Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve

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Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve
Participant in the Syrian Civil War, the Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017), and the War on Terror
Seal of Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve
Seal of Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve[1]
Active10 October 2014–present
(5 years, 9 months, 4 weeks and 1 day)[2][3][4]
IdeologyCounterterrorism
Founders United States
Founding leaderUnited States Central Command
Current CommanderUnited States LTG Robert P. White[5]
Deputy
Commander-Strategy
United Kingdom Maj. Gen. Gerald M. Strickland
Deputy
Commander-Operations
and Training (O&T)
United States Maj Gen Kenneth P. Ekman
Chief of StaffUnited States Brig Gen Stephen F. Jost
SpokespersonUnited States Col. Myles B. Caggins III
HeadquartersKuwait[6][7]
Size6,350[8][9]
Part ofIII Corps
Allies
Opponent(s) Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Tahrir al-Sham
al-Qaeda
White Flags[14]
Battles and war(s)International campaign against ISIL
Websitewww.inherentresolve.mil
Patch
Patch of Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve.svg

Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF–OIR) is the Joint Task Force established by the US-led international coalition against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), set up by United States Army Central (ARCENT) to coordinate military efforts against ISIL (Da'esh). It is composed of military forces and personnel from over 30 countries.[15][1][16] The stated aim of CJTF–OIR is to "degrade and destroy" ISIL.[17] Its establishment by US Central Command was announced in December 2014, after it was set up to replace the ad hoc arrangements that had previously been established to coordinate operations following the rapid gains made by ISIL in Iraq in June.[18] Formed in October 2014,[3] its first "coalition integration conference" was held the first week of December 2014.[1] Current operations are named Operation Inherent Resolve by the United States Department of Defense. Lieutenant General Robert "Pat" White is the current coalition commander.

While ground forces were also deployed in various roles (special forces raids, trainers, advisers, artillery, spotters), the bulk of CJTF-OIR's combat operations took the form of an air war against the Islamic State. The countries that directly participated in this part of the campaign were the United States (accounting for 75–80% of airstrikes), Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Jordan, Belgium, the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom.[19] By the end of 2017, CJTF-OIR stated that over 80,000 ISIL fighters had been killed by their airstrikes.[20] The coalition also provided $3.5 billion in military equipment to the Iraqi military,[21] provided billions more to the Peshmerga, and trained 189,000 Iraqi soldiers and police.[22] It has also provided significant support to the Syrian Democratic Forces.[23]

NATO's resources are also used by CJTF-OIR, and while the operation is not taking place under the NATO banner, all 29 members of the military alliance are also contributors to CJTF-OIR.[24]

History[edit]

From August 2014 to August 2015, coalition aircraft flew a total of 45,259 sorties, with the U.S. Air Force flying the majority (67%), and dropped more than 5,600 bombs.[25] At the time, The Guardian reported that a team of independent journalists had published details of 52 airstrikes which killed more than 450 civilians. The coalition acknowledged only 2 non-combatant deaths.[26]

On 3 October 2015, Tunisia announced it would join CJTF–OIR.[27]

On 22 December 2018, three days after Donald Trump announced the U.S. would withdraw all its troops from Syria, Brett McGurk, the U.S. envoy to the coalition against ISIL, announced his resignation from his post.[28]

In April 2019, a joint investigation by Amnesty International and Airwars reported that 1,600 civilians were killed by coalition airstrikes and U.S. artillery shelling during the four-month battle to capture the Syrian city of Raqqa from ISIL in 2017.[29][30] The Coalition states it conducted 34,464 strikes against ISIL targets between 8 August 2014 and end of March 2019, and unintentionally killed at least 1,291 civilians.[31][32][33][34]

In June 2019, United States Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense Michael Mulroy said "Five years ago, ISIS controlled approximately 55,000 square kilometers and more than 4 million people in Iraq lived under their oppressive rule, Now they do not. The Combined Joint Task Force-Operation Inherent Resolve continues to help train and equip 28 Iraqi brigades comprising thousands of soldiers. The more capable Iraq's security institutions, the more resilient Iraq will be in the face of malign foreign actors bent on coercion and exploitation."[35]

On 5 January 2020, Lt. Gen. White posted a statement on his official Twitter account, pausing operations with the Iraqis:

Our first priority is protecting all Coalition personnel committed to the defeat of Daesh. Repeated rocket attacks over the last two months by elements of Kata'ib Hezbollah have caused the death of Iraqi Security Forces personnel and a U.S. civilian. As a result we are now fully committed to protecting the Iraqi bases that host Coalition troops. This has limited our capacity to conduct training with partners and to support their operations against Daesh and we have therefore paused these activities, subject to continuous review. We remain resolute as partners of the Government of Iraq and the Iraqi people that have welcomed us into their country to help defeat ISIS. We remain ready to return our full attention and efforts back to our shared goal of ensuring the lasting defeat of Daesh.[36]

Structure[edit]

As of September 2019, U.S. Army Lieutenant General Robert "Pat" White commands CJTF-OIR[37] in an appointment which consolidates three commander's tasks. White is also the commander of the U.S. III Corps, which assumed authority over CJTF-OIF from ARCENT on 22 September 2015, turned over its command to XXVIII Airborne Corps, and then resumed command.[38] White has two deputies, a British Army officer, Major General Gerald Strickland, who is currently serving as CJTF-OIR Deputy Commander-Stability, and a U.S. Air Force officer, Major General Alexus G. Grynkewich, who is currently serving as CJTF-OIR Deputy Commander-Operations and Intelligence.[39] CJTF-OIR's headquarters is at Camp Arifjan in Kuwait and includes approximately 700 personnel from 27 nations who are involved in coordinating operations in Iraq and Syria.[40]

A dozen countries not involved in combat operations still contribute to Capacity Building Mission Iraq effort in Iraq. Those who have announced their participation in the program, which trains Iraqi security forces, include the United States, Australia, Canada, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Slovenia,[41] Spain, and the United Kingdom. As a result of the BPC program, nearly 6,500 Iraqi forces completed training, with approximately 4,500 currently in training.[42]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Rosen, Armin (9 December 2014). "The US-Led War On ISIS Now Has A Logo". Business Insider Australia. Archived from the original on 10 December 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  2. ^ "Defense.gov News Article: DoD Authorizes War on Terror Award for Inherent Resolve Ops". Defense.gov. Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
  3. ^ a b "Inside the Coalition to defeat ISIL" (PDF). Combined Joint Task Force – U.S. Department of Defense. 21 April 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  4. ^ Kohn, Sally (14 October 2014). "Warren and Christie Are the Anti-Hillarys". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 27 October 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  5. ^ "New Operation Inherent Resolve commander continues fight against ISIL".
  6. ^ "4,600 international troops pledged to train Iraqi forces". Military Times. 8 December 2014. Archived from the original on 28 June 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  7. ^ Georgy, Michael (13 June 2015). "Militants attack government forces near Iraq's Baiji refinery". Reuters. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  8. ^ "4,600 International Troops Pledged to Train Iraqi Forces". militarytimes.com. 8 December 2014. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
  9. ^ Harper, Jon (19 December 2014). "1,000 soldiers from the 82nd Airborne headed to Iraq". Stars and Stripes. Archived from the original on 11 August 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
  10. ^ Nations providing all forms of support, including direct participation in combat operations.
  11. ^ Spokesperson, Office of the (3 December 2014). "Joint Statement Issued by Partners at the Counter-ISIL Coalition Ministerial Meeting". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 14 May 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2019. Participants commended the efforts of the Lebanese Armed Forces in fighting ISIL/Daesh, and noted that ISIL/Daesh’s finances and recruitment are also increasingly being challenged through international cooperation. Participants affirmed, however, that a successful campaign against ISIL/Daesh will take time, and will require a sustained, united, and coordinated response. Participants reiterated their long-term commitment to this effort.
  12. ^ Nations providing military materiel, economic aid, advisers, trainers, and other forms of support, but not directly participating in combat operations.
  13. ^ "Partners of the Global Coalition". State.gov. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  14. ^ Schogol, Jeff (25 April 2018). "A 'post-ISIS insurgency' is gaining steam in Iraq". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 1 May 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  15. ^ "History of Combined Joint Task Force Operation Inherent Resolve" (PDF). Operation Inherent Resolve.
  16. ^ Katz, Whitney (13 January 2015). "JECC assists in the establishment of Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve" (Press release). JECC Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  17. ^ Pomerleau, Mark (14 August 2015). "Can the US really destroy terrorist groups like ISIS?". The Hill. Archived from the original on 15 August 2015. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  18. ^ Ripley, Tim (9 December 2014). "US sets up new headquarters for Operation 'Inherent Resolve'". IHS Jane's Defence Weekly. Archived from the original on 1 June 2015. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  19. ^ Special Reports: Operation Inherent Resolve. U.S. Department of Defense. Archived from 28 March 2017. Retrieved 2 July 2019 via the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ "Once promised paradise, ISIS fighters end up in mass graves". The Straits Times. 15 October 2017. Archived from the original on 12 December 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  21. ^ CJTF-OIR Official Twitter. Archived 13 April 2019[Date mismatch] at the Wayback Machine 20 March 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  22. ^ CJTF-OIR Official Twitter. Archived 15 April 2019[Date mismatch] at the Wayback Machine 15 March 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  23. ^ https://www.thedefensepost.com/2018/01/13/syria-border-security-force-sdf-coalition/
  24. ^ "NATO". Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  25. ^ Everstine, Brian (7 August 2015). "Operation Inherent Resolve: One year after the first bombs fell". AirForce Times. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  26. ^ Ross, Alice (3 August 2015). "Hundreds of civilians killed in US-led air strikes on Isis targets – report". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 May 2019. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
  27. ^ "Targets of Russian airstrikes in question". The Daily Star Newspaper – Lebanon. 5 October 2015. Archived from the original on 7 October 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  28. ^ Shaw, Adam (22 December 2018). "Brett McGurk, US envoy to anti-ISIS coalition, resigns in wake of Trump decision to pull troops from Syria". Fox News Channel. Archived from the original on 22 December 2018. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  29. ^ "Groups say airstrikes by US-led coalition killed 1,600 civilians in Raqqa". MilitaryTimes. 25 April 2019. Archived from the original on 26 April 2019. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  30. ^ "At least 1,600 civilians died in US-led Coalition actions at Raqqa, major new study finds". Airwars. 2 April 2019. Archived from the original on 7 May 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  31. ^ "US-led coalition 'killed 1,600 civilians' in Syria's Raqqa". Al Jazeera. 25 April 2019. Archived from the original on 26 April 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  32. ^ Martinez, Luis (25 April 2019). "Coalition strikes killed 1,600 civilians in Raqqa says new report". ABC News. Archived from the original on 27 April 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  33. ^ Hansler, Jennifer; Browne, Ryan (25 April 2019). "Report: US-led coalition killed 1,600 civilians in Raqqa in 2017". CNN. Archived from the original on 26 April 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  34. ^ "IS conflict: Coalition strikes on Raqqa 'killed 1,600 civilians'". BBC. 25 April 2019. Archived from the original on 27 April 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  35. ^ "Building Capabilities, Nurturing Alliances at Heart of U.S. Strategy". U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE. Archived from the original on 29 June 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  36. ^ White, Lt Gen Pat (5 January 2020). "Force protection is our #1 priority. Period. I've ordered @CJTFOIR to focus on security for all personnel. Full @CJTFOIR statement here:pic.twitter.com/qeDql3xTg7". @iiicorps_cg. Retrieved 17 January 2020. External link in |title= (help)[non-primary source needed]
  37. ^ "New Operation Inherent Resolve commander continues fight against ISIL". U.S. Army. 2 August 2016. Archived from the original on 23 October 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2016. Army Lt. Gen. Stephen J. Townsend, commanding general of XVIII Airborne Corps based at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, assumed command of Combined Joint Task Force-Operation Inherent Resolve during a transfer of authority ceremony on Monday August 21.
  38. ^ "CJTF-OIR transitions commanders in the mission to destroy ISIS". Operation Inherent Resolve. Retrieved 27 June 2020.
  39. ^ "CJTF-OIR Leaders". Operational Inherent Resolve Official Website. 9 May 2016. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  40. ^ Lekic, Slobodan; Simoes, Hendrick (19 May 2015). "Islamic State tactics and lack of intel strain US strategy". Stars and Stripes. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  41. ^ "Prvi slovenski vojaki so prispeli v iraški Kurdistan". Archived from the original on 7 September 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  42. ^ "Counter-ISIL military coalition concludes operational planning conference" (Press release). U.S. Central Command. 1 May 2015. Archived from the original on 13 June 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015.

External links[edit]