Gerald C. MacCallum Jr.Wikipedia open wikipedia design.
MacCallum is well known for his critique to the distinction, made famous by Isaiah Berlin, between negative and positive liberty, proposing instead that the concept of freedom can only be understood as a 'triadic relation', in which "x is (is not) free from y to do (not do, become, not become) z".
- William H. Hay; Rex Martin & Marcus Singer (November 1987). "Gerald C. MacCallum, Jr. 1925–1987". Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association. 61 (2): 383.
- MacCallum, Gerald C. (July 1967). "Negative and Positive Freedom". The Philosophical Review. 76 (3): 314. doi:10.2307/2183622.