Duke of Berry

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Dukedom of Berry
Arms of Jean de Berry.svg
Arms of the Duke of Berry after 1376
Creation dateOctober 1360
MonarchJohn II of France
PeeragePeerage of France
First holderJohn of Berry
Last holderCharles Ferdinand d'Artois
StatusExtinct
Extinction date14 February 1820

Duke of Berry (French: Duc de Berry) or Duchess of Berry (French: Duchesse de Berry) was a title in the Peerage of France that was created several times for junior members of the French royal family. It was frequently granted to women, members of the royal family or married into it. The last official holder was Charles Ferdinand of Artois, son of Charles X. The Berry region is now the departements of Cher, Indre and Vienne.

First creation[edit]

On October 1360, king John II created the title for his third-born son John of Poitiers, maybe in occasion of his marriage with Joan of Armagnac.[1] Despite two marriages, John of Berry had only 5 children, with only one son who could had inherited the title, John, Count of Montpensier, died in 1397 with no issue.[2] After John's death in 1416, the dukedom was forfeited and granted to his grandnephew John, Dauphin of France, who integrated it into Dauphiné's titles.

Duke Birth Tenure Death Marriage(s)
Issue
Arms of Jean de Berry.svg
John of France
Other titles
Duc de Berry.JPG 30 November 1340
Château de Vincennes
Son of John II of France
and Bonne of Luxembourg
October 1360

15 June 1416
15 June 1416
Paris
Died by natural causes
(aged 75)
(1) Joan of Armagnac
(m. 1360; d. 1387)
5 children
(2) Joan II of Auvergne
(m. 1389; wid. 1416)
Childless

Second creation[edit]

In 1461, new king Louis XI re-created the dukedom to his younger brother Charles. However, Charles had a long-time rivalry with his brother and joined other French overlords headed by the Count of Charolais into the League of the Public Weal, starting a short war against Louis XI which was concluded with the Treaty of Conflans in 1465. Under the Treaty, Charles gained also the Duchy of Normandy (1465), exchanged with the Guyenne in 1469. Charles' fortunes ended with his death in 1472 due to syphilis, although some suspicions of poisoning.[3] With no male heir, the title was forfeited once again.

Duke Birth Tenure Death Marriage(s)
Issue
Arms of Charles de Berry.svg
Charles of France
Other titles
Charles de France (1446-1472).jpg 26 December 1446
Château de Tours
Son of Charles VII of France
and Marie of Anjou
November 1461

24 May 1472
24 May 1472
Bordeux
Died by syphilis
(aged 25)
Never married

Third creation[edit]

In 1498, king Louis XII re-created the dukedom for his former wife Joan of France, daughter of Louis XI, as compensation for their marriage's annulment.[4] She was the first suo jure Duchess, and after her death the title was forfeited, both according to the succession law and her unmarried and childless status.

Duke Birth Tenure Death Marriage(s)
Issue
Arms of Jeanne de France (2).svg
Joan of France
St. Jeanne de Valois.jpg 23 April 1464
Nogent-le-Roi
Daughter of Louis XI of France
and Charlotte of Savoy
7 April 1498

4 February 1505
4 February 1505
Bourges, Berry
Died by natural causes
(aged 40)
Louis II, Duke of Orléans
(then Louis XII)

(m. 1476; ann. 1498)
Childless

Fourth creation[edit]

In 1527, King Francis I created his sister Marguerite "Duchess of Berry", probably on the occasion of her marriage to Henry II of Navarre.[5] After her death, the title was forfeited.

Duke Birth Tenure Death Marriage(s)
Issue
Arms of Charles de Berry.svg
Margaret of Navarre
Other titles
Portrait de Marguerite de Navarre, attribué à François Clouet, musée Condé (cropped).jpg 11 April 1492
Château d'Angoulême
Daughter of Charles of Orléans
and Louise of Savoy
24 January 1527

21 December 1549
21 December 1549
Odos, Navarre
Died by natural causes
(aged 57)
(1) Charles IV of Alençon
(m. 1509; d. 1525)
Childless
(2) Henry II of Navarre
(m. 1527; wid. 1549)
1 children

Fifth creation[edit]

In 1550, King Henry II granted the appanage of Berry to his sister Margaret, like his father.[6]

Duke Birth Tenure Death Marriage(s)
Issue
Arms of Charles de Berry.svg
Margaret of France
Other titles
Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry by Studio of François Clouet.jpg 5 June 1523
Saint-Germain-en-Laye
Daughter of Francis I
and Claude of Britanny
29 April 1550

15 September 1574
15 September 1574
Turin, Savoy
Died by natural causes
(aged 51)
Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy
(m. 1559; wid. 1574)
1 children

Sixth creation[edit]

In 1575, King Henry III granted the appanage of Berry to his sister-in-law and dowager queen Elisabeth of Austria.[7] In addition, she received the title of Countess of La Marche, but in 1577 both titles were forcibly exchanged with the duchies of Auvergne and Bourbon.

Duke Birth Tenure Death Marriage(s)
Issue
Arms of Charles de Berry.svg
Elisabeth of Austria
Other titles
Jakob de Monte 001.jpg 5 July 1554
Vienna, Austria
Daughter of Emperor Maximilian II
and Mary of Austria
21 November 1575

25 September 1577
(Title forfeited)
22 January 1592
Vienna, Austria
Died by pleurisy
(aged 37)
Charles IX of France
(m. 1570; d. 1574)
1 children

Seventh creation[edit]

In 1577, Queen dowager Elisabeth of Austria exchanged the Berry to the Crown who, in the person of King Henry III gave it to his brother Francis, as well other appanages, for his role in the Peace of Monsieur with Huguenots.[8]

Duke Birth Tenure Death Marriage(s)
Issue
Arms of Charles de Berry.svg
Francis of France
Other titles
Jean Decourt - Portrait François-Hercule de Valois, duc d’Alençon c. 1576.png 18 March 1555
Château de Fontainebleau
Son of Henry II
and Catherine de' Medici
25 September 1577

10 June 1584
10 June 1584
Château-Thierry
Died by malaria
(aged 29)
Never married

Eighth creation[edit]

In 1589, King Henry IV granted the appanage of Berry to the Queen dowager Louise of Lorraine.

Duke Birth Tenure Death Marriage(s)
Issue
Arms of Charles de Berry.svg
Louise of Lorraine
In the manner of François Clouet - Louise de Lorraine - Google Art Project.jpg 30 April 1553
Nomeny, Barrois
Daughter of Nicolas, Duke of Mercœur
and Margaret of Egmont
August 1589

29 January 1601
29 January 1601
Moulins, Bourbonnais
Died by natural causes
(aged 47)
Henry III of France
(m. 1575; d. 1589)
Childless

Ninth creation[edit]

In 1686, King Louis XIV granted the dukedom to his newborn third grandson Charles. Although he never gained the relative appanage, he continued to stylize himself as Duke of Berry.[9]

Duke Birth Tenure Death Marriage(s)
Issue
Arms of Charles de Berry.svg
Charles of France
Other titles
Vivien, Joseph - Charles of France, Duke of Berry - Louvre.png 31 July 1686
Versailles
Son of Louis, Dauphin of France
and Maria Anna of Bavaria
31 July 1686

5 May 1714
5 May 1714
Versailles
Died in hunting accident
(aged 27)
Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans
(m. 1710; wid. 1714)
Childless

Tenth creation[edit]

In 1754, King Louis XV stylized his newborn grandson Louis-Auguste as new "Duke of Berry", until his ascension as Dauphin of France in 1765, after his father death.

Duke Birth Tenure Death Marriage(s)
Issue
Arms of Charles de Berry.svg
Louis-Auguste of France
(then Louis XVI)
Roslin Louis XVI of France.jpg 23 August 1754
Versailles
Son of Louis, Dauphin of France
and Maria Josepha of Saxony
23 August 1754

20 December 1765
(Became Dauphin)
21 January 1793
Place de la Révolution, Paris
Executed for treason
(aged 38)
Marie Antoinette of Austria
(m. 1770; wid. 1793)
4 children

Eleventh creation[edit]

In 1778, King Louis XVI re-established the appanage for his newborn nephew Charles-Ferdinand, who was killed by Louis Pierre Louvel, a Bonapartist, in 1820. The title then passed to his widow Marie-Caroline until her death in 1870. The title remained forfeited until today.

Duke Birth Tenure Death Marriage(s)
Issue
Arms of Charles dArtois.svg
Charles-Ferdinand of Artois
Danloux - Charles Ferdinand d'Artois (1778-1820), duc de Berry.jpg 24 January 1778
Versailles
Son of Charles of Artois
and Maria Theresa of Savoy
24 January 1778

14 February 1820
14 February 1820
Outside Paris Opera
Murdered by Louis Pierre Louvel
(aged 42)
Marie-Caroline of Sicily
(m. 1816; wid. 1820)
2 children
Arms of Charles dArtois.svg
Marie-Caroline of Sicily
Marie-Caroline of the Two Sicilies - Duchess of Berry.jpg 5 November 1798
Caserta Palace, Naples
Daughter of Francis I of the Two Sicilies
and Maria Clementina of Austria
14 February 1820

17 April 1870
17 April 1870
Brunnsee, Austria-Hungary
Died by natural causes
(aged 71)
Charles-Ferdinand of Berry
(m. 1816; d. 1820)
2 children

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Plumley, Yolanda (2003). Cambridge University Press (ed.). Ars subtilior and the Patronage of French Princes. Early Music History: Volume 22: Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Music. pp. 145–146.
  2. ^ Autrand, Françoise (2000). Fayard (ed.). Jean de Berry: L'art et le pouvoir. p. 263.
  3. ^ Moisand, Constant (1847). Imprimerie de Moisand (ed.). Histoire du siége de Beauvais en 1472.
  4. ^ "St. Joan of Valois". Catholic.org. Retrieved: 26 October 2014.
  5. ^ Michaud-Fréjaville, Françoise (27 June 2006). "L'œuvre et la vie de Marguerite de Navarre, un plaidoyer pour la tolérance". m2navarre.net (in French).
  6. ^ Marshall, Rosalind K. (2003). Scottish Queens, 1034-1714. Tuckwell Press. p. 10o.
  7. ^ Nadaud, Joseph (1878). Société historique et archéologique du Limousin (ed.). Nobiliaire du diocèse et de la généralité de Limoges. III. p. 182.
  8. ^ Knecht, Robert J. (2002). Osprey Publishing (ed.). The French Religious Wars 1562-98. p. 53.
  9. ^ See the Letters patent: Louis, par la grâce de Dieu, roy de France et de Navarre, à tous présens et à venir, SALUT. (…) Notre très-cher et très-amé petit-fils Charles, fils de France, a dignement répondu à nos espérance (…) Pour ces causes et autres à ce Nous mouvans, de l’avis de notre conseil, Nous avons donné, octroyé et délaissé, et par ces présentes signées de notre main, donnons, octroyons et delaissons à notredit petit-fils Charles, fils de France, et à ses enfans mâles descendans de lui en loyal mariage, pour leur appanage et entretenement, selon la nature des appanages de la Maison de France et les lois de notre royaume, les duchés d’Alençon et d’Angoulême, le comté de Ponthieu et les châtellenies de Coignac et de Merpins, réunis à notre couronne par le décès de notre cousine Elisabeth d’Orléans, duchesse de Guise, ensemble les terres et seigneuries de Noyelles, Hiermont, Coutteville et le Mesnil, par Nous acquises par contrat passé entre les commissaires par Nous nommez, et Marie d’Orléans, duchesse de Nemours, le 16 Decembre 1706, en échange de la baronie, terre et seigneuries de Parthenay (…).


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