Eastern Ganga dynasty

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Eastern Ganga Empire

1078–1434
CapitalDantapura
Kalinganagari
Kataka
Common languagesOdia[1]
Religion
Hinduism
GovernmentMonarchy
Tri-Kalingadhipati 
• 980–1015
Vajrahasta Aniyankhabhima
• 1038–1070
Vajrahasta Anantavarman
• 1070-1078
Rajaraja Devendravarman
• 1078–1147
Anantavarman Chodagangadeva
• 1178–1198
Ananga Bhima Deva II
• 1238–1264
Narasingha Deva I
• 1414–1434
Bhanu Deva IV
Historical eraClassical India
• Established
1078
• Disestablished
1434
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Somavamshi dynasty
Gajapati Kingdom
Main Temple Structure, Konark Sun Temple

The Eastern Ganga dynasty also known as Rudhi Gangas or Prachya Gangas were a medieval Indian dynasty that reigned from Kalinga from as early as the 5th century to the early 15th century. The territory ruled by the dynasty consisted of the whole of the modern-day Indian state of Odisha as well as parts of Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.[2] The early rulers of the dynasty ruled from Dantapura; the capital was later moved to Kalinganagara (modern Mukhalingam), and ultimately to Kataka (modern Cuttack).[3] Today, they are most remembered as the builders of the world renounced Puri Jagannath Temple and Konark Sun Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage site at Konark, Odisha.

The rulers of Eastern Ganga dynasty defended their kingdom from the constant attacks of the Muslim rulers. This kingdom prospered through trade and commerce and the wealth was mostly used in the construction of temples. The rule of the dynasty came to an end under the reign of King Bhanudeva IV (1414–34), in the early 15th century.[4] Their currency was called Ganga fanams and was similar to that of the Cholas and Eastern Chalukyas of southern India.[5]

Origin[edit]

The origin of the Later Eastern Gangas is not clearly established.[6] It is erratically summarized that they were an offshoot of the Western Ganga dynasty who were a south Indian dynasty but there is no evidence of architectural, linguistic and patterns of nomenclature of the kings having similarity between the Ganga kings of Karnataka and that of Odisha.[7] Also, while the bardic traditions of the Western Ganga dynasty claim descent from the Sun through the Ikshavaku dynasty, the Eastern Ganga genealogies ascribe descent from the Moon; the Chandravamsa lineage. Unlike the Western Ganga Dynasty who traced their lineage to the Solar Dynasty,[8] the Later Eastern Gangas claimed a lunar descent from Vishnu through Brahma, Atri and Chandra (moon).[9] The Eastern Ganga king Indravarman III in his Andhavaram copperplate inscription has mentioned that the Gangas are described as the descendants of the Tumbura dynasty. In the Vayu Purana references are made that at the foothills of the Vindhyas, there was a Janapada named Tumura, Tumbura. Odia historian Jagabandhu Singh citing references from Padma Purana and Brahmavaibarta Purana has identified Tumbura being ruled by the Mahisya race of Khshetriyas who were maritally either related to the Kaivartta community or were born from marriages between Khsetriyas and Vaishya women.

Five prominent dominions of the Kalingan Prachya Ganga family are identified from five different administrative centers namely - Kalinganagara (Srikakulam), Svetaka Mandala (Ganjam), Giri Kalinga (Simhapur), Ambabadi Mandala (Gunupur, Rayagada) and Vartanni Mandala (Hinjilikatu, Ganjam) . The heartland of the Prachya Gangas had three parts of Kalinga namely, Daksina Kalinga (Pithapura), Madhya Kalinga (Yellamanchili Kalinga or Visakhapatnam) and Uttara Kalinga (districts of Srikakulam, Ganjam, Gajapati and Rayagada). The earliest known prominent king was Indravarman who is known from his Jiringi copper plate grant. The Godavari grant of Raja Prthivimalla and the Ramatirtham grant of Vishnukundina king Indrbhattaraka refer to a war of four tusked elephants or Chaturdanta Samara in which Indravarman I the son of Mitavarman, a Ganga general of Vakataka king and a local ruler of Dantapura commanded an alliance of small South Kalingan kingdoms against the powerful Vishnukundina king Indrabhattaraka, defeated and killed him.[10] The Vishnukundins returned with a vengeance, defeated the Vakataka King and members of the alliance while Indravarman declared himself as Tri-Kalingadhipati (the lord of the three Kalingas) rising from obscurity and moving his capital northwards away from the attacking Vishnukundins. His son Hastivarman found himself stuck between two Gupta feudal dynasties of Odisha, the Vigrahas of South Toshali and Mudgalas. Joining the onslaught like his father, he commanded major battles against the Vigrahas and won territories in the northern parts of ancient Kalinga and declared himself as Sakala-Kalingadhipati (the ruler of whole Kalinga). The dynasty though remaining to be a strong ruling family in ancient Odisha and North Andhra Pradesh continued to remain as vassal rulers under the central authority of the Bhauma-Kara dynasty which is proven by the fact that a smaller Eastern Ganga king belonging to the clan and named as Jayavarmadeva mentioned himself as the vassal of Sivakara Deva I in his Ganjam grant and by whose permission he gave away the grants.

It was during the rule of Anantavarman Vajrahasta V in the mid eleventh century that the clan started emerging as a major military power challenging the authority of the Somavanshi Dynasty at their northern frontiers and allying with their arch rivals the Kalchuris. After a series of victories in battle and making land grants to three hundred Brahmin families in his kingdom, Vajrahasta V assumed the titles as Trikalingadhipati (lord of the three Kalingas) and Sakalakalingadhipati (lord of complete Kalinga) challenging the centralized authority of the Somavanshis and laying the foundation to an imperial era for the Eastern Gangas. In the later years of the century, Devendravarman Rajaraja I defeated the Somavanshi king Mahasivagupta Janmenjaya II completely while challenging the Cholas in battle, along with establishing authority in the Vengi region. The Cholas were defeated by Rajaraja I and Chola princess, Rajasundari, was married off to the Eastern Ganga king as a goodwill gesture for settlement of affairs between the Cholas and the Gangas.[11] The identification of the father of Rajasundari is a matter of great controversy and some scholars like K. A. Nilakanta Sastri identify the king as Virarajendra Chola.[12][13] After the sudden death of Rajaraja I, his underage sons Chodaganga Deva ascended the throne, losing the many parts of his ancestral kingdom to the Cholas who were now in an advantageous position. However, Ananatavarman Chodaganga Deva not only lived a young life of prolonged struggles and setbacks but finally managed to completely rout the Chola presence from the region and finally securing Utkala, Kalinga, Gauda, Radha and Vengi as one kingdom. While many of his inscriptions are found inside the limits of former Vengi kingdom, this large extent of his empire from Bengal to Vengi is clearly stated in his Korni grant inscriptions.[14][15] In the Sri Kurmam temple grant of Chodaganga, it is clearly stated that he has extended his territory from Bhagirathi Ganga to Gautami Ganga rivers which literally the region between river Ganga and Godavari.[16] The only front where he faced setbacks is against his western rivals the Kalachuris where he was unsuccessful. His descendant Anangabhima Deva III gradually completed the task of defeating the Kalachuris completely. In his Korni copper plate grant he mentions himself to be the lord of 99,000 war elephants which while counting military strength according to the ancient Gulma system of military divisions, puts his strength to a million men and half a million animals employed to his command. Due to his maternal relation with the Cholas, a Chola uncle of Chodaganga by the name Virachoda had sided by him as a protective guardian against the invading Cholas since his childhood. Chodaganga was married to the daughter of this uncle and also had Tamil officers serving him during his lifelong affairs of war and administration.[17] Chodaganga Deva not only reunited most of ancient Kalinga stretching from the rivers Ganga to Godavari but led the foundation to the imperial hegemony of the Eastern Gangas in the Eastern coast of India. Chodaganga Deva was a strong king and was the son of Rajaraja Devendravarman and grandson of Vajrahasta Anantavarman of the Imperial Gangas of Kalinganagara.[18][19][20] His mother was princess Rajasundari of the Chola dynasty.[21]

Background[edit]

After the fall of Mahameghavahana dynasty, Kalinga was divided into different kingdoms under feudatory chiefs. Each of these chiefs bore the title Kalingadhipathi (Lord of Kalinga). The beginnings of what became the Eastern Ganga dynasty came about when Indravarma I defeated the Vishnukundin king, Indrabhattaraka and established his rule over the region with Kalinganagara (or Mukhalingam) as his capital, and Dantapura as a secondary capital. The Ganga kings assumed various titles viz. Trikalingadhipathi or Sakala Kalingadhipathi (Lord of three Kalinga or all three Kalingas namely Kalinga proper (South), Utkala (North), and Kosala (West)).

Mukhalingam near Srikakulam of Andhra Pradesh bordering Odisha has been identified as Kalinganagara, the capital of the early Eastern Gangas.[22]

After the decline of the early Eastern Gangas reign, the Chalukyas of Vengi took control of the region. The first monarch of the dynasty Vajrahastha Aniyakabhima I (980-1015 A.D), took advantage of the internal strife and revived the power of the Ganga dynasty. It was during their rule that Shaivism took precedence over Buddhism and Jainism. The magnificent Srimukhalingam Temple at Mukhalingam was built during this period.

In the 11th century, the Cholas brought the Ganga Kingdom under their rule with the sudden death of Devendravarman Rajraja I.[22] His son Chodaganga Deva who ascended the throne at the age of five under the protection provide by one of his maternal uncles from the Chola family had to overcome multiple obstacles before securing Kalinga, Vengi, Utkala, Odra and parts of Bengal as one kingdom.

Intermarriage[edit]

The Eastern Gangas were known to have intermarried with the Parmaras, Cholas, Chalukyas. The early state of the dynasty may have started from the early 8th century.

Anantavarman Chodaganga[edit]

The dynasty, towards the end of eleventh century came to be known as Chodaganga dynasty after its founder Anantavarman Chodaganga. He was the son of Rajaraja Deva, the ruler of Kalinga kingdom centered around the region of Southern Odisha and northern Andhra coast, while his mother was the Chola princess, Rajasundari, daughter of the Chola emperor Virarajendra Chola.

He is believed to have ruled from the Ganges River in the north to the Godavari River in the south, thus laying the foundation of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty. Also during his rule, the great Jagannath Temple at Puri was built.[22] He assumed the title of Trikalingadhipathi (ruler of the three Kalingas which comprise Kalinga proper, Utkala north and Koshala west) in 1076 CE, resulting in him being the first to rule all three divisions of Kalinga.[23]

Anantavarman was a religious person as well as a patron of art and literature. He is credited for having built the famous Jagannath Temple of Puri in Odisha.[23] King Anantavarman Chodagangadeva was succeeded by a long line of illustrious rulers such as Narasingha Deva I (1238–1264).

Intrudes[edit]

Rajaraja III ascended the throne in 1198 and did nothing to resist the Muslims of Bengal, who invaded Orissa in 1206. Rajaraja's son Anangabhima III, however, repulsed the Muslims and built the temple of Megheshvara at Bhuvaneshvara. Narasimhadeva I, the son of Anangabhima, invaded southern Bengal in 1243, defeated its Muslim ruler, captured the capital (Gauda), and built the Sun Temple at Konark to commemorate his victory. With the death of Narasimha in 1264, the Eastern Gangas began to decline; the sultan of Delhi invaded Odisha in 1324, and Musunuri Nayaks[citation needed] defeated the Odishan powers in 1356. Narasimha IV, the last known king of the Eastern Ganga dynasty, ruled until 1425. The "mad king," Bhanudeva IV, who succeeded him, left no inscriptions; his minister Kapilendra usurped the throne and founded the Suryavamsha dynasty in 1434–35.

Legacy[edit]

The Eastern Gangas were great patrons of religion and the arts, and the temples of the Ganga period rank among the masterpieces of Kalinga and Hindu architecture.[24]

Descendants[edit]

A branch of the Eastern Ganga dynasty survived as the kings of the Paralakhemundi estate, currently part of the Gajapati district,Odisha. Scions of this line include,

  • Jagannatha Gajapati Narayana Deo II - (Reign - 1751 A.D to 1771 A.D) who ascended to the throne at a time when Odisha was torn apart due conflicts between external powers like the Mughals, Marathas, French and British for control of the territory in 18th century.
  • Krushna Chandra Gajapati - (Reign as Maharaja of Paralakhemundi - 26 April 1913 to 25 May 1974), who was a key personality and regarded as the architect of an Independent united Odisha State and went on to become the first Prime Minister of Orissa province formed in 1936. Prime Minister in office from 1 April 1937 to 19 July 1937 and 2nd time from 29 November 1941 to 29 June 1944. The present-day Gajapati District of Odisha which was earlier a part of the historic Ganjam district was named after him.[25][26][27]

Rulers[edit]

  1. Mittavarman, a vassal Eastern Ganga king under Vakataka rule (c. ?-?)
  2. Indravarman I (496–535)[22]
  3. Samantavarman (537-562)
  4. Hastivarman (562-578)
  5. Indravarman II (578-589)
  6. Danarnava (589-652)
  7. Indravarman III (589-652)
  8. Gunarnava (652-682)
  9. Devendravarman I (652-682?)
  10. Anantavarman III (808-812?)
  11. Rajendravarman II (812-840?)
  12. Devendravarman IV (893-?)
  13. Devendravarman V (885-895?)
  14. Gunamaharnava I (895-939?)
  15. Vajrahasta II (or Anangabhimadeva I) (895-939?)
  16. Gundama - (939-942)
  17. Kamarnava I (942-977)
  18. Vinayaditya (977-980)
  19. Vajrahasta Aniyakabhima (980-1015 AD)[28]
  20. Vajrahasta Anantavarman or Vajrahasta V (1038-?)
  21. Rajaraja Devendravarman or Rajaraja Deva I(?-1078)
  22. Anantavarman Chodaganga (1078–1150)[22]
  23. Jateswara Deva or Ekajata Deva (1147-1156)
  24. Raghava Deva (1156-1170)
  25. Rajaraja Deva II (1170-1178)
  26. Ananga Bhima Deva II (1178–1198)
  27. Rajaraja Deva III (1198–1211)
  28. Ananga Bhima Deva III (1211–1238)
  29. Narasimha Deva I (1238–1264)[22]
  30. Bhanu Deva I (1264–1279)
  31. Narasimha Deva II (1279–1306)[22]
  32. Bhanu Deva II (1306–1328)
  33. Narasimha Deva III (1328–1352)
  34. Bhanu Deva III (1352–1378)
  35. Narasimha Deva IV (1379–1424)[22]
  36. Bhanu Deva IV (1424–1434)

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Srichandan, G. K. (February–March 2011). "Classicism of Odia Language" (PDF). Orissa Review. p. 54. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  2. ^ Ganga Dynasty britannica.com. Archived 10 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ B. Hemalatha (1991). Life in medieval northern Andhra. Navrang.
  4. ^ [1] Archived 10 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Patnaik, Nihar Ranjan (1 January 1997). Economic History of Orissa. Indus Publishing. p. 93. ISBN 978-81-7387-075-0. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  6. ^ B. Masthanaiah. The Temples of Mukhalingam: A Study on South Indian Temple Architecture. Cosmo Publications, 1977 - Mukhalingām (India) - 136 pages. p. 5.
  7. ^ Singh, Dineshwar (1973). THE HISTORY OF THE EASTERN GANGA DYNASTY, CIRCA 1038 - 1238 A .D (PDF). London: University of London. pp. 55, 56, 57, 58.
  8. ^ N. Venkata Ramanayya. Social and cultural life of the eastern Chalukyas of Vengi. [A.P.] Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Oriental Research Institute - Andhra Pradesh (India) - 96 pages. p. 83.
  9. ^ Jörn Rüsen (January 2008). Time and History: The Variety of Cultures. Berghahn Books, 01-Jan-2008 - History - 262 pages. p. 72. ISBN 9780857450418.
  10. ^ "Chapter VI, Setback and Recovery" (PDF). www.shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in. pp. 238, –248. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  11. ^ Banarjee, R.D (1930). History Of Orissa Vol. 1. 120-2, Upper Circular Road, Calcutta: Prabasi Press. pp. 247, 248.CS1 maint: location (link)
  12. ^ Tripat Sharma. Women in Ancient India, from 320 A.D. to C. 1200 A.D. Ess Ess Publications, 1987. p. 142.
  13. ^ Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri. History of India, Volume 1. S. Viswanathan, 1953. p. 247.
  14. ^ Das, Manmatha Nath (1949). Glimpses Of Kalinga History. Calcutta: Century Publishers. pp. 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171.
  15. ^ Rajaguru, Satyanarayan (1961). Inscriptions of Orissa, Volume III, Part II. Bhubaneswar: Orissa Sahitya Akademi. pp. 391, 392, 393.
  16. ^ Rajaguru, Satyanarayan (1960). Inscriptions of Orissa, Volume III, Part I. Bhubaneswar: Orissa Sahitya Akademi. pp. 174, 175.
  17. ^ Das, Dr. Manas Kumar (12 August 2017). "History of Odisha (From Earliest Times to 1434 A.D.)". DDCE/History (M.A)/SLM/Paper: 100, 101.
  18. ^ Itihas, Volumes 19-22. p. 14.
  19. ^ Andhra Historical Research Society, Rajahmundry, Madras. Journal of the Andhra Historical Society, Volumes 6-7. Andhra Historical Research Society., 1931. p. 200.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  20. ^ Indian Research Institute. Indian Culture: Journal of the Indian Research Institute, Volume 12. I.B. Corporation, 1984. p. 159.
  21. ^ Indian Research Institute. Indian Culture: Journal of the Indian Research Institute, Volume 12. I.B. Corporation, 1984. p. 160.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 36–37. ISBN 978-93-80607-34-4.
  23. ^ a b Eastern Ganga Dynasty in India. India9.com (2005-06-07). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  24. ^ Ganga dynasty (Indian dynasties) - Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  25. ^ http://orissa.gov.in/portal/LIWPL/event_archive/Events_Archives/69Maharaja_Krushna_Chandra_Gajapati.pdf
  26. ^ http://orissa.gov.in/e-magazine/Orissareview/2010/April/engpdf/56-57.pdf
  27. ^ Orissa Review, January-2009 issue. Published by the Govt. of Orissa.
  28. ^ Sailendra Nath Sen (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International, 1999 - India - 668 pages. p. 437. ISBN 9788122411980.
  29. ^ Michael Mitchiner (1979). Oriental Coins & Their Values : Non-Islamic States and Western Colonies A.D. 600-1979. Hawkins Publications. ISBN 978-0-904173-18-5.

External links[edit]

Timeline and
cultural period
Northwestern India
(Punjab-Sapta Sindhu)
Indo-Gangetic Plain Central India Southern India
Upper Gangetic Plain
(Ganga-Yamuna doab)
Middle Gangetic Plain Lower Gangetic Plain
IRON AGE
Culture Late Vedic Period Late Vedic Period
(Srauta culture)[a]
Painted Grey Ware culture
Late Vedic Period
(Shramanic culture)[b]
Northern Black Polished Ware
Pre-history
 6th century BCE Gandhara Kuru-Panchala Magadha Adivasi (tribes) Assaka
Culture Persian-Greek influences "Second Urbanisation"
Rise of Shramana movements
Jainism - Buddhism - Ājīvika - Yoga
Pre-history
 5th century BCE (Persian conquests) Shaishunaga dynasty Adivasi (tribes) Assaka
 4th century BCE (Greek conquests) Nanda empire
HISTORICAL AGE
Culture Spread of Buddhism Pre-history
 3rd century BCE Maurya Empire Satavahana dynasty
Sangam period
(300 BCE – 200 CE)
Early Cholas
Early Pandyan Kingdom
Cheras
Culture Preclassical Hinduism[c] - "Hindu Synthesis"[d] (ca. 200 BC - 300 CE)[e][f]
Epics - Puranas - Ramayana - Mahabharata - Bhagavad Gita - Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition
Mahayana Buddhism
 2nd century BCE Indo-Greek Kingdom Shunga Empire
Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty
Satavahana dynasty
Sangam period
(300 BCE – 200 CE)
Early Cholas
Early Pandyan Kingdom
Cheras
 1st century BCE
 1st century CE

Indo-Scythians
Indo-Parthians

Kuninda Kingdom
 2nd century Kushan Empire
 3rd century Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom Kushan Empire Western Satraps Kamarupa kingdom Adivasi (tribes)
Culture "Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. CE 320-650)[g]
Puranas
Co-existence of Hinduism and Buddhism
 4th century Kidarites Gupta Empire
Varman dynasty
Andhra Ikshvakus
Kalabhra dynasty
Kadamba Dynasty
Western Ganga Dynasty
 5th century Hephthalite Empire Alchon Huns Vishnukundina
Kalabhra dynasty
 6th century Nezak Huns
Kabul Shahi
Maitraka Adivasi (tribes) Vishnukundina
Badami Chalukyas
Kalabhra dynasty
Culture Late-Classical Hinduism (ca. CE 650-1100)[h]
Advaita Vedanta - Tantra
Decline of Buddhism in India
 7th century Indo-Sassanids Vakataka dynasty
Empire of Harsha
Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi (tribes) Badami Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
Pandyan Kingdom (Revival)
Pallava
 8th century Kabul Shahi Pala Empire Eastern Chalukyas
Pandyan Kingdom
Kalachuri
 9th century Gurjara-Pratihara Rashtrakuta dynasty
Eastern Chalukyas
Pandyan Kingdom
Medieval Cholas
Chera Perumals of Makkotai
10th century Ghaznavids Pala dynasty
Kamboja-Pala dynasty
Kalyani Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
Medieval Cholas
Chera Perumals of Makkotai
Rashtrakuta
References and sources for table

References

  1. ^ Samuel
  2. ^ Samuel
  3. ^ Michaels (2004) p.39
  4. ^ Hiltebeitel (2002)
  5. ^ Michaels (2004) p.39
  6. ^ Hiltebeitel (2002)
  7. ^ Michaels (2004) p.40
  8. ^ Michaels (2004) p.41

Sources