George H. W. Bush

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George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait (cropped).jpg
41st President of the United States
In office
January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993
Vice PresidentDan Quayle
Preceded byRonald Reagan
Succeeded byBill Clinton
43rd Vice President of the United States
In office
January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989
PresidentRonald Reagan
Preceded byWalter Mondale
Succeeded byDan Quayle
11th Director of Central Intelligence
In office
January 30, 1976 – January 20, 1977
PresidentGerald Ford
Deputy
Preceded byWilliam Colby
Succeeded byStansfield Turner
2nd Chief of the U.S. Liaison Office to the People's Republic of China
In office
September 26, 1974 – December 7, 1975
PresidentGerald Ford
Preceded byDavid K. E. Bruce
Succeeded byThomas S. Gates Jr.
Chair of the Republican National Committee
In office
January 19, 1973 – September 16, 1974
Preceded byBob Dole
Succeeded byMary Smith
10th United States Ambassador to the United Nations
In office
March 1, 1971 – January 18, 1973
PresidentRichard Nixon
Preceded byCharles Yost
Succeeded byJohn A. Scali
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Texas's 7th district
In office
January 3, 1967 – January 3, 1971
Preceded byJohn Dowdy
Succeeded byBill Archer
Personal details
Born
George Herbert Walker Bush

(1924-06-12)June 12, 1924
Milton, Massachusetts, U.S.
DiedNovember 30, 2018(2018-11-30) (aged 94)
Houston, Texas, U.S.
Resting placeGeorge H.W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)
Barbara Pierce
(m. 1945; died 2018)
Children
Parents
Relatives See Bush family
EducationYale University (BA)
SignatureCursive signature in ink
WebsitePresidential Library
Military service
Nickname(s)"Skin"
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Navy
Years of service1942–1945
RankUS Navy O3 infobox.svg Lieutenant
UnitFast Carrier Task Force
Battles/warsWorld War II
Awards

George Herbert Walker Bush (June 12, 1924 – November 30, 2018) was an American politician and businessman who served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993. He is usually called George H. W. Bush, Bush Senior, or Bush 41, to distinguish him from his eldest son, George W. Bush, who served as the 43rd president from 2001 to 2009. A member of the Republican Party, Bush also served in the U.S. House of Representatives, as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, as Director of Central Intelligence, and as the 43rd vice president of the United States.

Bush was raised in Greenwich, Connecticut and attended Phillips Academy before serving in the United States Navy during World War II. After the war, he graduated from Yale University and moved to West Texas, where he established a successful oil company. After an unsuccessful run for the United States Senate, he won election to the 7th congressional district of Texas in 1966. President Richard Nixon appointed Bush to the position of Ambassador to the United Nations in 1971 and to the position of chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1973. In 1974, President Gerald Ford appointed him as the Chief of the Liaison Office in China, and in 1976 Bush became the Director of Central Intelligence. Bush ran for president in 1980, but was defeated in the Republican presidential primaries by Ronald Reagan. He was then elected vice president in 1980 and 1984 as Reagan's running mate.

In the 1988 presidential election, Bush defeated Democrat Michael Dukakis, becoming the first incumbent vice president to be elected president in 152 years. Foreign policy drove the Bush presidency, as he navigated the final years of the Cold War and played a key role in the reunification of Germany. Bush presided over the invasion of Panama and the Gulf War, ending the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait in the latter conflict. Though the agreement was not ratified until after he left office, Bush negotiated and signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which created a trade bloc consisting of the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Domestically, Bush reneged on a 1988 campaign promise by signing a bill that increased taxes and helped reduce the federal budget deficit. He also signed the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and appointed David Souter and Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court. Bush lost the 1992 presidential election to Democrat Bill Clinton following an economic recession and the decreased importance of foreign policy in a post–Cold War political climate.

After leaving office in 1993, Bush was active in humanitarian activities, often working alongside Clinton, his former opponent. With George W. Bush's victory in the 2000 presidential election, Bush and his son became the second father–son pair to serve as the nation's president, following John Adams and John Quincy Adams. Another son, Jeb Bush, unsuccessfully sought the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 Republican primaries. After a long battle with vascular Parkinson's disease, Bush died at his home on November 30, 2018. Historians generally rank Bush as an above average president.

Early life and education (1924–1948)

George Herbert Walker Bush was born in Milton, Massachusetts[1] on June 12, 1924. He was the second son of Prescott Bush and Prescott's wife, Dorothy (Walker) Bush.[2] His paternal grandfather, Samuel P. Bush, worked as an executive for a railroad parts company in Columbus, Ohio,[3] and his maternal grandfather, George Herbert Walker, led Wall Street investment bank W. A. Harriman & Co.[4] Bush was named after his maternal grandfather, who was known as "Pop", and young Bush was called "Poppy" as a tribute to his namesake.[5] The Bush family moved to Greenwich, Connecticut in 1925, and Prescott took a position with W. A. Harriman & Co. (which later merged into Brown Brothers Harriman & Co.) the following year.[6]

Bush spent most of his childhood in Greenwich, at the family vacation home in Kennebunkport, Maine,[a] or at his maternal grandparents' plantation in South Carolina.[8] Because of the family's wealth, Bush was largely unaffected by the Great Depression, a major economic downturn that led to high levels of unemployment for much of the 1930s.[9] He attended Greenwich Country Day School from 1929 to 1937[10] and Phillips Academy, an elite private academy in Andover, Massachusetts, from 1937 to 1942.[11] While at Phillips Academy, he served as president of the senior class, secretary of the student council, president of the community fund-raising group, a member of the editorial board of the school newspaper, and captain of the varsity baseball and soccer teams.[12]

World War II

Bush in his Grumman TBM Avenger aboard USS San Jacinto in 1944

On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the American naval base of Pearl Harbor, marking the start of U.S. participation in World War II. On his 18th birthday, immediately after graduating from Phillips Academy, he enlisted in the United States Navy as a naval aviator.[13] After a period of training, he was commissioned as an ensign in the Naval Reserve at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi on June 9, 1943, becoming one of the youngest aviators in the Navy.[14][b] Beginning in 1944, Bush served in the Pacific theater of World War II, where he flew a Grumman TBF Avenger, a torpedo bomber capable of taking off from aircraft carriers.[19] His squadron was assigned to the USS San Jacinto as a member of Air Group 51, where his lanky physique earned him the nickname "Skin".[20]

Bush flew his first combat mission in May 1944[21] and was promoted to lieutenant (junior grade) on August 1, 1944. During an attack on a Japanese installation in Chichijima, Bush's aircraft successfully attacked several targets, but was downed by enemy fire.[18] Though both of Bush's fellow crew members died, Bush successfully bailed out from the aircraft and was rescued by the USS Finback.[22][c] Several of the aviators shot down during the attack were captured and executed, and their livers were eaten by their captors.[23] Bush's near-death experience shaped him profoundly, leading him to ask, "Why had I been spared and what did God have for me?"[24] He was later awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for his role in the mission.[25]

Bush returned to San Jacinto in November 1944, participating in operations in the Philippines.[18] In early 1945, he was assigned to a new combat squadron, VT-153, where he trained to take part in an invasion of mainland Japan. In September 1945, before any invasion took place, Japan surrendered following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.[26] Bush was released from active duty that same month, but was not formally discharged from the navy until October 1955, at which point he had reached the rank of lieutenant.[18] By the end of his period of active service, Bush had flown 58 missions, completed 128 carrier landings, and recorded 1228 hours of flight time.[27]

Marriage and college years

Bush, top right, surrounded by his family, mid 1960s

Bush met Barbara Pierce at a Christmas dance in Greenwich in December 1941,[28] and, after a period of courtship, they became engaged in December 1943.[29] While Bush was on leave from the navy, they married in Rye, New York, on January 6, 1945.[30] The Bushes enjoyed a strong marriage, and Barbara would later be a popular First Lady, seen by many as "a kind of national grandmother".[31][d] The marriage produced six children: George W. (b. 1946), Robin (b. 1949), Jeb (b. 1953), Neil (b. 1955), Marvin (b. 1956), and Doro (b. 1959).[13] Their oldest daughter, Robin, died of leukemia in 1953.[34]

Following the end of World War II, Bush enrolled at Yale University, where took part in an accelerated program that enabled him to graduate in two and a half years rather than the usual four.[13] He was a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity and was elected its president.[35] He also captained the Yale baseball team and played in the first two College World Series as a left-handed first baseman.[36] Like his father, he was a member of the Yale cheerleading squad[37] and was initiated into the Skull and Bones secret society. He graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1948 with a Bachelor of Arts degree, majoring in economics and minoring in sociology.[38]

Business career (1948–1963)

After graduating from Yale, Bush moved his young family to West Texas. Biographer Jon Meacham writes that Bush's relocation to Texas allowed him to move out of the "daily shadow of his Wall Street father and Grandfather Walker, two dominant figures in the financial world", but would still allow Bush to "call on their connections if he needed to raise capital."[39] His first position in Texas was an oil field equipment salesman[40] for Dresser Industries, which was led by family friend Neil Mallon.[41] While working for Dresser, Bush lived in various places with his family: Odessa, Texas; Ventura, Bakersfield and Compton, California; and Midland, Texas.[42] In 1952, he volunteered for the successful presidential campaign of Republican candidate Dwight D. Eisenhower. That same year, his father won election to represent Connecticut in the United States Senate as a member of the Republican Party.[43]

With support from Mallon and Bush's uncle, George Herbert Walker Jr., Bush and John Overbey launched the Bush-Overbey Oil Development Company in 1951.[44] In 1953 he co-founded the Zapata Petroleum Corporation, an oil company that drilled in the Permian Basin in Texas.[45] In 1954, he was named president of the Zapata Offshore Company, a subsidiary which specialized in offshore drilling.[46] Shortly after the subsidiary became independent in 1959, Bush moved the company and his family from Midland to Houston.[47] In Houston, he befriended James Baker, a prominent attorney who later became an important political ally.[48] Bush remained involved with Zapata until the mid-1960s, when he sold his stock in the company for approximately $1 million.[49] In 1988, The Nation published an article alleging that Bush worked as an operative of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) during the 1960s; Bush denied this allegation.[50]

Early political career (1963–1971)

Entry into politics

Former president Dwight D. Eisenhower with Bush

By the early 1960s, Bush was widely regarded as an appealing political candidate, and some leading Democrats attempted to convince Bush to become a Democrat. He declined to leave the Republican Party, later citing his belief that the national Democratic Party favored "big, centralized government". The Democratic Party had historically dominated Texas, but Republicans scored their first major victory in the state with John G. Tower's victory in a 1961 special election to the United States Senate. Motivated by Tower's victory, and hoping to prevent the far-right John Birch Society from coming to power, Bush ran for the chairmanship of the Harris County, Texas Republican Party, winning election in February 1963.[51] Like most other Texas Republicans, Bush supported conservative Senator Barry Goldwater over the more centrist Nelson Rockefeller in the 1964 Republican Party presidential primaries.[52]

In 1964, Bush sought to unseat liberal Democrat Ralph W. Yarborough in Texas's U.S. Senate election.[53] Bolstered by superior fundraising, Bush won the Republican primary by defeating former gubernatorial nominee Jack Cox in a run-off election. In the general election, Bush attacked Yarborough's vote for the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which banned racial and gender discrimination in public institutions and in many privately-owned businesses. Bush argued that the act unconstitutionally expanded the powers of the federal government, but he was privately uncomfortable with the racial politics of opposing the act.[54] He lost the election 56 percent to 44 percent, though he did run well ahead of Goldwater, the Republican presidential nominee.[53] Despite the loss, the New York Times reported that Bush was "rated by political friend and foe alike as the Republicans' best prospect in Texas because of his attractive personal qualities and the strong campaign he put up for the Senate".[55]

Congressional years

Bush in 1969

In 1966, Bush ran for the United States House of Representatives in Texas's 7th congressional district, a newly redistricted seat in the Greater Houston area. Initial polling showed him trailing his Democratic opponent, Harris County District Attorney Frank Briscoe, but he ultimately won the race with 57 percent of the vote.[56] In an effort to woo potential candidates in the South and Southwest, House Republicans secured Bush an appointment to the powerful United States House Committee on Ways and Means, making Bush the first freshman to serve on the committee since 1904.[57] His voting record in the House was generally conservative. He supported the Nixon administration's Vietnam policies, but broke with Republicans on the issue of birth control, which he supported. He also voted for the Civil Rights Act of 1968, although it was generally unpopular in his district.[58] In 1968, Bush joined several other Republicans in issuing the party's Response to the State of the Union address; Bush's part of the address focused on a call for fiscal responsibility.[59]

Though most other Texas Republicans supported Ronald Reagan in the 1968 Republican Party presidential primaries, Bush endorsed Richard Nixon, who went on to win the party's nomination. Nixon considered selecting Bush as his running mate in the 1968 presidential election, but he ultimately chose Spiro Agnew instead. Bush won re-election to the House unopposed, while Nixon defeated Hubert Humphrey in the presidential election.[60] In 1970, with President Nixon's support, Bush gave up his seat in the House to run for the Senate against Yarborough. Bush easily won the Republican primary, but Yarborough was defeated by the more centrist Lloyd Bentsen in the Democratic primary.[61] Ultimately, Bentsen defeated Bush, taking 53.5 percent of the vote.[62]

Nixon and Ford administrations (1971–1977)

Ambassador to the United Nations

Bush as ambassador to the United Nations, 1971

After the 1970 Senate election, Bush accepted a position as a senior adviser to the president, but he convinced Nixon to instead appoint him as the U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations.[63] The position represented Bush's first foray into foreign policy, as well as his first major experiences with the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China, the two major U.S. rivals in the Cold War.[64] During Bush's tenure, the Nixon administration pursued a policy of détente, seeking to ease tensions with both the Soviet Union and China.[65] Bush's ambassadorship was marked by a defeat on the China question, as the United Nations General Assembly voted to expel the Republic of China and replace it with the People's Republic of China in October 1971.[66]

Chairman of the Republican National Committee

After Nixon won a landslide victory in the 1972 presidential election, he appointed Bush as chair of the Republican National Committee (RNC).[67] In that position, he was charged with fundraising, candidate recruitment, and making appearances on behalf of the party in the media.

When Agnew was being investigated for corruption, Bush assisted, at the request of Nixon and Agnew, in pressuring John Glenn Beall Jr., the U.S. Senator from Maryland to force his brother, George Beall the U.S. Attorney in Maryland, who was supervising the investigation into Agnew. Attorney Bealls ignored the pressure.[68]

During Bush's tenure at the RNC, the Watergate scandal emerged into public view; the scandal originated from the June 1972 break-in of the Democratic National Committee, but also involved later efforts to cover up the break-in by Nixon and other members of the White House.[69] Bush initially defended Nixon steadfastly, but as Nixon's complicity became clear he focused more on defending the Republican Party.[58]

Following the resignation of Vice President Agnew in 1973 for a scandal unrelated to Watergate, Bush was considered for the position of vice president, but the appointment instead went to Gerald Ford.[70] After the public release of an audio recording that confirmed that Nixon had plotted to use the CIA to cover up the Watergate break-in, Bush joined other party leaders in urging Nixon to resign.[71] When Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974, Bush noted in his diary that "There was an aura of sadness, like somebody died... The [resignation] speech was vintage Nixon—a kick or two at the press—enormous strains. One couldn't help but look at the family and the whole thing and think of his accomplishments and then think of the shame... [President Gerald Ford's swearing-in offered] indeed a new spirit, a new lift."[72]

Head of U.S. Liaison Office in China

Bush as U.S. Liaison to China, circa 1975

Upon his ascension to the presidency, Ford strongly considered Bush, Donald Rumsfeld, and Nelson Rockefeller for the vacant position of vice president. Ford ultimately chose Nelson Rockefeller, partly because of the publication of a news report claiming that Bush's 1970 campaign had benefited from a secret fund set up by Nixon; Bush was later cleared of any suspicion by a special prosecutor.[73] Bush accepted appointment as Chief of the U.S. Liaison Office in the People's Republic of China, making the him the de facto ambassador to China.[74] According to biographer Jon Meacham, Bush's time in China convinced him that American engagement abroad was needed to ensure global stability, and that the United States "needed to be visible but not pushy, muscular but not domineering."[75]

Director of Central Intelligence

Bush, as CIA Director, listens at a meeting following the assassinations in Beirut of Francis E. Meloy Jr. and Robert O. Waring, 1976.

In January 1976, Ford brought Bush back to Washington to become the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), placing him in charge of the CIA.[76] In the aftermath of the Watergate scandal and the Vietnam War, the CIA's reputation had been damaged for its role in various covert operations, and Bush was tasked with restoring the agency's morale and public reputation.[77][e] During Bush's year in charge of the CIA, the U.S. national security apparatus actively supported Operation Condor operations and right-wing military dictatorships in Latin America.[78][79] Meanwhile, Ford decided to drop Rockefeller from the ticket for the 1976 presidential election; he considered Bush as his running mate, but ultimately chose Bob Dole.[80] In his capacity as DCI, Bush gave national security briefings to Jimmy Carter both as a presidential candidate and as president-elect.[81]

1980 presidential election

1980 campaign logo

Bush's tenure at the CIA ended after Carter narrowly defeated Ford in the 1976 presidential election. Out of public office for the first time since the 1960s, Bush became chairman on the Executive Committee of the First International Bank in Houston.[82] He also spent a year as a part-time professor of Administrative Science at Rice University's Jones School of Business,[83] continued his membership in the Council on Foreign Relations, and joined the Trilateral Commission. Meanwhile, he began to lay the groundwork for his candidacy in the 1980 Republican Party presidential primaries.[84] In the 1980 Republican primary campaign, Bush would face Ronald Reagan, who was widely regarded as the front-runner, as well as other contenders like Senator Bob Dole, Senator Howard Baker, Texas Governor John Connally, Congressman Phil Crane, and Congressman John B. Anderson.[85]

Ronald Reagan, moderator Jon Breen, and Bush participate in the Nashua, New Hampshire Presidential Debate, 1980

Bush's campaign cast him as a youthful, "thinking man's candidate" who would emulate the pragmatic conservatism of President Eisenhower.[86] In the midst of the Soviet–Afghan War, which brought an end to a period of détente, and the Iran hostage crisis, in which 52 Americans were taken hostage, the campaign highlighted Bush's foreign policy experience.[87] At the outset of the race, Bush focused heavily on winning the January 21 Iowa caucuses, making 31 visits to the state.[88] Ultimately, he won a close victory Iowa with 31.5% to Reagan's 29.4%. After the win, Bush stated that his campaign was full of momentum, or "the Big Mo",[89] and Reagan reorganized his campaign.[90] Party in response to the Bush campaign's frequent questioning of Reagan's age (Reagan turned 69 in 1980), the Reagan campaign stepped up attacks on Bush, painting him as an elitist who was not truly committed to conservatism.[91] Prior to the New Hampshire primary, Bush and Reagan agreed to a two-person debate, organized by The Nashua Telegraph but paid for by the Reagan campaign.[90]

Days before the debate, Reagan announced that he would invite for other candidates to the debate; Bush, who had hoped that the one-on-one debate would allow him to emerge as the main alternative to Reagan in the primaries, refused to debate the other candidate. All six candidates took the stage, but Bush refused to speak in the presence of the other candidates. Ultimately, the other four candidates left the stage and the debate continued, but Bush's refusal to debate anyone other than Reagan badly damaged his campaign in New Hampshire.[92] He ended up decisively losing New Hampshire's primary to Reagan, winning just 23 percent of the vote.[90] Bush revitalized his campaign with a victory in Massachusetts, but lost the next several primaries. As Reagan built up a commanding delegate lead, Bush refused to end his campaign, but the other candidates dropped out of the race.[93] Criticizing his more conservative rival's policy proposals, Bush famously labeled Reagan's supply side-influenced plans for massive tax cuts as "voodoo economics".[94] Though he favored lower taxes, Bush feared that dramatic reductions in taxation would lead to deficits and, in turn, cause inflation.[95]

The Reagan-Bush ticket won the 1980 presidential election with 50.7% of the popular vote and a large majority of the electoral vote

After Reagan clinched a majority of delegates in late May, Bush reluctantly dropped out of the race.[96] At the 1980 Republican National Convention, Reagan made the last-minute decision to select Bush as his vice presidential nominee after negotiations with Ford regarding a Reagan-Ford ticket collapsed.[97] Though Reagan had resented many of the Bush campaign's attacks during the primary campaign, and several conservative leaders had actively opposed Bush's nomination, Reagan ultimately decided that Bush's popularity with moderate Republicans made him the best and safest pick.[98] Bush, who had believed his political career might be over following the primaries, eagerly accepted the position and threw himself into campaigning for the Reagan-Bush ticket.[99] The 1980 general election campaign between Reagan and Carter was conducted amid a multitude of domestic concerns and the ongoing Iran hostage crisis, and Reagan sought to focus the race on Carter's handling of the economy.[100] Though the race was widely regarded as a close contest for most of the campaign, Reagan ultimately won over the large majority of undecided voters.[101] Reagan took 50.7 percent of the popular vote and 489 of the 538 electoral votes, while Carter won 41% of the popular vote and John Anderson, running as an independent candidate, won 6.6% of the popular vote.[102]

Vice presidency (1981–1989)

Official portrait of Vice President Bush (1981)

As vice president, Bush generally maintained a low profile, recognizing the constitutional limits of the office; he avoided decision-making or criticizing Reagan in any way. This approach helped him earn Reagan's trust, easing tensions leftover from their earlier rivalry.[90] Bush also generally enjoyed a good relationship with Reagan staffers, including his close friend Jim Baker, who served as Reagan's initial chief of staff.[103] His understanding of the vice presidency was heavily influenced by Vice President Walter Mondale, who enjoyed a strong relationship with President Carter in part because of his ability to avoid confrontations with senior staff and Cabinet members, and by Vice President Nelson Rockfeller's difficult relationship with some members of the White House staff during the Ford administration.[104] The Bushes attended a large number of public and ceremonial events in their positions, including many state funerals, which became a common joke for comedians. As the President of the Senate, Bush also stayed in contact with members of Congress and kept the president informed on occurrences on Capitol Hill.[90]

First term

President Ronald Reagan with Bush

On March 30, 1981, while Bush was in Texas, Reagan was shot and seriously wounded by John Hinckley Jr. Bush immediately flew back from Washington D.C.; when his plane landed, his aides advised him to proceed directly to the White House by helicopter in order to show that the government was still functioning.[90] Bush rejected the idea, as he feared that such a dramatic scene risked giving the impression that he sought to usurp Reagan's powers and prerogatives.[105] During Reagan's short period of incapacity, Bush presided over Cabinet meetings, met with congressional leaders and foreign leaders, and briefed reporters, but he consistently rejected the possibility of invoking the Twenty-fifth Amendment.[106] Bush's handling of the attempted assassination and its aftermath made a positive impression on Reagan, who recovered and returned to work within two weeks of the shooting. From then on, the two men would have regular Thursday lunches in the Oval Office.[107]

Bush was assigned by Reagan to chair two special task forces, one on deregulation and one on international drug smuggling. Both were popular issues with conservatives, and Bush, largely a moderate, began courting them through his work. The deregulation task force reviewed hundreds of rules, making specific recommendations on which ones to amend or revise, in order to curb the size of the federal government.[90] The Reagan administration's deregulation push had a strong impact on broadcasting, finance, resource extraction, and other economic activities, and the administration eliminated numerous government positions.[108] Bush also oversaw the administration's national security crisis management organization, which had traditionally been the responsibility of the National Security Advisor.[109] In 1983, Bush toured Western Europe as part of the Reagan administration's ultimately successful efforts to convince skeptical NATO allies to support the deployment of Pershing II missiles.[110]

Reagan's approval ratings fell after his first year in office, but they bounced back when the United States began to emerge from recession in 1983.[111] Former Vice President Walter Mondale was nominated by the Democratic Party in the 1984 presidential election. Down in the polls, Mondale selected Congresswoman Geraldine Ferraro as his running mate in hopes of galvanizing support for his campaign, thus making Ferraro the first female major party vice presidential nominee in U.S. history.[112] She and Bush squared off in a single televised vice presidential debate.[90] Public opinion polling consistently showed a Reagan lead in the 1984 campaign, and Mondale was unable to shake up the race.[113] In the end, Reagan won re-election, winning 49 of 50 states and receiving 59% of the popular vote to Mondale's 41%.[114] On July 13, 1985, Bush became the first vice president to serve as acting president when Reagan underwent surgery to remove polyps from his colon; Bush served as the acting president for approximately eight hours.[115]

Second term

Vice President Bush standing with President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev on the New York City waterfront in 1988

Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet Union in 1985; less ideologically rigid than his predecessors, Gorbachev believed that the Soviet Union urgently needed economic and political reforms.[116] At the 1987 Washington Summit, Gorbachev and Reagan signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, which committed both signatories to the total abolition of their respective short-range and medium-range missile stockpiles.[117] The treaty marked the beginning of a new era of trade, openness, and cooperation between the two powers.[118] Though President Reagan and Secretary of State George Shultz took the lead in these negotiations, Bush sat in on many meetings and promised Gorbachev that he would seek to continue improving Soviet-U.S. relations if he succeeded Reagan.[119]

In 1986, the Reagan administration was shaken by a scandal when it was revealed that administration officials had secretly arranged weapon sales to Iran during the Iran–Iraq War. The officials had used the proceeds to fund the anti-communist Contras in Nicaragua, which was a direct violation of law.[90] When news of affair broke to the media, Bush, like Reagan, stated that he had been "out of the loop" and unaware of the diversion of funds, although this has assertion has since been challenged.[120] Biographer Jon Meacham writes that "no evidence was ever produced proving Bush was aware of the diversion to the contras," but he criticizes Bush's "out of the loop" characterization, writing that the "record is clear that Bush was aware that the United States, in contravention of its own stated policy, was trading arms for hostages".[121] The Iran–Contra scandal, as it became known, did serious damage to the Reagan presidency, raising questions about Reagan's competency.[122] Congress established the Tower Commission to investigate the scandal, and, at Reagan's request, a panel of federal judges appointed Lawrence Walsh as a special prosecutor charged with investigating the Iran–Contra scandal.[123] The investigations continued after Reagan left office and, though Bush was never charged with a crime, the Iran–Contra scandal would remain a political liability for him.[124]

1988 presidential election

1988 Campaign logo
John Ashcroft and Vice President Bush campaign in St. Louis, Missouri, 1988

Bush began planning for a presidential run after the 1984 election, and he officially entered the 1988 Republican Party presidential primaries in October 1987.[90] He put together a campaign led by Reagan staffer Lee Atwater, and which also included his son, George W. Bush, and media consultant Roger Ailes.[125] Though he had moved to the right during his time as vice president, endorsing a Human Life Amendment and repudiating his earlier comments on "voodoo economics," Bush still faced opposition from many conservatives in the Republican Party.[126] His major rivals for the Republican nomination were Senate Minority Leader Bob Dole of Kansas, Congressman Jack Kemp of New York, and Christian televangelist Pat Robertson.[127] Reagan did not publicly endorse any candidate, but he privately expressed support for Bush.[128]

Though considered the early front-runner for the nomination, Bush came in third in the Iowa caucus, behind Dole and Robertson.[129] Much as Reagan had done in 1980, Bush reorganized his staff and concentrated on the New Hampshire primary.[90] With help from Governor John H. Sununu and an effective campaign attacking Dole for raising taxes, Bush overcame an initial polling deficit and won New Hampshire with 39 percent of the vote.[130] After Bush won South Carolina and 16 of the 17 states holding a primary on Super Tuesday, his competitors dropped out of the race.[131]

Bush, occasionally criticized for his lack of eloquence when compared to Reagan, delivered a well-received speech at the Republican convention. Known as the "thousand points of light" speech, it described Bush's vision of America: he endorsed the Pledge of Allegiance, prayer in schools, capital punishment, and gun rights.[132] Bush also pledged that he would not raise taxes, stating: "Congress will push me to raise taxes, and I'll say no, and they'll push, and I'll say no, and they'll push again. And all I can say to them is: read my lips. No new taxes."[133] Bush selected little-known Senator Dan Quayle of Indiana as his running mate. Though Quayle had compiled an unremarkable record in Congress, he was popular among many conservatives, and the campaign hoped that Quayle's youth would appeal to younger voters.[134]

Bush won the 1988 presidential election with 53.4% of the popular vote and a large majority of the electoral vote

Meanwhile, the Democratic Party nominated Governor Michael Dukakis, who was known for presiding over an economic turnaround in Massachusetts.[135] Leading in the general election polls against Bush, Dukakis ran an ineffective, low-risk campaign.[136] The Bush campaign attacked Dukakis as an unpatriotic liberal extremist and seized on Dukakis's pardon of Willie Horton, a convicted felon from Massachusetts who had raped a woman while on a prison furlough. The Bush campaign charged that Dukakis presided over a "revolving door" that allowed dangerous convicted felons to leave prison.[137] Dukakis damaged his own campaign with a widely mocked ride in an M1 Abrams tank and a poor performance at the second presidential debate.[138] Bush also attacked Dukakis for opposing a law that would require all students to recite the Pledge of Allegiance.[132] The election is widely considered to have had a high level of negative campaigning, though political scientist John Geer has argued that the share of negative ads was in line with previous presidential elections.[139]

Bush defeated Dukakis by a margin of 426 to 111 in the Electoral College, and he took 53.4 percent of the national popular vote.[140] Bush ran well in all the major regions of the country, but especially in the South.[141] He became the first sitting vice president to be elected president since Martin Van Buren in 1836, as well as the first person to succeed a president from his own party via election since Herbert Hoover in 1929.[90][f] In the concurrent congressional elections, Democrats retained control of both houses of Congress.[143]

Presidency (1989–1993)

Chief Justice William Rehnquist administers the Presidential Oath of Office to George H. W. Bush

Bush was inaugurated on January 20, 1989, succeeding Ronald Reagan. In his inaugural address, Bush said:

I come before you and assume the Presidency at a moment rich with promise. We live in a peaceful, prosperous time, but we can make it better. For a new breeze is blowing, and a world refreshed by freedom seems reborn; for in man's heart, if not in fact, the day of the dictator is over. The totalitarian era is passing, its old ideas blown away like leaves from an ancient, lifeless tree. A new breeze is blowing, and a nation refreshed by freedom stands ready to push on. There is new ground to be broken, and new action to be taken.[144]

The Bush Cabinet
OfficeNameTerm
PresidentGeorge H. W. Bush1989–1993
Vice PresidentDan Quayle1989–1993
Secretary of StateJames Baker1989–1992
Lawrence Eagleburger1992–1993
Secretary of TreasuryNicholas Brady1989–1993
Secretary of DefenseDick Cheney1989–1993
Attorney GeneralDick Thornburgh1989–1991
William P. Barr1991–1993
Secretary of the InteriorManuel Lujan1989–1993
Secretary of AgricultureClayton Yeutter1989–1991
Edward Madigan1991–1993
Secretary of CommerceRobert Mosbacher1989–1992
Barbara Hackman Franklin1992–1993
Secretary of LaborElizabeth Dole1989–1990
Lynn Martin1991–1993
Secretary of Health and
Human Services
Louis Sullivan1989–1993
Secretary of EducationLauro Cavazos1989–1990
Lamar Alexander1990–1993
Secretary of Housing and
Urban Development
Jack Kemp1989–1993
Secretary of TransportationSamuel Skinner1989–1992
Andrew Card1992–1993
Secretary of EnergyJames Watkins1989–1993
Secretary of Veterans AffairsEd Derwinski1989–1993
Chief of StaffJohn H. Sununu1989–1991
Samuel Skinner1991–1992
James Baker1992–1993
Administrator of the
Environmental Protection Agency
William Reilly1989–1993
Director of the Office of
Management and Budget
Richard Darman1989–1993
Director of the Office of
National Drug Control Policy
William Bennett1989–1991
Bob Martinez1991–1993
United States Trade RepresentativeCarla Anderson Hills1989–1993

Bush's first major appointment was that of James Baker as Secretary of State.[145] Leadership of the Department of Defense went to Dick Cheney, who had had previously served as Gerald Ford's chief of staff and would later serve as vice president under George W. Bush.[146] Jack Kemp joined the administration as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, while Elizabeth Dole, the wife of Bob Dole and a former Secretary of Transportation, became the Secretary of Labor under Bush.[147] Bush retained several Reagan officials, including Secretary of the Treasury Nicholas F. Brady, Attorney General Dick Thornburgh, and Secretary of Education Lauro Cavazos.[148] New Hampshire Governor John Sununu, a strong supporter of Bush during the 1988 campaign, became chief of staff.[145] Brent Scowcroft was appointed as the National Security Advisor, a role he had also held under Ford.[149]

Foreign affairs

End of the Cold War

Map showing the division of East and West Germany until 1990, with West Berlin in yellow.

During the first year of his tenure, Bush pursued what Soviets referred to as the pauza, a break in Reagan's détente policies.[150] Bush and his advisers were initially divided on Gorbachev; some administration officials saw him as a democratic reformer, but others suspected him of trying to make the minimum changes necessary to restore the Soviet Union to a competitive position with the United States.[151] In 1989, Communist governments fell in Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, the governments of Bulgaria and Romania instituted major reforms, and the government of East Germany opened the Berlin Wall, which was subsequently demolished by gleeful Berliners.[152] Many Soviet leaders urged Gorbachev to crush the dissidents in Eastern Europe, but Gorbachev declined to send in the Soviet military, effectively abandoning the Brezhnev Doctrine.[153] The U.S. was not directly involved in these upheavals, but the Bush administration avoided the appearance of gloating over the demise of the Eastern Bloc to avoid undermining further democratic reforms.[152] Bush also helped convince Polish leaders to allow democratic elections and became the first sitting U.S. president to visit Hungary.[154]

By mid-1989, as unrest blanketed Eastern Europe, Bush requested a meeting with Gorbachev, and the two agreed to hold the December 1989 Malta Summit.[153] Though many on the right remained wary of Gorbachev, Bush came away from the Malta Summit with the belief that Gorbachev would negotiate in good faith.[155] For the remainder of his term, Bush sought cooperative relations with Gorbachev, believing that the Soviet leader was the key to peacefully ending the Soviet domination of Eastern Europe.[156] The key issue at the Malta Summit was the potential reunification of Germany.[157] While Britain and France were wary of a re-unified Germany, Bush joined West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl in pushing for German reunification.[158] Bush believed that a reunified Germany would serve U.S. interests, but he also saw reunification as providing a final symbolic end to World War II.[159] After extensive negotiations, Gorbachev agreed to allow a reunified Germany to be a part of NATO, and Germany officially reunified in October 1990.[160]

Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev at the Helsinki Summit in 1990

Though Gorbachev acquiesced to the democratization of Soviet satellite states, he suppressed nationalist movements within the Soviet Union itself.[161] A crisis in Lithuania left Bush in a difficult position, as he needed Gorbachev's cooperation in the reunification of Germany and feared that the collapse of the Soviet Union could leave nuclear arms in dangerous hands. The Bush administration mildly protested Gorbachev's suppression of Lithuania's independence movement, but took no action to directly intervene.[162] Bush warned independence movements of the disorder that could come with secession from the Soviet Union; in a 1991 address that critics labeled the "Chicken Kiev speech", he cautioned against "suicidal nationalism".[163] In July 1991, Bush and Gorbachev signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I) treaty, in which both countries agreed to cut their strategic nuclear weapons by 30 percent.[164]

In 1991, the Soviet Union dissolved into fifteen independent republics, including Russia (labeled 11)

In August 1991, hard-line Communists launched a coup against Gorbachev; while the coup quickly fell apart, it broke the remaining power of Gorbachev and the central Soviet government.[165] Later that month, Gorbachev resigned as general secretary of the Communist party, and Russian president Boris Yeltsin ordered the seizure of Soviet property. Gorbachev clung to power as the President of the Soviet Union until December 1991, when the Soviet Union dissolved.[166] Fifteen states emerged from the Soviet Union, and of those states, Russia was the largest and most populous. Bush and Yeltsin met in February 1992, declaring a new era of "friendship and partnership".[167] In January 1993, Bush and Yeltsin agreed to START II, which provided for further nuclear arms reductions on top of the original START treaty.[168] The collapse of the Soviet Union prompted reflections on the future of the world following the end of the Cold War; one political scientist, Francis Fukuyama, speculated that humanity had reached the "end of history" in that liberal, capitalist democracy had permanently triumphed over Communism and fascism.[169] Meanwhile, the collapse of the Soviet Union and other Communist governments led to post-Soviet conflicts in Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and Africa that would continue long after Bush left office.[170]

Invasion of Panama

During the 1980s, the U.S. had provided aid to Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega, an anti-Communist dictator who engaged in drug trafficking. In May 1989, Noriega annulled the results of a democratic presidential election in which Guillermo Endara had been elected. Bush objected to the annulment of the election and worried about the status of the Panama Canal with Noriega still in office.[171] Bush dispatched 2,000 soldiers to the country, where they began conducting regular military exercises in violation of prior treaties.[172] After a U.S. serviceman was shot by Panamanian forces in December 1989, Bush ordered the United States invasion of Panama, known as "Operation Just Cause". The invasion was the first large-scale American military operation in more than 40 years that was not related to the Cold War. American forces quickly took control of the Panama Canal Zone and Panama City. Noriega surrendered on January 3, 1990, and was quickly transported to a prison in the United States. Twenty-three Americans died in the operation, while another 394 were wounded. Noriega was convicted and imprisoned on racketeering and drug trafficking charges in April 1992.[171] Historian Stewart Brewer argues that the invasion "represented a new era in American foreign policy" because Bush did not justify the invasion under the Monroe Doctrine or the threat of Communism, but rather on the grounds that it was in the best interests of the United States.[173]

Gulf War

Iraq (green) invaded Kuwait (orange) in 1990

Faced with massive debts and low oil prices in the aftermath of the Iran–Iraq War, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein decided to conquer the country of Kuwait, a small, oil-rich country situated on Iraq's southern border.[174] After Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990, Bush imposed economic sanctions on Iraq and assembled a multi-national coalition opposed to the invasion.[175] The administration feared that a failure to respond to the invasion would embolden Hussein to attack Saudi Arabia or Israel, and wanted to discourage other countries from similar aggression.[176] Bush also wanted to ensure continued access to oil, as Iraq and Kuwait collectively accounted for 20 percent of the world's oil production, and Saudi Arabia produced another 26 percent of the world's oil supply.[177]

At Bush's insistence, in November 1990, the United Nations Security Council approved a resolution authorizing the use of force if Iraq did not withdrawal from Kuwait by January 15, 1991.[178] Gorbachev's support, as well as China's abstention, helped ensure passage of the UN resolution.[179] Bush convinced Britain, France, and other nations to commit soldiers to an operation against Iraq, and he won important financial backing from Germany, Japan, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.[180] In January 1991, Bush asked Congress to approve a joint resolution authorizing a war against Iraq.[181] Bush believed that the UN resolution had already provided him with the necessary authorization to launch a military operation against Iraq, but he wanted to show that the nation was united behind a military action.[182] Despite the opposition of a majority of Democrats in both the House and the Senate, Congress approved the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 1991.[181]

Bush meets with Robert Gates, General Colin Powell, Secretary Dick Cheney and others about the situation in the Persian Gulf

After the January 15 deadline passed without an Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait, U.S. and coalition forces began a conducted a bombing campaign that devastated Iraq's power grid and communications network, and resulted in the desertion of about 100,000 Iraqi soldiers. In retaliation, Iraq launched Scud missiles at Israel and Saudi Arabia, but most of the missiles did little damage. On February 23, coalition forces began a ground invasion into Kuwait, evicting Iraqi forces by the end of February 27. About 300 Americans, as well as approximately 65 soldiers from other coalition nations, died during the military action.[183] A cease fire was arranged on March 3, and the UN passed a resolution establishing a peacekeeping force in a demilitarized zone between Kuwait and Iraq.[184] A March 1991 Gallup poll showed that Bush had an approval rating of 89 percent, the highest presidential approval rating in the history of Gallup polling.[185] After 1991, the UN maintained economic sanctions against Iraq, and the United Nations Special Commission was assigned to ensure that Iraq did not revive its weapons of mass destruction program.[186]

NAFTA

From left to right: (standing) President Carlos Salinas, President Bush, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney; (seated) Jaime Serra Puche, Carla Hills, and Michael Wilson at the NAFTA Initialing Ceremony, October 1992

In 1987, the U.S. and Canada had reached a free trade agreement that eliminated many tariffs between the two countries. President Reagan had intended it as the first step towards a larger trade agreement to eliminate most tariffs among the United States, Canada, and Mexico.[187] The Bush administration, along with the Progressive Conservative Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, spearheaded the negotiations of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with Mexico. In addition to lowering tariffs, the proposed treaty would affected patents, copyrights, and trademarks.[188] In 1991, Bush sought fast track authority, which grants the president the power to submit an international trade agreement to Congress without the possibility of amendment. Despite congressional opposition led by House Majority Leader Dick Gephardt, both houses of Congress voted to grant Bush fast track authority. NAFTA was signed in December 1992, after Bush lost re-election,[189] but President Clinton won ratification of NAFTA in 1993.[190] NAFTA remains controversial for its impact on wages, jobs, and overall economic growth.[191]

Domestic affairs

Economy and fiscal issues

The U.S. economy had generally performed well since emerging from recession in late 1982, but it slipped into a mild recession in 1990. The unemployment rate rose from 5.9 percent in 1989 to a high of 7.8 percent in mid-1991.[192][193] Large federal deficits, spawned during the Reagan years, rose from $152.1 billion in 1989[194] to $220 billion for 1990;[195] the $220 billion deficit represented a threefold increase since 1980.[196] As the public became increasingly concerned about the economy and other domestic affairs, Bush's well-received handling of foreign affairs became less of an issue for most voters.[197] Bush's top domestic priority was to bring an end to federal budget deficits, which he saw as a liability for the country's long-term economic health and standing in the world.[198] As he was opposed to major defense spending cuts[199] and had pledged to not raise taxes, the president had major difficulties in balancing the budget.[200]

Bush and congressional leaders agreed to avoid major changes to the budget for fiscal year 1990, which began in October 1989. However, both sides knew that spending cuts or new taxes would be necessary in the following year's budget in order to avoid the draconian automatic domestic spending cuts required by the Gramm–Rudman–Hollings Balanced Budget Act of 1987.[201] Bush and other leaders also wanted to cut deficits because Federal Reserve Chair Alan Greenspan refused to lower interest rates, and thus stimulate economic growth, unless the federal budget deficit was reduced.[202] In a statement released in late June 1990, Bush said that he would be open to a deficit reduction program which included spending cuts, incentives for economic growth, budget process reform, as well as tax increases.[203] To fiscal conservatives in the Republican Party, Bush's statement represented a betrayal, and they heavily criticized him for compromising so early in the negotiations.[204]

In September 1990, Bush and Congressional Democrats announced a compromise to cut funding for mandatory and discretionary programs while also raising revenue, partly through a higher gas tax. The compromise additionally included a "pay as you go" provision that required that new programs be paid for at the time of implementation.[205] House Minority Whip Newt Gingrich led the conservative opposition to the bill, strongly opposing any form of tax increase.[206] Some liberals also criticized the budget cuts in the compromise, and in October, the House rejected the deal, resulting in a brief government shutdown. Without the strong backing of the Republican Party, Bush agreed to another compromise bill, this one more favorable to Democrats. The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 (OBRA-90), enacted on October 27, 1990, dropped much of the gasoline tax increase in favor of higher income taxes on top earners. It included cuts to domestic spending, but the cuts were not as deep as those that had been proposed in the original compromise. Bush's decision to sign the bill damaged his standing with conservatives and the general public, but it also laid the groundwork for the budget surpluses of the late 1990s.[207]

Civil rights

"Even the strongest person couldn't scale the Berlin Wall to gain the elusive promise of independence that lay just beyond. And so, together we rejoiced when that barrier fell. And now I sign legislation which takes a sledgehammer to another wall, one which has for too many generations separated Americans with disabilities from the freedom they could glimpse, but not grasp."

-Bush's remarks at the signing ceremony for the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990[208]

The disabled had not received legal protections under the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964, and many faced discrimination and segregation by the time Bush took office. In 1988, Lowell P. Weicker Jr. and Tony Coelho had introduced the Americans with Disabilities Act, which barred employment discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities. The bill had passed the Senate but not the House, and it was reintroduced in 1989. Though some conservatives opposed the bill due to its costs and potential burdens on businesses, Bush strongly supported it, partly because his son, Neil, had struggled with dyslexia. After the bill passed both houses of Congress, Bush signed the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 into law in July 1990.[209] The act required employers and public accommodations to make "reasonable accommodations" for the disabled, while providing an exception when such accommodations imposed an "undue hardship".[210] Senator Ted Kennedy later led the congressional passage of a separate civil rights bill designed to facilitate launching employment discrimination lawsuits.[211] In vetoing the bill, Bush argued that it would lead to racial quotas in hiring.[212][213] In November 1991, Bush signed the Civil Rights Act of 1991, which was largely similar to the bill he had vetoed in the previous year.[211]

Environment

In June 1989, the Bush administration proposed a bill to amend the Clean Air Act. Working with Senate Majority Leader George J. Mitchell, the administration won passage of the amendments over the opposition of business-aligned members of Congress who feared the impact of tougher regulations.[214] The legislation sought to curb acid rain and smog by requiring decreased emissions of chemicals such as sulfur dioxide,[215] and was the first major update to the Clean Air Act since 1977.[216] Bush also signed the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 in response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. However, the League of Conservation Voters criticized some of Bush's other environmental actions, including his opposition to stricter auto-mileage standards.[217]

Points of Light

President Bush devoted attention to voluntary service as a means of solving some of America's most serious social problems. He often used the "thousand points of light" theme to describe the power of citizens to solve community problems. In his 1989 inaugural address, President Bush said, "I have spoken of a thousand points of light, of all the community organizations that are spread like stars throughout the Nation, doing good."[218] During his presidency, Bush honored numerous volunteers with the Daily Point of Light Award, a tradition that was continued by his presidential successors.[219] In 1990, the Points of Light Foundation was created as a nonprofit organization in Washington to promote this spirit of volunteerism.[220] In 2007, the Points of Light Foundation merged with the Hands On Network to create a new organization, Points of Light.[221]

Judicial appointments

Bush appointed Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court in 1991

Bush appointed two justices to the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1990, Bush appointed a largely unknown state appellate judge, David Souter, to replace liberal icon William Brennan.[222] Souter was easily confirmed and served until 2009, but joined the liberal bloc of the court, disappointing Bush.[222] In 1991, Bush nominated conservative federal judge Clarence Thomas to succeed Thurgood Marshall, a long-time liberal stalwart. Thomas, the former head of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), faced heavy opposition in the Senate, as well as from pro-choice groups and the NAACP. His nomination faced another difficulty when Anita Hill accused Thomas of having sexually harassed her during his time as the chair of EEOC. Thomas won confirmation in a narrow 52-48 vote; 43 Republicans and 9 Democrats voted to confirm Thomas's nomination, while 46 Democrats and 2 Republicans voted against confirmation.[223] Thomas became one of the most conservative justices of his era.[224] In addition to his two Supreme Court appointments, Bush appointed 42 judges to the United States courts of appeals, and 148 judges to the United States district courts. Among these appointments were future Supreme Court Justice Samuel Alito, as well as Vaughn R. Walker, who was later revealed to be the earliest known gay federal judge.[225]

Other issues

Bush's education platform consisted mainly of offering federal support for a variety of innovations, such as open enrollment, incentive pay for outstanding teachers, and rewards for schools that improve performance with underprivileged children.[226] Though Bush did not pass a major educational reform package during his presidency, his ideas influenced later reform efforts, including Goals 2000 and the No Child Left Behind Act.[227] Bush signed the Immigration Act of 1990,[228] which led to a 40 percent increase in legal immigration to the United States.[229] The act more than doubled the number of visas given to immigrants on the basis of job skills.[230] In the wake of the savings and loan crisis, Bush proposed a $50 billion package to rescue the savings and loans industry, and also proposed the creation of the Office of Thrift Supervision to regulate the industry. Congress passed the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989, which incorporated most of Bush's proposals.[231]

Public image

Bush's approval ratings (red) compared to his disapproval ratings (blue) during his presidency

Bush was widely seen as a "pragmatic caretaker" president who lacked a unified and compelling long-term theme in his efforts.[232][233][234] Indeed, Bush's sound bite where he refers to the issue of overarching purpose as "the vision thing" has become a metonym applied to other political figures accused of similar difficulties.[235][236][237][238][239][240] His ability to gain broad international support for the Gulf War and the war's result were seen as both a diplomatic and military triumph,[241] rousing bipartisan approval,[242] though his decision to withdraw without removing Saddam Hussein left mixed feelings, and attention returned to the domestic front and a souring economy.[243] A New York Times article mistakenly depicted Bush as being surprised to see a supermarket barcode reader;[244][245] the report of his reaction exacerbated the notion that he was "out of touch".[244] Amid the early 1990s recession, his image shifted from "conquering hero" to "politician befuddled by economic matters".[246]

1992 presidential campaign

Bush announced his reelection bid in early 1992; with a coalition victory in the Persian Gulf War and high approval ratings, Bush's reelection initially looked likely.[247] As a result, many leading Democrats, including Mario Cuomo, Dick Gephardt, and Al Gore, declined to seek their party's presidential nomination.[248] However, Bush's tax increase had angered many conservatives, who believed that Bush had strayed from the conservative principles of Ronald Reagan.[249] He faced a challenge from conservative political columnist Pat Buchanan in the 1992 Republican primaries.[250] Bush fended off Buchanan's challenge and won his party's nomination at the 1992 Republican National Convention, but the convention adopted a socially conservative platform strongly influenced by the Christian right.[251]

Bush was defeated in the 1992 presidential election by Bill Clinton

Meanwhile, the Democrats nominated Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas. A moderate who was affiliated with the Democratic Leadership Council (DLC), Clinton favored welfare reform, deficit reduction, and a tax cut for the middle class.[252] In early 1992, the race took an unexpected twist when Texas billionaire H. Ross Perot launched a third party bid, claiming that neither Republicans nor Democrats could eliminate the deficit and make government more efficient. His message appealed to voters across the political spectrum disappointed with both parties' perceived fiscal irresponsibility.[253] Perot also attacked NAFTA, which he claimed would lead to major job losses.[254] National polling taken in mid-1992 showed Perot in the lead, but Clinton experienced a surge through effective campaigning and the selection of Senator Al Gore, a popular and relatively young Southerner, as his running mate.[255]

Clinton won the election, taking 43 percent of the popular vote and 370 electoral votes, while Bush won 37.5 percent of the popular vote and 168 electoral votes.[256] Perot won 19% of the popular vote, one of the highest totals for a third party candidate in U.S. history, drawing equally from both major candidates, according to exit polls.[257] Clinton performed well in the Northeast, the Midwest, and the West Coast, while also waging the strongest Democratic campaign in the South since the 1976 election.[258] Several factors were important in Bush's defeat. The ailing economy which arose from recession may have been the main factor in Bush's loss, as 7 in 10 voters said on election day that the economy was either "not so good" or "poor".[259][260] On the eve of the 1992 election, the unemployment rate stood at 7.8%, which was the highest it had been since 1984.[261] The president was also damaged by his alienation of many conservatives in his party.[262] Bush blamed Perot in part for his defeat, though exit polls showed that Perot drew his voters about equally from Clinton and Bush.[263]

Despite his defeat, Bush left office with a 56 percent job approval rating in January 1993.[264] Like many of his predecessors, Bush issued a series of pardons during his last days in office. In December 1992, he granted executive clemency to six former senior government officials implicated in the Iran-Contra scandal, most prominently former Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger.[265] The pardons effectively brought an end to special prosecutor Lawrence Walsh's investigation of the Iran-Contra scandal.[266]

Post-presidency (1993–2018)

Appearances

President Bill Clinton meeting with former presidents George H.W. Bush and Jimmy Carter at the White House in September 1993

After leaving office, Bush and his wife built a retirement house in the community of West Oaks, Houston.[267] He established a presidential office within the Park Laureate Building on Memorial Drive in Houston.[268] He also frequently spent time at his vacation home in Kennebunkport, took annual cruises in Greece, went on fishing trips in Florida, and visited the Bohemian Club in Northern California. He declined to serve on corporate boards, but delivered numerous paid speeches and served as an adviser to The Carlyle Group, a private equity firm.[269] He never published his memoirs, but he and Brent Scowcroft co-wrote A World Transformed, a 1999 work on foreign policy. Portions of his letters and his diary were later published as The China Diary of George H. W. Bush and All The Best, George Bush.[270]

During a 1993 visit to Kuwait, Bush was targeted in an assassination plot directed by the Iraqi Intelligence Service. President Clinton retaliated when he ordered the firing of 23 cruise missiles at Iraqi Intelligence Service headquarters in Baghdad.[271] Bush did not publicly comment on the assassination attempt or the missile strike, but privately spoke with Clinton shortly before the strike took place.[272] In the 1994 gubernatorial elections, his sons George W. and Jeb concurrently ran for Governor of Texas and Governor of Florida. Concerning their political careers, he advised them both that "[a]t some point both of you may want to say 'Well, I don't agree with my Dad on that point' or 'Frankly I think Dad was wrong on that.' Do it. Chart your own course, not just on the issues but on defining yourselves".[273] George W. won his race against Ann Richards while Jeb lost to Lawton Chiles. After the results came in, the elder Bush told ABC, "I have very mixed emotions. Proud father, is the way I would sum it all up."[274] Jeb would again run for governor of Florida in 1998 and win at the same time that his brother George W. won re-election in Texas. It marked the second time in United States history that a pair of brothers served simultaneously as governors.[275]

George and Barbara Bush, 2001

Bush supported his son's candidacy in the 2000 presidential election, but did not actively campaign in the election and did not deliver a speech at the 2000 Republican National Convention.[276] George W. Bush defeated Al Gore in the 2000 election and was re-elected in 2004. Bush and his son thus became the second father–son pair to each serve as President of the United States, following John Adams and John Quincy Adams.[277] Through previous administrations, the elder Bush had ubiquitously been known as "George Bush" or "President Bush", but following his son's election the need to distinguish between them has made retronymic forms such as "George H. W. Bush" and "George Bush Sr." and colloquialisms such as "Bush 41" and "Bush the Elder" more common.[278] Bush advised his son on some personnel choices, approving of the selection of Dick Cheney as running mate and the retention of George Tenet as CIA Director. However, he was not consulted on all appointments, including that of his old rival, Donald Rumsfeld, as Secretary of Defense.[279] Though he avoided giving unsolicited advice to his son, Bush and his son also discussed some matters of policy, especially regarding national security issues.[280]

In his retirement, Bush generally avoided publicly expressing his opinion on political issues, instead using the public spotlight to support various charities.[281] Despite earlier political differences with Bill Clinton, the two former presidents eventually became friends.[282] They appeared together in television ads, encouraging aid for victims of Hurricane Katrina and the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami.[283]

Final years

From left to right: George H. W. Bush, Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and Jimmy Carter.

Bush supported Republican John McCain in the 2008 presidential election,[284] and Republican Mitt Romney in the 2012 presidential election,[285] but both were defeated by Democrat Barack Obama. In 2011, Obama awarded Bush with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor in the United States.[286]

Bush supported his son Jeb's bid in the 2016 presidential election.[287] Jeb Bush's campaign struggled however, and he withdrew from the race during the primaries. Neither George H.W. nor George W. Bush endorsed the eventual Republican nominee, Donald Trump;[288] all three Bushes emerged as frequent critics of Trump's policies and speaking style, while Trump frequently criticized George W. Bush's presidency. George H. W. Bush later said that he voted for the Democratic nominee, Hillary Clinton, in the general election.[289] After the election, Bush wrote a letter to president-elect Donald Trump in January 2017 to inform him that because of his poor health, he would not be able to attend Trump's inauguration on January 20; he gave him his best wishes.[290] In April 2018, Bush's wife, Barbara, died at the age of 92.[291]

In October 2017, actress Heather Lind accused Bush of groping her and telling an inappropriate joke. Several other women subsequently made similar allegations.[292] Bush apologized for these incidents through his spokesman, Jim McGrath.[293][294][295] Molly Roberts, an editorial writer for the Washington Post, argued that Bush's behavior should not be excused, but that Bush's advanced age and senility-related conditions may have played a role in the incidents.[296]

Death and funeral

Members of the public pay their respects at the casket of George H. W. Bush lying in state in the Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C.

George H. W. Bush died on November 30, 2018, aged 94 years, 171 days,[297] at his home in Houston.[298] At the time of his death he was the longest-lived U.S. president,[299] a distinction now held by Jimmy Carter.[300] He was also the third-oldest vice president.[g] Bush lay in state in the Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol from December 3 through December 5; he was the 12th U.S. president to be accorded this honor.[302][303] Then, on December 5, Bush's casket was transferred from the Capitol rotunda to Washington National Cathedral where a state funeral was held.[304] After the funeral, Bush's was body was transported to George H.W. Bush Presidential Library in College Station, Texas, where he was buried next to his wife Barbara and daughter Robin.[305] At the funeral, former president George W. Bush eulogized his father saying,

"He looked for the good in each person, and he usually found it."[304]

Personal life

In 1991, The New York Times revealed that Bush was suffering from Graves' disease, a non-contagious thyroid condition that his wife Barbara also suffered from.[306] Later in life, Bush suffered from vascular parkinsonism, a form of Parkinson's disease which forced him to use a motorized scooter or wheelchair.[307]

Bush was raised in the Episcopal Church, though by the end of his life his apparent religious beliefs are considered to have more in line with Evangelical Christian doctrine and practices.[308] He cited various moments in his life deepening of his faith, including his escape from Japanese forces in 1944, and the death of his three-year-old daughter Robin in 1953.[309] His faith was reflected in his Thousand Points of Light speech, his support for prayer in schools, and his support for the pro-life movement (following his election as vice president).[308][309]

Legacy

Historical reputation

Bush visits NAS JRB during Hurricane Katrina relief efforts

Polls of historians and political scientists have ranked Bush in the top half of presidents. A 2018 poll of the American Political Science Association's Presidents and Executive Politics section ranked Bush as the 17th best president out of 44.[310] A 2017 C-Span poll of historians also ranked Bush as the 20th best president out of 43.[311] Richard Rose described Bush as a "guardian" president, and many other historians and political scientists have similarly described Bush as a passive, hands-off president who was "largely content with things as they were".[312] Professor Steven Knott writes that "[g]enerally the Bush presidency is viewed as successful in foreign affairs but a disappointment in domestic affairs."[313]

Biographer Jon Meacham writes that, after he left office, many Americans viewed Bush as "a gracious and underappreciated man who had many virtues but who had failed to project enough of a distinctive identity and vision to overcome the economic challenges of 1991–92 and to win a second term."[314] Bush himself noted that his legacy was "lost between the glory of Reagan ... and the trials and tribulations of my sons."[315] In the 2010s, Bush was fondly remembered for his willingness to compromise, which contrasted with the intensely partisan era that followed his presidency.[316]

According to USA Today, the legacy of Bush's presidency was defined by his victory over Iraq after the invasion of Kuwait, and for his presiding over the collapse of the USSR and the re-unification of Germany.[317] Michael Beschloss and Strobe Talbott praise Bush's handling of the USSR, especially how he prodded Gorbachev in terms of releasing control over the satellites and permitting German unification--and especially a united Germany in NATO.[318] Andrew Bacevich judges the Bush administration as “morally obtuse” in the light of its “business-as-usual” attitude towards China after the massacre in Tiananmen Square and its uncritical support of Gorbachev as the Soviet Union disintegrated.[319] David Rothkopf argues:

In the recent history of U.S. foreign policy, there has been no president, nor any president’s team, who, when confronted with profound international change and challenges, responded with such a thoughtful and well-managed foreign policy....[the Bush administration was] a bridge over one of the great fault lines of history [that] ushered in a ‘new world order’ it described with great skill and professionalism.”[320]

Memorials, awards, and honors

The George H.W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum on the west campus of Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas

In 1990, Time magazine named him the Man of the Year.[321] In 1997, the Houston Intercontinental Airport was re-named as the George Bush Intercontinental Airport.[322] In 1999, the CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia, was named the George Bush Center for Intelligence in his honor.[323] In 2011, Bush, an avid golfer, was inducted in the World Golf Hall of Fame.[324] The USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77), the tenth and last Nimitz-class supercarrier of the United States Navy, was named for Bush.[325][326] Bush is commemorated on a postage stamp that was issued by the United States Postal Service in 2019.[327]

The George H.W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum, the tenth U.S. presidential library, was completed in 1997.[328] It contains the presidential and vice presidential papers of Bush and the vice presidential papers of Dan Quayle.[329] The library is located on a 90-acre (36 ha) site on the west campus of Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas.[330] Texas A&M University also hosts the Bush School of Government and Public Service, a graduate public policy school.[330]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Bush later purchased the estate, which is now known as the Bush compound.[7]
  2. ^ For decades, Bush was considered the youngest aviator in the U.S. Navy during his period of service,[15] but such claims are now regarded as speculation.[16] His official Navy biography called him "the youngest" in 2001,[17] but by 2018 the Navy biography described him as "one of the youngest".[18]
  3. ^ Bush's fellow crew members for the mission were William G. White and John Delaney. According to the accounts of an American pilot and a Japanese individual, another parachute from Bush's aircraft opened, but the bodies of White and Delaney were never recovered.[22]
  4. ^ At the time of his wife's death on April 17, 2018, George H. W. had been married to Barbara for 73 years, the longest presidential marriage in American history at that point.[32] The length of their marriage was surpassed in 2019 by the marriage of Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter.[33]
  5. ^ Biographer Jon Meacham writes that it was widely assumed at the time that Donald Rumsfeld had engineered Bush's appointment as CIA Director since the post was regarded as a "political graveyard". Meacham writes that it is more likely that the key factor in Bush's appointment was that Ford believed Bush would work better with Secretary of State Henry Kissinger than would Elliot Richardson, his original pick for the CIA post.[77]
  6. ^ The 1988 presidential election remains the only presidential election since 1948 in which either party won a third consecutive term.[142]
  7. ^ The longest-lived U.S. vice president is John Nance Garner, who died on November 7, 1967, 15 days short of his 99th birthday.[301]

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Works cited

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