Wikipedia open wikipedia design.

Beech Tree Farm and the Small Brook - - 1102339.jpg
The Small Brook running through Bradwall
Bradwall is located in Cheshire
Location within Cheshire
Population182 [1]
OS grid referenceSJ759635
Civil parish
  • Bradwall
Unitary authority
Ceremonial county
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Postcode districtCW11
Dialling code01270
AmbulanceNorth West
EU ParliamentNorth West England
UK Parliament
List of places
53°10′06″N 2°21′41″W / 53.1684°N 2.3614°W / 53.1684; -2.3614Coordinates: 53°10′06″N 2°21′41″W / 53.1684°N 2.3614°W / 53.1684; -2.3614

Bradwall is a small village and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire East, about 2 mi (3.2 km) northwest of Sandbach in the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England, and about 20 mi (32 km) south of Manchester. According to the 2011 census, the population of the entire parish was 182.[1] The area is predominantly agricultural, with no manufacturing or retail outlets.

The village is not mentioned in the 11th-century Domesday survey, but from the 13th century gained notability as the manorial estate of Richard de Bradwall and his successors, including the families of Venables, Berington and Oldfield. From the early 19th century, it became the seat of the Latham family of Bradwall who resided at Bradwall Hall until its demolition in the early 20th century.

Bradwall hosts social events at the Village Hall, horse trial competitions (eventing) at Manor farm, and coarse fishing at Field Farm Fisheries. The Wesleyan Chapel Methodist Church has been the only place of worship since 1882 and closed in September 2013. The manufacturer of Foden Trucks and their award-winning Fodens Motor Works Band, were based in Bradwall until a boundary change in 1936 placed them in the adjacent parish of Sandbach.


Place name[edit]

Bradwall is not mentioned in the Domesday Book, completed in 1086 for William I of England, at which time the area was thought to be uncultivated moorland between Brereton and Warmingham, that formed part of the southern boundary of the Barony of Kinderton, the historic name of Middlewich.[2]

The township derives its name from the Old English word brāde, meaning broad, and wælla meaning spring.[3][4] Variant spellings include (dates in brackets):[5] Brade-,[6] -wal, -wale, -walle, Bradwall (1226),[7] Brad(e)well(e) (1281),[8] Brod(e)wall (1324),[9][Note 1][10] Beatwall (1326),[11] Broadwall (1415),[12] Bardwell (1438),[12] and, Bradwell (1724).[13] The name was also associated with the local hamlet of Hollinsgreen, where it was referred to as Bradwall et Hollins (c. 1662), and Bradwall cum Hollins (1819).[3] Today, the township also lends its name to the hamlet of Bradwall Green.[3]

Archaeological finds[edit]

There is evidence of Bronze Age and Roman activity in the area. A Late Bronze Age axe head dating to around 1000-801 BC was found near Fields Farm Fisheries in Bradwall.[14] Around a thousand Roman coins dating from not earlier than 270 AD were discovered in 1820, on the eastern side of Bradwall, a short distance from the Brindley Moor's Farm and about four miles direct from the Roman station at Kinderton, at a point where a small brook is crossed by the footpath from Brereton to Sandbach.[15][16] Discovered by a mole-catcher, the coins included examples of denarii of Gallienus, Claudius II, Tetricus, Victorinus, and Diocletian.[17] The remains of part of a Roman road, are also thought to have been discovered near the western side of Bradwall, by Boothlane, towards the west of Sandbach, and near King Street.[18] Since the 1936 parish boundary changes, the road's location is now in Elworth on Roman Way in Sandbach Parish.[19]

Manor of Bradwall[edit]

The first records that mention Bradwall are from about the 13th century,[20] when the Venables family of Kinderton divided the Manorial estate (i.e. the land) of Bradwall into two parts or "moieties". Several families have been associated with either the Manor, or the more recent country seat at Bradwall Hall, including:

Approx. date Family Notable people[2][21]
13th–14th centuries Bradwall of Bradwall
  • Richard de Bradwall the first of two family who settle in the Manor of Bradwall
14th century Venables of Bradwall
  • Sir William Venables the second of the two family who settle in the Manor of Bradwall
14th–16th centuries Berington of Moresbarrow and Bradwall
  • William de Beryngton. The title remained in the family for about six generations
16th–18th centuries Oldfield of Bradwall
18th–19th centuries Ward, and Jervis, of Bradwall
  • Charles Ward of Dublin, who conveyed the seat to his son-in-law:
  • John Jervis, who in turn passed the title to his son
  • John Jervis, a Welsh judge
19th century Latham of Bradwall
20th century Barlow Baronetcy of Bradwall Hall
  • John Emmott Barlow (1857–1932),[24][25] a businessman and Liberal Member of Parliament,[26] his eldest son:
  • John Denman Barlow (1898–1986),[27] a Conservative Member of Parliament, his son:
  • Sir John Kemp Barlow, 3rd Bt. (1934–), the current holder of the title since 1986.[28]

Seat of Bradwall[edit]

Bradwall Hall, seat of the Latham Family

The country seat of Bradwall (i.e. its buildings and its estate) is thought to have been originally on the west side of the parish, within a rectangular moat with a large pool,[29] with the name Hallfields, near Hollins Wood.[2][21] Hall Field next to Hollins Wood is also found on 19th-century tithe maps.[30] At some later time, the seat moved eastwards to Bradwall Hall.[31]

Bradwall Hall[edit]

Located nearer the middle of the parish, Bradwall Hall was the seat of the Latham Family. Recorded as early as 1803,[32] the Hall is described as "a large white house with no architectural features of interest, is said by Dr. George Ormerod to have been 'a large building of brick, finished with gables, at the end of an avenue of firs and evergreens,' which had been enlarged and modernised from time to time".[2] Following the 19th-century decline of the English country house, Bradwall Hall was demolished on 16 October 1960, blown up by the 214 Field Squadron of the Royal Engineers,[33] although one of its cottages and the coach-house remain, and they are now Grade II listed buildings, dated by English Heritage to the 17th century.[34]

Bradwall Reformatory School for Boys[edit]

Former Bradwall Reformatory School in 2012, see location on a 1910 Ordnance Survey map

Bradwall Reformatory School was built by George William Latham (1827–1886) on his own property at Bradwall Hall, in 1855, and aimed to reform delinquent boys through the use of an industrial labour apprenticeship.[35] A report to the House of Commons in 1861 reported that:

"There were 58 boys in the school when I inspected it. [...] I was glad to find that more of the ordinary farming processes were being resorted to; the plough and other common agricultural machines employed, so that the training of the lads as farm servants would be gradually made more complete than the use of spade labour allows of. The books are well kept. The punishments had been much fewer, chiefly fines or loss of privilege. [...] :The cost per head for the year was 18l. 9s. 11d."[36]

Notable detainees included two eight-year-old boys, Peter Barratt and James Bradley, who on 11 April 1861 abducted and killed two-year-old George Burgess.[37] They were charged with manslaughter, and sentenced by the judge Sir Charles Crompton to be sent to the Reformatory at Bradwall, which "was to rank as the most enlightened and successful institution of its kind in the country".[38] Another detainee was one Joshua Tolley who was sent to Bradwall in 1871 at the age of eight. He was in and out of reform school until the age of 16, but as a persistent offender, served sentences in Knutsford and Dartmoor prisons.[39]

George William Latham's cousin, Charles Latham (1816–1907) was surgeon to the Bradwall Reformatory from its foundation until his retirement in 1903. The school was renamed Bradwall Training School in 1908,[40] and closed in 1920.[41][42] The buildings are now Grade II listed, converted into cottages.[43]

Economic history[edit]

Historically, Bradwall has been farming and pasture land with the majority of people working in agriculture. The 1881 Census notes that nearly 20% of the residents were in agriculture followed by nearly 12% in domestic service; 43% had an unknown, or non-specific occupation (see table below).[44] The 1902 Kelly's Directory of Cheshire, noted that in Bradwall, "the crops are oats, roots, wheat and rye. The land is chiefly pasture", and that commercially, there are a total of 15 farmers, one blacksmith and the superintendent of the Reformatory School.[45]


Bradwall road-sign in Sandbach
1577 map extract of Cheshire by Christopher Saxton showing Bradwall, and also the Rivers Croco, Wheelock and Dane. See also Bradwall Parish today

Bradwall is a village and parish council in southeast Cheshire in the northwest of England. As the crow flies, the Irish Sea is about 37 mi (60 km) northwest, Manchester city centre is about 22 mi (35 km) north, the county capital Chester is 22 mi (35 km) west, the Peak District is 13 mi (21 km) east, Stoke on Trent is 13 mi (21 km) southeast, and London is 150 mi (240 km) southeast (172 mi (277 km) by car).[Note 2]

Locally, Bradwall is a mile north of Sandbach parish council, 7.5 mi (12.1 km) northeast of Crewe, 4 mi (6.4 km) southeast of Middlewich, 4 mi (6.4 km) south of Holmes Chapel, and 8 mi (13 km) west of Congleton.[Note 3] The Parish covers 1,938 acres (784 ha)[46] Somewhat irregular in shape, it extends about 3 mi (4.8 km) east-west, and 2.5 mi (4.0 km) north-south. The land is slightly undulating, at an elevation of about 130 ft (40 m) in the northwest, rising to about 195 ft (59 m) in the southeast.[47] Wooded areas included Barlow Wood, Bradwall Wood, Denman Wood and Hollins Wood.

A handful of brooks flow throughout the parish, the most notable being the so-called Small Brook which flows into Sanderson's Brook in the adjacent Sproston Parish.[47] The River Croco is about a 1.5 mi (2.4 km) north of Bradwall, and the River Wheelock about 2.5 mi (4.0 km) away from the southwest boundary of Bradwall. Both rivers join the River Dane in Middlewich, which itself flows about 2.5 mi (4.0 km) north,[48] (see 1577 map). The Environment Agency indicates that the Small Brook may be subject to occasional, but not extensive flooding.[49]

Hollinsgreen cottages along Wood Lane

Bradwall parish also includes the hamlets of Bradwall Green in the east, and Hollinsgreen in the west,[50] which used to be called Hollins,[51] and Bradwall-cum-Hollins,[52] that was noted for a 16th-century water-powered corn mill.[Note 4] There also used to be a hamlet called Hope in the parish.[54][55] (Not to be confused with Bradwell in the Derbyshire parish of Hope.)


Following the rest of United Kingdom and its parent county, Cheshire, Bradwall has an oceanic climate influenced by the Atlantic Ocean,[56] and also by its altitude due to its proximity to the Pennines.[57]

Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Met Office Ringway weather station, 14 mi (23 km) from Bradwall, 2003/4[58]

See also: Average temperature chart, Precipitation chart, and Wind speed chart


Bradwall topsoil at Springbank Farm

Bradwall sits mainly on fine-grained mudstone, over a bedrock of Wilkesley Halite member with Halite-stone.[59] The halite is responsible for rock salt deposits in the surrounding area (see "Salt in Cheshire"),[60] and there is evidence of there having been "wich fields" along the western side of Wards Lane that may indicate small scale brine extraction.[61] The thickness of the bedrock is estimated at around 400 m, and was formed around 221 to 227 million years ago in the Late Triassic Carnian period, in a hot dry environment.[62] It is surrounded by Devensian glacial till from the last glacial period from between approximately 110,000 and 10,000 years ago.[63] A small pocket of undifferentiated river terrace deposits of sand and gravel,[64] dating from the Quaternary about 2.5 million years old, is located southeast of the intersection of Pillar Box Lane with Bradwall Road. (See illustration at The British Geological Survey). The topsoil[Note 5] reveals many trace elements,[Note 6] and an acidity that has been decreasing since 1978.[Note 7] Several boreholes in the area reveal glacial sand and clays with a couple of layers of ground water.[66][67]


One of the six major regional seismic profiles lines, the 189 mi (304 km) Lancaster to Birmingham profiles passes directly through Bradwall, as part of the Sandbach-Knutsford Sub-Basin of the Cheshire Basin. About five other minor seismic profiles also pass through Bradwall, all managed by the UK Onshore Geophysical Library, that are uses by resources exploration companies (such as oil, gas and coal).[68] Bradwall does not lie in an earthquake zone, although on 11 November 1997, a rare magnitude 1.5 earthquake was recorded about 5 mi (8.0 km) due north in Byley.[69]


Bradwall Parish population by age.[70]

According to the 2011 census, the population of Bradwall Civil Parish totals 182 people (93 men and 89 women)[71] in 67 households.[72] All households described their ethnicity as white,[73] and of the population of 182, 141 (77%) people stated their religion as Christian, 28 (15%) as no religion, the remaining 13 (7%) not stating a preference.[74] The life expectancy at birth in 2007–2009 is 79 years for men, and 82 for women.[75]


The population of Bradwall peaked in the 1920s at over 1300. The sharp decline in population in the 1930s is due to the 1936 change in the parish boundaries, when the populated area of Elworth was moved from Bradwall Parish and into Sandbach Parish.[76] Since the 1950s, there has been a slight decline in population, and it is now well under 200:

Year 1801 1811 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1951 1961 2001 2011
Population 252 258 297 344 291 437 587 662 758 924 1245 1358 1307 223 195 166 182

1801, 1831.[77] 1811.[78] 1841–1851.[79] 1861–1871.[80] 1881–1961[81] 2001[82] 2011 [1]

Bradwall population chart


Winter crops by Cooksmere Lane
Bradwall House with sheep grazing on adjacent pasture

There are only around a dozen businesses operating in Bradwall today, half of which are farms split evenly between dairy and agricultural farming. Other businesses include property development, accountancy and gardening.[83] Some of the farms also operate secondary businesses, notably riding schools, stables and an annual eventing event.

Compared to the 1881 Census (see Economic History),[44] the working population recorded in the 2001 Census seems to show that the economy of Bradwall, along with the population, in decline.[84]

The 2001 census notes that of the total population of 166, that 127 (77%) are of working age between 16 and 74. Of these, 90 (54%) are employed, divided between 36 people in "Extractive and Manufacturing Industries" and 54 people in "Service Industries".[85] The Census also reveals the following occupational breakdown:[84]

2001 Occupations Count
Managerial and professional 40
Intermediate occupations 4
Small employers and own-account workers 25
Lower supervisory and technical occupations 9
Semi-routine and routine occupations 22
Never worked and long-term unemployed 0
Not classified 26

Culture and community[edit]

Bradwall Village Hall

Bradwall Village Hall[edit]

Bradwall Village Hall was opened on 26 October 1972 by Lady Diana Helen Barlow,[86] (wife of Sir John), on land of the former Bradwall Hall. The hall is used for social and public events,[87] such as Cheshire Rural Touring Arts,[88][89] the South Cheshire Cheshire Beekeepers' Association,[90] Sandbach Folk Dance Club,[91] and the Probus Club of Sandbach.[92] The Village Hall is also used as the local Polling Station.[93]


Although it has a Sandbach postcode, coarse fishing is available in the southeast of Bradwall Civil Parish at Field Farm Fisheries with five pools stocked with barbel, bream, carp, chub, crucian, rudd, roach and tench.[94][95] The equestrian governing body, British Eventing, holds horse trials in eventing at Manor Farm each year.[96][97] Plum Tree Farm Riding Centre is the local riding school.[98][99] Chellebeech Livery Yard is at Springbank Farm.[100]

Parks and nature reserves[edit]

Bradwall Parish has no parks and nature reserves of its own. The nearest public park is Sandbach Park, about 1.75 mi (3 km) away,[101] with bowling greens, play areas, skate park, tennis court and multi-use games area.[102] Congleton Park is about 8 mi (13 km) away and includes a town wood and riverside walks.[103] The Quinta Arboretum, created by Sir Bernard Lovell, is 9 mi (14 km) away in Swettenham, and features multiple species of trees, shrubs and avenues.[104]

Grade II registered parks and gardens include Queen's Park in Crewe about 9 mi (14 km) away, featuring a boating lake, stream garden, trees and floral borders.[105] Rode Hall in Odd Rode parish about 8 mi (13 km) away, is a landscape park designed by Humphry Repton in 1790 and created by John Webb in the early-19th century, and featuring a formal and kitchen garden.[106]

Other countryside sites close to Bradwall include the Wheelock Rail Trail for walkers and cyclists, about 2.5 mi (4.0 km) away in Sandbach,[107] and Brereton Heath Local Nature Reserve about 6 mi (9.7 km) away, which includes a 15-acre lake and "a wealth of bird life, including great and lesser spotted woodpeckers, nuthatch, treecreepers, kingfisher, heron, great crested grebe and goldfinch".[108] About 4 mi (6.4 km) away is the Bagmere reserve, a Site of Special Scientific Interest,[109] due to its internationally important series of meres and mosses, and "the last remaining site in Cheshire for the small pearl-bordered fritillary butterfly"[110] The nearest bird reserve is 26 mi (42 km) way at Coombes Valley.[111]


Bradwall Hall, 19th-century drawing

Bradwall is home to three buildings that were Grade II listed from 5 December 1986, though none are open to the public:

The 17th-century cottage and coach-house of the former Bradwall Hall includes a two-story building with three windows, made with brown brickwork and tile roof. Inside are chamfered oak beams, chimney corner (inglenook) and oak supporting beams (bressumer). The coach house is also oak framed with brown brick and roof tiles.[34]

Built around 1700, Plumbtree Farmhouse off Ward's Lane in Bradwall Green is a two-storey building with three windows, built with brown brick.[112]

The Reformatory School and Cottages (1855 datestone) on Walnut Lane, is a two-storey building with three windows, now converted in cottages, that surrounds a rectangular courtyard. The school originally cost £255 to build.[43]


Canal, rail and road network centred around Bradwall Green in Bradwall parish


M6 Motorway north of Junction 17 passing through Bradwall

The main road through Bradwall is Bradwall Road, which runs from Middlewich in the northwest, to Sandbach in the South.[113] A 1.5 mi (2.4 km) stretch of the M6 motorway passes through the east of the parish,[48] which is a couple of miles from the M6 Exit 17.[114] Before the motorway was built in the 1960s, and still available to local traffic, Bradwall is served by the A54 Middlewich to Holmes Chapel road to the north, the A50 Holmes Chapel to Arclid in the east, the A534 Arclid to Sandbach to the south, and the A533 Sandbach to Middlewich in the west.[115]


There are several public footpaths forming rights of way in Bradwall. For example, a 1.25 mi (2 km) footpath runs from Congleton Road in Sandbach, northwards through the fields and across the Small Brook to Bradwall Manor, and another 1.25 mi (2 km) footpath runs from the end of Vicarage Lane in Elworth, northeastwards across the Small Brook, Wood Lane to Bradwall Lane near the junction of Pillar Box Lane.[47]

Nearby transport[edit]

Manchester International Airport is about 25 mi (40 km) from Bradwall. The nearest airfield is about 4 mi (6.4 km) away at Arclid Airfield,[116] currently used by Cheshire Microlights.[117] A few miles north of Bradwall, RAF Cranage was built during the Second World War, and was operational between 1940 and 1958.[118]

There are no bus services into Bradwall. There nearest services are a couple of miles away in Sandbach, where the No.32 goes to Crewe, 37(E) to Middlewich, 38 to Macclesfield and Crewe, 49 to Holmes Chapel, 78 to Nantwich, 319 to Holmes Chapel, D1 to Crewe, H1 to Whitehill, X81 to Middlewich, X22 to Liverpool, and X38 to Congleton.[119]

The Trent and Mersey Canal near Bradwall parish

The Trent and Mersey Canal passes about 100 m (330 ft) from the western border of Bradwall.[48] National Cycle Way Route 71 Parkgate to Teggs Nose, Macclesfield, passes about 100 m (330 ft) from the northeast boundary of Bradwall.[48][120]

Built in 1841, the Crewe to Manchester railway Line passes through Bradwall from southwest to northeast.[48] The parish has no stations of its own, the nearest being Sandbach station in Elworth, about 3 mi (4.8 km) away by road, which runs between Crewe and Manchester. Closing to passengers in 1960, a single freight line between Sandbach via Middlewich railway station and Northwich also just enters Bradwall in the northwest, near the electricity substation in Moston.[48] The closest railway junction is Crewe railway station, serving Chester, Derby, London, Manchester and beyond.[121]


Bradwall civil parish was originally part of Sandbach Ancient Parish, and was created a separate parish from it in 1867.[122][Note 8] It also was part of Nantwich Hundred, Congleton Poor Law Union, Rural Sanitary District, and (after 1866) it formed part of Congleton Rural District [123] until 1974, when it became part of the Borough of Congleton.

In terms of parliamentary representation, the Bradwall area (including the time when it was not a separate civil parish) was in the Cheshire Southern Division from 1832 to 1867; in the Cheshire Mid Division, from 1867 to 1885; in the Eddisbury Division, from 1885 to 1918; in the Northwich Division, from 1918 to 1948; from 1948 it was in Knutsford County Constituency,[123] but it is currently in Congleton Parliament Constituency,[124] represented by Mrs Fiona Bruce MP.[125] The local polling station is Bradwall Village Hall.[93]

One of 112 Local Councils in Cheshire East,[126] Bradwall Parish Council is currently chaired by Greg Gnyp.[127]


Sandbach School House, serving Bradwall

There are no schools in Bradwall parish, so it falls into the Offley and Sandbach School Admission Catchment areas, which determines the nearest appropriate school.[128] The primary school for the area is Offley Primary School [129] (about 2 mi (3.2 km) away). A 2011 OFSTED report noted that this is a larger-than-average-sized school, whose overall effectiveness was graded as "good", an improvement by one grade over the previous inspection in 2008.[130] The secondary schools are Sandbach High School and Sixth Form College for girls, and Sandbach School for the boys. Both are independent schools that have converted to academy status. 2008 OFSTED reports gave each school a top Grade 1 "Outstanding" rating.[131][132][133] The local Voluntary Aided (Catholic) school is St Mary's Catholic Primary School in Middlewich,[134] which a 2011 Ofsted reports noted as "Satisfactory",[135] and the local Voluntary Aided (C of E) school is Brereton Church of England Primary School,[134] which a 2011 Ofsted report stated as "Good".[136] The nearest college is South Cheshire College,[137][138] and the nearest university is Manchester Metropolitan University's Institute of Education, both in Crewe.[139]

Religious sites[edit]

Bradwall Methodist Church, built 1882

Built in 1882,[140] Bradwall's only place of worship is the Wesleyan Chapel Methodist Church on Ward's Lane. The church is one of four in the Sandbach Mission Area (the others are in Sandbach, Sandbach Heath and Wheelock), and services are held fortnightly on Sunday. The minister is the Rev'd Kim Stilwell.[141] Historic Minutes, financial and administrative records between 1882 and 1928 are held at the Cheshire Record Office.[142] In 1982, the Chapel celebrated its centenary.[143]

St Mary's Church in Sandbach has a chancel that belonged to Bradwall Hall,[144] and includes the arms of Oldfield.[145] Once called the Bradwall Chancel or Bradwall Chapel, it is not called the Chapter House, "Church records state that Philip Oldfield of Bradwall had a confirmation of his right to this Chapel from the Bishop of Chester on 8 October 1589.[146]

Notable people[edit]

Edwin Foden, (1841–1911), was a vehicle manufacturer who founded Foden Trucks and Fodens Motor Works Band. He died at his home, Elworth House, then in Bradwall parish.[147] Other members of the family business included his sons, William Foden (1868–1964) and Edwin Richard Foden (1870–1950), who were born at Bradwall Green,[148] and Foden senior's business partner, George Hancock (c. 1823), who was a neighbour on Foundry Street, Bradwall in 1871.[149]

The Rev. John Richard Armitstead (1829–1919)[150] was born at Springfields, Bradwall,[151] and succeeded his father as vicar of St Mary's Church, Sandbach in October 1865.[2]


Public utilities to Bradwall Parish County are served by Scottish Power Manweb regional electricity company,[152] the North West gas network [153] (a gas pipeline passes through Bradwall along the route of the M6 motorway,[154]) and water is provided by Severn Trent Water.[155]

There is no cable TV available in the area,[156] but like the rest of country, Sky TV is available by satellite. FreeView digital TV is transmitted from the Winter Hill transmitter 33.5 mi (53.9 km) away, and is part of the Granada television region.[157]

The local telephone exchange is Sandbach (code WMSBH), with several companies providing a variety of Internet broadband services,[158] including Broadband ADSL since 2000, and Broadband ADSL Max since 2006 (estimated speed 3.5Mb).[159][160] Mobile phone services with 2G and 3G are available from the major networks.[161] A 15m UTMS mobile phone mast operated by 3 is on Brindley Lane, and a 23.5 m (77 ft) GSM mast operated by Network Rail on Wood Lane.[162]

Bradwall is policed by Middlewich and Holmes Chapel Neighbourhood Policing Team, part of Cheshire Constabulary police force.[163] Crime rates are low, with just two crimes reported throughout 2011.[164]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • John Parsons Earwaker, The History of the Ancient Parish of Sandbach, "Bradwall Township" (1890) Co. Chester including the two chapelries of Holmes Chapel and Goostrey from original records.
  • F. A. Youngs, Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England. Volume I: Northern England (1991) London: Royal Historical Society. ISBN 0-86193-127-0.
  • "Reformatory Work at Bradwall", Cheshire Observer, Saturday, 11 February 1893; pg. 5; Issue 2114.


  1. ^ The Private Archives Team at the National Archives notes that this "consists of a typed list of 84 pages recording a collection of deeds in the possession of Eric Barker Esq of 6 Millview Terrace, Greenland Road, Worthing, Sussex, compiled in c. 1950 [...] could not be traced in March 1969' [and] the collection appears to have been dispersed.
  2. ^ All distances derived from Google Earth. Retrieved 12 May 2012
  3. ^ All distances derived from Google Maps. Retrieved 4 May 2012
  4. ^ In 1589 there is mention of "a watercorn milne in Bradwall, called Hollynwood milne" and "Hollin Wood in Bradwall, formerly called Bradwall Wood". In the list of Cheshire Freeholders in 1579, Richard Halton of Hollins occurs.[53]
  5. ^ Bradwall topsoil is described as medium to course grained arenaceous-rudaceous, surrounded by fine-grained to course argillic-rudaceous.[65]
  6. ^ Bradwall soil trace elements include Ag Al B Ba Be Bi Ca Cd Ce Co Cr Cu Fe Ga K La Li Mg Mn Mo Nb Nd Ni P Pb Rb Sc Si Sr Sn Ti U V Y Zn Zr[65]
  7. ^ Bradwall soil acidity has been recorded at a high of pH 5.79 in 1978, decreasing to pH 6.27 in 2007.[65]
  8. ^ A note at the bottom of page 36 reads: The townships of Arclid, Betchton, Blackden, Bradwall, Church Hulme, or Holmes Chapel, Cotton, Cranage, Hassall, Leese, Sandbach, Twemlow and Wheelock, form part of the parish of Sanbach, the remainder of which is in the Northwich Union; total population, 9,046.


  1. ^ a b c Official 2011 Census Figures. Neighbourhood Statistics Website. Retrieval Date: 3 February 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d e John Parsons Earwaker, The History of the Ancient Parish of Sandbach, "Bradwall Township", Co. Chester including the two chapelries of Holmes Chapel and Goostrey from original records. (1890)
  3. ^ a b c English Place-Name Society (1970). Survey of English Place Names. 45. The University Press.
  4. ^ "Bradwall", Key to English Place Names, Institute for Name-Studies, University of Nottingham. Retrieved 8 May 2012
  5. ^ J. McN. Dodgson and Alexander R. Rumble, The place-names of Cheshire, Volume 2, English Place-Name Society, Publisher: Cambridge University Press, 1981, page 226. [1]
  6. ^ The Twenty-Ninth Annual Report of The Deputy Keeper of the Public Records, Published 1868, page 58
  7. ^ J. Varley (editor), A Middlewich Chartulary, publ. Chetham Society (NS 105, 108), 1941–1944, referenced by EPNS (1970)
  8. ^ R. Stewart-Brown (editor), Calendar of County Court, City Court and Eyre Rolls of Chester, 1259–1297, publ. Chetham Society (NS 84), 1925, referenced by EPNS (1970)
  9. ^ Manuscripts of E. E. Barker Esq., NRA 04060, referenced by EPNS (1970).
  10. ^ The Record Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, Volume 103, The Record Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, Record Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 1953, page 22
  11. ^ MSS of the Leicester-Warren Family at Tabley House, NRA 3636 referenced by EPNS (1970). Also at Cheshire Archives, reference DLT
  12. ^ a b Calendar of the Chester Recognizance Rolls, in Annual Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records(ARDK), Vol. 36, 1875, Appendix 2; ARDK, Vol.37, 1876, Appendix 2; ARDK, 1878, Vol.39, Appendix 1, referenced by EPNS (1970)
  13. ^ Gastrell, Francis, 1662–1725; Raines, Francis Robert, 1805–1878, ed, Notitia Cestriensis, or Historical Notices of the Diocese of Chester, Vol.1, Cheshire, publ. Chetham Society (OS 8), page 255 referenced by EPNS (1970)
  14. ^ "Bronze Socketed/Looped Axe from Fields Farm Fisheries", Cheshire Historic environment record, SMR Number 5009 at map reference SJ76SE
  15. ^ George Ormerod, "Correspondence", in Archaeologia cambrensis, Volume 2, Cambrian Archaeological Association, 1847, page 182
  16. ^ "Brindley Moor", owned by John Latham, occupied by Thomas Arden, at Cheshire Archives and Local Studies, e-mapping
  17. ^ J. P. Earwaker, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., "Roman Remains in the Eastern Part of Cheshire", Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, Third Series, Volume V, Sessions 1876–1877, page 86
  18. ^ "King Street - Middlewich to Chesterton Section", Cheshire Historic environment record, SMR Number 436/1/13, on map reference SJ76SW.
  19. ^ "Roman Road", Ordnance Survey 1946 map, compare with "Roman Road" on Google Maps
  20. ^ Ormerod (1819) refers to the Harleian Collection's Harley Manuscripts: 2007, 155 & 233; 2074; 2077; 2079;
  21. ^ a b Ormerod (1819), p. 64
  22. ^ Geoffrey Davenport, Ian McDonald, Caroline Moss-Gibbons, The Royal College of Physicians and its collections: an illustrated history, Publisher: Royal College of Physicians, 2001, ISBN 0-907383-83-1, ISBN 978-0-907383-83-3, 168 pages (page 148)
  23. ^ W. B. Spaulding, Peter Mere Latham (1789–1875): a great medical educator, Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1971 June 19; 104(12): 1109–passim.
  24. ^ John Debrett, Debrett's baronetage, knightage, and companionage, Publisher Dean & Son, limited, 1931.[2]
  25. ^ London Gazette, Issue 28040 published on 16 July 1907, page 4858
  26. ^ Alfred M. Gollin, The Impact of Air Power on the British People and Their Government, 1909–1914, Publisher: Stanford University Press, 1989, ISBN 0-8047-1591-2, ISBN 978-0-8047-1591-1, 354 pages, page 62
  27. ^ Who's who of British Members of Parliament: 1945–1979 Volume 4, Publisher Harvester Press, 1981, page 17
  28. ^ Charles Mosley, editor, Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 1, page 256. Cited at Retrieved 11 September 2012
  29. ^ "Bradwall Hall", Site of the Medieval moat, SMR Number 1097, on map reference SJ76SE.
  30. ^ "Hall Field" on "Tithe Maps 1836–51" at Cheshire Archives website. Retrieved 20 May 2012 (Plot name search)
  31. ^ Sir Bernard Burke, A visitation of the seats and arms of the noblemen and gentlemen of Great Britain, Volume 2, Publisher Colburn, 1853, page 127
  32. ^ Daniel Paterson, A new and accurate description of all the direct and principal cross roads in Great Britain, published 1803, page 304
  33. ^ "Stately Ruins", The Guardian [ Digital Archive] 17 October 1960, page 11
  34. ^ a b Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1279173)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
  35. ^ The Irish quarterly review, Volume 5, Publisher W.B. Kelly, 1855. (page li)
  36. ^ Reports from Commissioners, Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, 1862 (page 33)
  37. ^ Jane Pilcher, Stephen Wagg, Thatcher's Children?: Politics, Childhood And Society In The 1980s And 1990s, Volume 6, Publisher Psychology Press, 1996, ISBN 0-7507-0461-6, 9780750704618, 231 pages, page 151
  38. ^ Gitta Sereny, "A Child Murdered by Children", The Independent, Sun 23 April 1995
  39. ^ David J. Cox, Steve Farrall and Barry Godfrey, "Persistent Offenders in the North West of England, 1880–1940: Some Critical Research Questions", Crimes and Misdemeanours: Deviance and the Law in Historical Perspective, vol.I, issue 1, 2007, pages 69–89 (Abstract Archived 14 April 2013 at, full text)
  40. ^ "Certificate", London Gazette, Issue 30633 published 16 April 1918. Page 9
  41. ^ McLean, C & McLean, M, Bradwall Reformatory School, Reference 212228, at Cheshire Archives and Local Studies
  42. ^ "The Training School, Holmes Chapel", London Gazette, Issue 32098 published 6 October 1920. Page 10
  43. ^ a b Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1138826)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
  44. ^ a b "Occupation data classified into the 24 1881 'Orders', plus sex" at Vision of Britain Through Time website. Retrieved 3 May 2012
  45. ^ "Bradwall", in Kelly's Directory of Cheshire, 1902, page 316
  46. ^ "Bradwall Historical statistics" at A Vision of Britain Through Time website. Retrieved 4 May 2012
  47. ^ a b c Bradwall, Ordnance Survey map, via Retrieved 6 May 2012
  48. ^ a b c d e f Bradwall Civil Parish at Cheshire East Council Interactive Mapping. Retrieved 28 February 2013
  49. ^ "Risk of Flooding from Rivers and Sea" at Environment Protection Agency website. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
  50. ^ Hollinsgreen at Retrieved 28 November 2011
  51. ^ Thomas Moule, The English Counties Delineated, Volume 2, Publisher Virtue, 1837, (page 287)
  52. ^ The Cambridge University Magazine, Volume 1, Issue 1, Publisher W.P. Grant, 1840. (page 377)
  53. ^ Earwaker, 1890
  54. ^ EPNS (1970)
  55. ^ The Thirty-Ninth Annual Report of the Deputy Keeper, 1878 (ref)
  56. ^ Britain and the British Seas, Haskell House Publishers, 1902, page 261
  57. ^ Coward, Thomas Alfred (1867–1933), Cheshire, Cambridge University Press, 1910, page 76
  58. ^ "Historic station data Archived 18 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine" for "Ringway Archived 30 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine" (station closed 2004) at Retrieved 11 September 2012
  59. ^ "Wilkesley Halite member", The BGS Lexicon of Named Rock Units, British Geological Survey website. Retrieved 10 May 2012
  60. ^ Alfred Ingham, Cheshire, its traditions and history, Published Pillans & Wilson, Edinburgh, 1920, page 6
  61. ^ "Wich Fields", Cheshire Historic environment record, SMR Number 2883 on map reference SJ76SE
  62. ^ "British geology onshore digital maps 1:50 000 scale" in the Geology of Britain Viewer for Bradwall, British Geological Survey website. Retrieved 10 May 2012
  63. ^ Till, Devensian, The BGS Lexicon of Named Rock Unit", British Geological Survey website. Retrieved 10 May 2012
  64. ^ River Terrace Deposits, The BGS Lexicon of Named Rock Unit", British Geological Survey website. Retrieved 10 May 2012
  65. ^ a b c "NERC Soil Portal", National Environment Research Council, British Geological Survey website. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  66. ^ "Borehole scans", see Search onshore borehole records, British Geological Survey website. Retrieved 10 May 2012
  67. ^ "SJ76SE109 — M6 Widen JCTS 16-20 637", British Geological Survey website. Retrieved 10 May 2012
  68. ^ "UKOGL-RG-006: N-S profile from Lancaster to Birmingham", at the UK Onshore Geophysical Library (UKOGL) website. Retrieved 10 May 2012. Interactive viewer Archived 5 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  69. ^ "Earthquakes in the UK", British Geological Survey website. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  70. ^ 2001 Census, "Parish Profile - People, 2001", Neighbourhood Statistics Website.
  71. ^ "Sex, 2011 (QS104EW)", Neighbourhood Statistics, 2011 Census, Office for National Statistics, retrieved 3 February 2013
  72. ^ "Accommodation Type - Households, 2011 (QS402EW)", Neighbourhood Statistics, 2011 Census, Office for National Statistics, retrieved 3 February 2013
  73. ^ "Ethnic Group, 2011 (QS201EW)", 2011 Census, Office for National Statistics, retrieved 3 February 2013
  74. ^ "Religion, 2011 (QS208EW)", Neighbourhood Statistics, 2011 Census, Office for National Statistics, retrieved 3 February 2013
  75. ^ "Neighbourhood Statistics: Health", Office for National Statistics website. Retrieved 16 May 2012
  76. ^ Ministry of Health, Order No. 84735, "The County of Chester Review Order", 1936. Cited at Sandbach Tn/AP/CP "Relationships and changes: Boundary changes"
  77. ^ "Bradwall", History, Gazetteer & Directory of Cheshire, 1850
  78. ^ Ormerod (1819), p. 5
  79. ^ "Census, land & survey records", Annual search where Place of residence is Bradwall, at Retrieved 12 May 2012
  80. ^ "Bradwall", Morris & Co.'s Directory & Gazetteer of Cheshire, 1874, page 587
  81. ^ "Historical statistics, Population", A Vision of Britain Through Time, website. Retrieved 12 May 2012
  82. ^ Official 2001 Census Figures. Neighbourhood Statistics Website. Retrieval Date: 3 February 2013.
  83. ^ online business listing for "Bradwall" [3]
  84. ^ a b 2001 Census, "Parish Profile - Work and Qualifications, 2001", Neighbourhood Statistics Website.
  85. ^ 2001 Census, "Parish Profile - Work and Qualifications, 2001", Neighbourhood Statistics Website.
  86. ^ According to architect's foundation stone in the front of the building commemorating the event (image)
  87. ^ "Other Halls: List of Halls in Cheshire East", at Cheshire East Council website. Retrieved 28 February 2013
  88. ^ Cheshire Rural Touring Arts website. Retrieved 2 May 2012
  89. ^ "Cheshire Rural Touring Arts" at Cheshire East Council website. Retrieved 2 May 2012
  90. ^ South Cheshire Beekeepers official website. Retrieved 12 May 2012
  91. ^ "Press Release: Sandbach Today Archived 3 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine", from Fiona Bruce MP for Congleton Constituency, 23 September 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2012
  92. ^ "The Probus Club of Sandbach" website. Retrieved 2 May 2012
  93. ^ a b "Schedule of Polling Places With Initial Proposals and Representations", page 10
  94. ^ "Fields Farm Fisheries" at the British Waterways' leisure website, Retrieved 12 May 2012.
  95. ^ Fields Farm Fisheries official website. Retrieved 12 May 2012
  96. ^ Bradwall events at "British Eventing" website. Retrieved 2 May 2012
  97. ^ British Eventing Life, Jan/Feb 2012, Digital Edition, page 102. Retrieved 8 May 2012
  98. ^ "Plum Tree Farm Riding Centre" at UK Horse Rider Guide. Retrieved 12 September 2012
  99. ^ "Plum Tree Farm Riding Centre" at, the publishers of the Yellow Pages. Retrieved 11 September 2012
  100. ^ "Livery Yards in Cheshire Archived 29 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine", Cheshire Horse Directory website. Retrieved 12 May 2012
  101. ^ "Parks and Gardens", Cheshire East Council. Retrieved 19 October 2012
  102. ^ "Sandbach Park", Cheshire East Council. Retrieved 19 October 2012
  103. ^ "Congleton Park, Congleton, England Archived 23 December 2012 at", Parks and Gardens Data Services. Retrieved 19 October 2012
  104. ^ "Quinta, The, Swettenham, Swettenham, Cheshire, England Archived 23 December 2012 at", Parks and Gardens Data Services. Retrieved 19 October 2012
  105. ^ "Queen's Park, Crewe, Stoke-on-Trent, England Archived 23 December 2012 at", Parks and Gardens Data Services. Retrieved 19 October 2012
  106. ^ "Rode Hall, Crewe, England Archived 23 December 2012 at", Parks and Gardens Data Services. Retrieved 19 October 201
  107. ^ "Wheelock Rail Trail", Cheshire East Council. Retrieved 19 October 2012
  108. ^ "Brereton Heath Local Nature Reserve", Cheshire East Council. Retrieved 19 October 2012
  109. ^ "Bagmere", Site of Special Scientific Interest, at Retrieved 19 October 2012
  110. ^ "Bagmere", Cheshire Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 19 October 2012
  111. ^ "Coombes Valley", The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Retrieved 19 October 2012
  112. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1330000)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
  113. ^ Bradwall Road on Google Maps. Retrieved 3 May 2012
  114. ^ M6 Exit 17 to Bradwall Road on Google maps. Retrieved 3 May 2012
  115. ^ Bradwall, out of copyright Ordnance Survey map, c. 1946 - 1960
  116. ^ "Arclid Airfield" at Retrieved 16 May 2012.
  117. ^ "How to find us", Cheshire Microlights website. Retrieved 16 May 2012
  118. ^ Ferguson, Aldon, Cheshire Airfields in the Second World War, publ. 2008 Newbury, United Kingdom, Countryside Books. ISBN 978-1-85306-927-7.
  119. ^ "Bus Service Timetables and Journey Planning", at Cheshire East Council website. Retrieved 11 May 2012
  120. ^ National Cycling Network Route 71 - Parkgate to Teggs Nose, Macclesfield, at Cyclists Touring Club website. Retrieved 3 May 2012
  121. ^ "Liverpool, Leeds, Manchester and Sheffield", Network Rail Regional Maps, National Rail Enquiries website. Retrieved 11 May 2012
  122. ^ Parishes. Return to an address of the Honourable the House of Commons, dated 16 July 1867; -- for, "return of the parishes of England and Wales, ", page 36–38 (online $$$).
  123. ^ a b F. A. Youngs, Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England. Volume I: Northern England (1991) London: Royal Historical Society. ISBN 0-86193-127-0, page 8.
  124. ^ Election Maps website. Source for current Parliamentary Constituency Boundaries. Retrieval Date: 23 August 2007.
  125. ^ "Fiona Bruce MP at Retrieved 9 September 2012
  126. ^ "Town and Parish Councils" at Retrieved 9 September 2012
  127. ^ "Bradwall Parish Council - Key Contacts" at Retrieved 9 September 2012
  128. ^ Sandbach High School and Sixth Form College catchment area map, covering Bradwall, via Cheshire East interactive mapping. Retrieved 9 May 2012
  129. ^ Offley Primary School catchment area map, covering Bradwall, via Cheshire East interactive mapping. Retrieved 9 May 2012
  130. ^ Ofsted "Offley Primary School Inspection report", published 5 May 2011 and 22 May 2008
  131. ^ Ofsted "Sandbach High School and Sixth Form College", published 16 February 2012. See also the pre-academy status school page
  132. ^ "What's Special About Us Archived 6 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine" at Sandbach School. Retrieved 10 September 2012
  133. ^ Ofsted "Sandbach School Archived 26 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine", published 14 October 2008
  134. ^ a b "Find my Nearest", local services, via Cheshire East interactive mapping. Retrieved 9 May 2012
  135. ^ Ofsted "St Mary's Catholic Primary School", published 4 October 2011
  136. ^ Ofsted "Brereton CofE Primary School" published 16 May 2011
  137. ^ "Further and Higher Education", via Cheshire East interactive mapping. Retrieved 9 May 2012
  138. ^ "University and college map", UCAS website. Retrieved 9 May 2012
  139. ^ "Faculty of Education, Contact Us" at the Faculty of Education, Manchester Metropolitan University
  140. ^ Wesleyan Chapel photo of the datestone stone via Google Street Map. Retrieved 6 May 2012
  141. ^ "Sandbach Mission Area", official web page
  142. ^ Bradwall Methodist Chapel Minutes, financial and administrative records, 1882–1928, at Cheshire Archives and Local Studies. Retrieved 6 May 2012
  143. ^ "Bradwall Methodist Church, Bradwall. Centenary Handbook 1882–1982" at the Cheshire Record Office, Local Studies Collection, reference: 204550
  144. ^ Ormerod (1819), p. 62
  145. ^ Ormerod (1819), p. 63
  146. ^ John Minshull, A Short History and Description of St. Mary's Church Sandbach, Cheshire, 1974, Publ. St Mary's Parochial Church Council. page 24 (online Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine)
  147. ^ Adrian Room, 'Foden, Edwin (1841–1911)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 28 Nov 2011
  148. ^ Richard A. Storey, 'Foden, William (1868–1964)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 28 Nov 2011
  149. ^ "George Hancock" at Grace's Guide website. Retrieved 23 May 2012
  150. ^ England and Wales Census, 1901, "John R Armitstead", Betchton, Cheshire, England
  151. ^ "The Revd John Richard Armitstead and his Family" at The Cheshire Armitsteads website. Retrieved 23 May 2012
  152. ^ "Electricity Distribution Map", Energy Networks Association website. Retrieved 9 May 2012
  153. ^ "National Grid Gas owned: North West gas network" at the website. Retrieved 9 May 2012
  154. ^ "Gas Network Map SJ", National Grid Gas Network website. Retrieved 14 June 2012
  155. ^ "Who is your water company?", Ofwat website. Retrieved 9 May 2012
  156. ^ VirginMedia website. Retrieved 9 May 2012
  157. ^ "Postcode checker", Digital UK. Retrieved 10 September 2012
  158. ^ LLU operators include AOL, O2/Be, Sky/Easynet, TalkTalk (CPW), Tiscali, Tiscali TV. q.v. SamKnows (below)
  159. ^ "Check your speed", BT Broadband website
  160. ^ "Sandbach Exchange" at, website. Retrieved 9 May 2012
  161. ^ 3G is provided by Orange, T-Mobile, Vodafone, 3. 2G is provided by O2 "3G mobile data network crowd-sourcing survey by BBC News", BBC News, 24 August 2011
  162. ^ "Mobile Phone Base Station Database Archived 7 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine" at Retrieved 15 May 2012
  163. ^ "Middlewich and Holmes Chapel Neighbourhood Policing Team" at Retrieved 16 May 2012
  164. ^ "Crime reported in January 2011 within 1 mile of Bradwall, Cheshire East, UK" at Retrieved 11 September 2012


External links[edit]

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by contributors (read/edit).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.