harvard's Finances Work". Bloomberg News. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
- "Member Institutions and Years of Admission". Association of American Universities. Archived from the original on October 28, 2012. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- "Table 14: Higher education R&D expenditures, ranked by all R&D expenditures, by source of funds: FY 2011" (PDF). National Science Foundation. 2011. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- "2015-2016 WORLD RANKING (1-250)". University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP) Research Laboratory. 2015. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
- "College Hopes & Worries Press Release". PR Newswire. 2016. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
- "College ROI Report: Best Value Colleges". PayScale. 2016. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2017: USA". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- "America's Top Colleges". Forbes. July 5, 2016.
- "U.S. College Rankings 2018". Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education. Retrieved November 23, 2017.
- "Best Colleges 2017: National Universities Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. September 12, 2016.
- "2016 Rankings - National Universities". Washington Monthly. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2017". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2017. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- "QS World University Rankings® 2018". Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- "World University Rankings 2016-17". THE Education Ltd. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
- "Best Global Universities Rankings: 2017". U.S. News & World Report LP. Retrieved October 25, 2016.
- "Harvard University – U.S. News Best Grad School Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
- "Harvard University – U.S. News Best Global University Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
- "Degree Student Head Count: Fall 2010" (PDF). Harvard University. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 18, 2013. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
- See Demographics of the United States for references.
- "Fall Headcount Enrollment, 2008–2012" (PDF). The Office of the Provost. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 16, 2013. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2011. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
- "Yale and Harvard Defeat Oxford/Cambridge Team". Yale University Athletics. Retrieved September 13, 2011.
- "History of American Football". Newsdial.com. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- Nelson, David M., Anatomy of a Game: Football, the Rules, and the Men Who Made the Game, 1994, pp. 127–128
- "Harvard : Women's Rugby Becomes 42nd Varsity Sport at Harvard University". Gocrimson.com. August 9, 2012. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
- "The Harvard Guide: Financial Aid at Harvard". Harvard University. September 2, 2006. Archived from the original on September 2, 2006. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- Thomas, Sarah (September 24, 2010). "'Social Network' taps other campuses for Harvard role". Boston.com.
‘In the grammar of film, Harvard has come to mean both tradition, and a certain amount of stuffiness.... Someone from Missouri who has never lived in Boston ... can get this idea that it’s all trust fund babies and ivy-covered walls.’
- King, Michael (2002). Wrestling with the Angel. p. 371.
...praised as an iconic chronicle of his generation and his WASP-ish class.
- Halberstam, Michael J. (February 18, 1953). "White Shoe and Weak Will". Harvard Crimson.
The book is written slickly, but without distinction.... The book will be quick, enjoyable reading for all Harvard men.
- Yardley, Jonathan (December 23, 2009). "Second Reading". The Washington Post.
'...a balanced and impressive novel...' [is] a judgment with which I [agree].
- Du Bois, William (February 1, 1953). "Out of a Jitter-and-Fritter World". The New York Times. p. BR5.
exhibits Mr. Phillips' talent at its finest
- "John Phillips, The Second Happiest Day". Southwest Review. 38. p. 267.
So when the critics say the author of "The Second Happiest Day" is a new Fitzgerald, we think they may be right.
- Schwartz, Nathaniel L. (September 21, 1999). "University, Hollywood Relationship Not Always a 'Love Story'". Harvard Crimson. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- Sarah Thomas (September 24, 2010). "'Social Network' taps other campuses for Harvard role". boston.com.
- "Never Having To Say You're Sorry for 25 Years..." Harvard Crimson. June 3, 1996. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- Vinciguerra, Thomas (August 20, 2010). "The Disease: Fatal. The Treatment: Mockery". The New York Times.
- Gewertz, Ken (February 8, 1996). "A Many-Splendored 'Love Story'. Movie filmed at Harvard 25 years ago helped to define a generation". Harvard University Gazette.
- Walsh, Colleen (October 2, 2012). "The Paper Chase at 40". Harvard Gazette.
- Abelmann, Walter H., ed. The Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology: The First 25 Years, 1970–1995 (2004). 346 pp.
- Beecher, Henry K. and Altschule, Mark D. Medicine at Harvard: The First 300 Years (1977). 569 pp.
- Bentinck-Smith, William, ed. The Harvard Book: Selections from Three Centuries (2d ed.1982). 499 pp.
- Bethell, John T.; Hunt, Richard M.; and Shenton, Robert. Harvard A to Z (2004). 396 pp. excerpt and text search
- Bethell, John T. Harvard Observed: An Illustrated History of the University in the Twentieth Century, Harvard University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-674-37733-8
- Bunting, Bainbridge. Harvard: An Architectural History (1985). 350 pp.
- Carpenter, Kenneth E. The First 350 Years of the Harvard University Library: Description of an Exhibition (1986). 216 pp.
- Cuno, James et al. Harvard's Art Museums: 100 Years of Collecting (1996). 364 pp.
- Elliott, Clark A. and Rossiter, Margaret W., eds. Science at Harvard University: Historical Perspectives (1992). 380 pp.
- Hall, Max. Harvard University Press: A History (1986). 257 pp.
- Hay, Ida. Science in the Pleasure Ground: A History of the Arnold Arboretum (1995). 349 pp.
- Hoerr, John, We Can't Eat Prestige: The Women Who Organized Harvard; Temple University Press, 1997, ISBN 1-56639-535-6
- Howells, Dorothy Elia. A Century to Celebrate: Radcliffe College, 1879–1979 (1978). 152 pp.
- Keller, Morton, and Phyllis Keller. Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University (2001), major history covers 1933 to 2002 online edition
- Lewis, Harry R. Excellence Without a Soul: How a Great University Forgot Education (2006) ISBN 1-58648-393-5
- Morison, Samuel Eliot. Three Centuries of Harvard, 1636–1936 (1986) 512pp; excerpt and text search
- Powell, Arthur G. The Uncertain Profession: Harvard and the Search for Educational Authority (1980). 341 pp.
- Reid, Robert. Year One: An Intimate Look inside Harvard Business School (1994). 331 pp.
- Rosovsky, Henry. The University: An Owner's Manual (1991). 312 pp.
- Rosovsky, Nitza. The Jewish Experience at Harvard and Radcliffe (1986). 108 pp.
- Seligman, Joel. The High Citadel: The Influence of Harvard Law School (1978). 262 pp.
- Sollors, Werner; Titcomb, Caldwell; and Underwood, Thomas A., eds. Blacks at Harvard: A Documentary History of African-American Experience at Harvard and Radcliffe (1993). 548 pp.
- Trumpbour, John, ed., How Harvard Rules. Reason in the Service of Empire, Boston: South End Press, 1989, ISBN 0-89608-283-0
- Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher, ed., Yards and Gates: Gender in Harvard and Radcliffe History, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. 337 pp.
- Winsor, Mary P. Reading the Shape of Nature: Comparative Zoology at the Agassiz Museum (1991). 324 pp.
- Wright, Conrad Edick. Revolutionary Generation: Harvard Men and the Consequences of Independence (2005). 298 pp.