Dominant minorityWikipedia Open wikipedia design.
A dominant minority is a minority group that has overwhelming political, economic, or cultural dominance in a country, despite representing a small fraction of the overall population (a demographic minority). Dominant minorities are also known as alien elites if they are recent immigrants.
The term is most commonly used to refer to an ethnic group which is defined along racial, national, religious, cultural or tribal lines and that holds a disproportionate amount of power. A notable example is South Africa during the apartheid regime, where White South Africans, or Afrikaners more specifically, wielded predominant control of the country, despite never composing more than 22% of the population. African American-descended nationals in Liberia, Sunni Arabs in Ba'athist Iraq, the Alawite minority in Syria (since 1970 under the rule of the Alawite Assad family), and the Tutsi in Rwanda since the 1990s have also been cited as current or recent examples.
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- Shia Alawites in Syria
- Muhajirs in Pakistan
- North Yemeni Arabs in Yemen
- Sunni Muslims in Bahrain
- Tigrayans in Ethiopia since 1991
- Tutsi in Rwanda
- West Germans in East Germany
- Brasiguayos in Paraguay (despite making up less than 2% of the Paraguayan population, Paraguayans of Brazilian descent control most of the industrial and economic sector)
- Ethnic Chinese in most of Southeast Asia (in several countries, this group makes up 15% or less of the population while owning over 60% of the economy of such countries)
- Indians in Fiji
- Indians in Kenya
- Indians in Madagascar (despite making up less than 1% of the population, by 2000 they controlled between 50% to 60% of the economy)
- Indians in Uganda (despite making up less than 1% of the population, they dominate the economy and produce most of the country's tax revenues)
- Indian diaspora in most of East Africa
- White South Africans still own the majority of businesses in South Africa
- Arab Sudanese in (pre-independence) South Sudan
- Afro-Guyanese in Guyana
- Ahom Tribe in erstwhile Ahom Kingdom now modern-day Assam, India
- Americo-Liberians in Liberia
- Anglo-Quebecers in Quebec prior and up until the Quiet Revolution
- Arabs in the Zanzibar Sultanate
- Azerbaijanis in the Safavid dynasty and the Qajar dynasty of Persia
- Baltic Germans in modern Estonia and Latvia during the crusader state era, subsequent local German states, Swedish rule in Estonia and later the Russian Empire
- Burmese Indians in Myanmar
- Caldoches in New Caledonia
- Catholics in South Vietnam
- Catholics in the Electorate of Saxony and Kingdom of Saxony (from the 1 June 1697)
- Catholics in Old Swiss Confederacy (from the Second War of Kappel to the Toggenburg War)
- Dutch and Indo people in the Dutch East Indies (modern-day Indonesia)
- French Lusignans in medieval Cyprus
- French speakers in Belgium before World War II
- Greeks in Ptolemaic Egypt
- Greek Phanariotes in the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia
- Hungarians and Transylvanian Saxons in Transylvania
- Japanese in the Korea, Taiwan, Manchukuo and Tsingtao Concession, China
- Krios in Sierra Leone
- Mainlanders in Taiwan (Republic of China) during the martial law period
- Manchurians in the Qing Dynasty, China
- Mongolians in the Yuan Dynasty, China
- Norman French in the Norman Dynasty of England
- Paulistas in early 20th century Brazil
- Peninsulares in the New World, modern-day Mexico, Colombia, Philippines, Cuba, and other nations of the former Spanish Empire
- Phoenicians in Ancient Carthage
- Pieds-Noirs in French Algeria
- The Protestant Ascendancy in British-ruled Ireland
- Ethnic Russians in the Baltic Soviet Republics, central Asia and various other Republics.
- Scots-speaking Lowlanders in Scotland prior to the Highland Clearances
- Serbian people in Kosovo after the break-up of Socialist Yugoslavia
- Sikhs in the Muslim-majority Punjab ( state) India from the early 18th to the 20th century.
- Sudanese Arabs in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (modern-day Sudan and South Sudan)
- Arab Sunni Muslims in Saddam Hussein-era Iraq
- Swedes in Finland during the Swedish rule and Russian Grand Duchy period
- White Anglo-Saxon Protestants in the United States
- White Jamaican in Jamaica
- White Namibians in Namibia under South African rule during apartheid
- White Rhodesians in Rhodesia
- White South Africans in South Africa during apartheid
- Colonialism, particularly exploitation colonialism and plantation colonies
- Middleman minority
- Minority influence
- Model minority
- Tyranny of the majority
- World on Fire, a book that introduces the concept of "market-dominant minority"
- Oded Haklai. A minority rule over a hostile majority: The case of Syria.
- "Bahrain country profile - Overview". BBC. BBC News. 25 November 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- "International Religious Freedom Report for 2013". State.gov. US State Department. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- "Bahrain: The Authorities Continue to Oppress the Shia Sect". Bahrain Center for Human Rights. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- Dahir, Abdi Latif (30 October 2016). "Ethiopia's crisis is a result of decades of land disputes and ethnic power battles". Quartz Africa. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
For a quarter of a century, the Tigrayans, who make up only 6% of the country’s over 100 million population, have enjoyed disproportionate influence and representation in government.
- Chua, Amy (2003). World On Fire. Knopf Doubleday Publishing. p. 34. ISBN 978-0385721868.
- Siegel, Matt; Veisamasama, Malakai (16 September 2014). "Ghosts of ethnic conflicts past haunt Fiji vote". www.reuters.com. Reuters. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
- Chua, Amy (2003). World On Fire. Knopf Doubleday Publishing. p. 113. ISBN 978-0385721868.
- Dawood, Farhana (15 May 2016). "Ugandan Asians dominate economy after exile". www.bbc.com. BBC News. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
- Chua, Amy (2003). World On Fire. Knopf Doubleday Publishing. p. 246. ISBN 978-0385721868.
- Yasmin Saikia. Fragmented Memories.
- President William V. S. Tubman, 1944 - 1971.
- U.S. Department of State. U.S. Relations With Liberia.
- Nicole Itano. For Liberians, old ties to US linger.
- Chua, Amy (2003). World On Fire. Knopf Doubleday Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 978-0385721868.
- Barzilai, Gad. Communities and Law: Politics and Cultures of Legal Identities (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003). ISBN 978-0-472-03079-8
- Gibson, Richard. African Liberation Movements: Contemporary Struggles against White Minority Rule (Institute of Race Relations: Oxford University Press, London, 1972). ISBN 0-19-218402-4
- Russell, Margo and Martin. Afrikaners of the Kalahari: White Minority in a Black State ( Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1979). ISBN 0-521-21897-7
- Johnson, Howard and Watson, Karl (eds.). The white minority in the Caribbean (Wiener Publishing, Princeton, NJ, 1998). ISBN 976-8123-10-9, ISBN 1-55876-161-6
- Chua, Amy. World on Fire: How Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability (Doubleday, New York, 2003). ISBN 0-385-50302-4
- Haviland, William. Cultural Anthropology. (Vermont: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, 1993). p. 250-252. ISBN 0-15-508550-6.