D-flat minor

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D minor
Db minor key signature.png
Relative keyF major
enharmonic: E major
Parallel keyD major
Dominant keyA minor
enharmonic: G minor
SubdominantG minor
enharmonic: F minor
EnharmonicC minor
Component pitches
D, E, F, G, A, Bdouble flat, C

D minor is a theoretical key based on D, consisting of the pitches D, E, F, G, A, B, and C. Its key signature has six flats and one double flat. Its relative major is F major (usually replaced by E major), its parallel major is D major, its direct enharmonic equivalent is C♯ minor, which is normally used.

The D natural minor scale is:

 {
\override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f
\relative c' {
  \clef treble \key des \minor \time 7/4
  des4^\markup { Natural minor scale } es fes ges aes beses ces des ces beses aes ges fes es des2
} }

Changes needed for the melodic and harmonic versions of the scale are written in with accidentals as necessary. The D harmonic minor and melodic minor scales are:

 {
\override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f
\relative c' {
  \clef treble \key des \minor \time 7/4
  des4^\markup { Harmonic minor scale } es fes ges aes beses c des c beses aes ges fes es des2
} }
 {
\override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f
\relative c' {
  \clef treble \key des \minor \time 7/4
  des4^\markup { Melodic minor scale (ascending and descending) } es fes ges aes bes c des ces! beses! aes ges fes es des2
} }

D minor is usually notated as the enharmonic key of C♯ minor, as in the second and third measures of Amy Beach's Canticle of the Sun.[1] However, unusually, two of Verdi's most well-known operas, La traviata and Rigoletto, both end very decisively in D minor[how?] (although written with the five-flat key signature of the parallel major). Mahler's thematic motif "der kleine Appell" ("call to order") from his Fourth and Fifth Symphonies uses both notations: in his Symphony No. 4 (first movement) it is in D minor, but in his Symphony No. 5 it is in C minor. In the Adagio of his Symphony No. 9 a solo bassoon interpolation following the main theme appears first in D minor, returning twice more notated in C minor. Likewise, in the Adagio of Bruckner's Symphony No. 8, phrases that are tonally in D minor are notated as C minor.[2][3][4][5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Amy Beach & Betty Buchanan (2006). The Canticle of the Sun. A-R Editions, Inc. p. xiii. ISBN 0-89579-583-3.
  2. ^ Ernst Levy (1985). A Theory of Harmony. SUNY Press. p. 62. ISBN 0-87395-993-0.
  3. ^ James L. Zychowicz (2005). "Structural Considerations". Mahler's Fourth Symphony. Oxford University Press. p. 28. ISBN 0-19-816206-5.
  4. ^ Eero Tarasti (1996). "Music history revisited". In Eero Tarasti; Paul Forsell; Richard Littlefield. Musical Semiotics in Growth. Indiana University Press. pp. 14&ndash, 15. ISBN 0-253-32949-3.
  5. ^ Theodor W. Adorno (1992). Mahler: A Musical Physiognomy. Translated by Edmund Jephcott. University of Chicago Press. pp. 165&ndash, 166. ISBN 0-226-00769-3.

Scales and keys[edit]



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