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Cyber-nationalism (internet-nationalism, online-nationalism) is nationalism which bases its activity on the internet. Cyber-nationalism has different aspects, which may help the government as a part of the propaganda. As a social phenomena cyber-nationalism is nationalistic groups, who are gathering on the internet. They often perform offensive actions against other countries, such as hacking and try to affect elections. This phenomena can be found in several countries such as Japan, Russian Federation, and China.
The Internet makes it easy to communicate without physical borders. Through digitization people, who are living in different counties, can communicate better than before. It is theorized that physical borders, which once prevented homophilous actors from congregating are absent on the internet, allowing people of like mind to meet and politically or socially mobilize, whereas pre-internet they were unable to. Others, however, have contrarily argued that this idea is mostly ideal. Internet people tend to hate each other, unlike the expectation.
Cyber-nationalism is part of the governmental policy. Governments use the internet as a part of propaganda to mobilize people. The Internet has certain advantage to encourage and improve nationalism. It catches more awareness than traditional media such as Newspapers and Television. Moreover, Internet makes it easier to organize activities.
In China, cyber-nationalism is very active. Chinese nationalists use the Internet resources available to them (considering that the Internet is restricted in China by censorship and the Great Firewall to organize online and recruit further supporters. Other Chinese nationalists use the Internet to hack, spam, and otherwise influence the technological infrastructure of nations the nationalists consider anti-China, primarily members of the European Union, the United States and Japan.   Many Western observers, as well as Chinese dissidents, believe that cyber-nationalist and hacking efforts are aided or organized by the Chinese government.
In Japan, recently cyber-nationalists (netto-uyoku) have become very active. They communicate with each other on the internet. In 2009, some part of the cyber-nationalist took actions against Korean tourists in the Tsushima Island, which is located near South Korea. Footage of this can be found on YouTube. According to Rumi Sakamoto, "This episode is just one expression of Japan’s new grassroots nationalism, which has gained force over the last decade against the backdrop of increasingly vociferous historical revisionism and neo-nationalism." In the past these kind of actions would not have raised public awareness, but the internet makes it easy for these groups to get public attention.
In Russia, nationalist groups use the Internet to solicit donations, recruit and organize. After the Russo-Georgian war, groups on Facebook such as "Abkhazia is not Georgia" and other Internet communities formed. Since many ethnic Russians were worried about terrorism from the Caucasus region, Russian nationalists doxxed students who are studying in Caucasian universities. They also proliferated propaganda videos in which dark-skinned young people are beating up ethnic Russians.
At the same time, anti-Russian government activist groups are recruiting on the Internet. In this case, cyber-nationalism aids in building support for the Chechen Republic and ethnic Chechen people against the Russian state, along with other minority groups that feel marginalized by the Russian Federation under Vladimir Putin.
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