Baronage of Scotland

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Ayton Castle, Scottish Borders, caput of the barony of Ayton. Built in 1851 in the Scottish Baronial style by William Mitchell-Innes, then baron of Ayton, to the design of James Gillespie Graham

In Scotland, the Baronage is the class of barons and baronesses who are the heads of their respective baronies. Also known as prescriptive baronies, they used to be attached to a particular piece of land on which was situated the caput (Latin for "head") or essence of the barony, normally a building, such as a castle or manor house. Accordingly, the owner of the piece of land containing the caput was called a baron or baroness. According to Grant, there were around 350 identifiable local baronies in Scotland by the early fifteenth century and these could mostly be mapped against local parish boundaries.

A Scottish barony is the only UK title of nobility able to be legally alienated from the bloodline of its previous possessor and is not subject to the Honours (Prevention of Abuses) Act 1925 as Scottish baronies by their nature were erected in crown charters as a free barony so freely assignable, with crown charters stating "heirs and assignees" unlike other hereditary noble titles with rules of succession. The dignity of baron is preserved in law by the Scottish Parliament after the abolition of the feudal system in the "Abolition of Feudal Tenure, etc (Scotland) Act 2000" coming into force in 2004.

Heraldry for Scottish baronies is governed by the court of the Lord Lyon. The Court of the Lord Lyon issued a ruling in April 2015 that may recognise a person possessing a barony and other titles within the Baronage of Scotland (lord/earl/marquis/duke see lordships in the Baronage of Scotland) on petition. The Lord Lyon King of Arms now prefers the approach of recognising the particular dignity as expressed in the Crown Charter that the petitioner presents.[1] These titles are recognised as the status of a minor baron or baroness, but not a peer. Scottish baronies may be passed to any person, of either sex, by inheritance or assignation.[2]

Scotland has a distinct legal system within the United Kingdom. Historically, in the Kingdom of Scotland, the Lord Lyon King of Arms, as the Sovereign's minister in matters armorial, is at once herald and judge. The Scottish equivalent of an English baron is a Lord of Parliament.


A "Scottish Prescriptive Barony by Tenure" was, from 1660 until 2004, the description of the only genuine degree of title of UK nobility capable of being conveyed (along with the caput, or property), rather than passing strictly by blood inheritance.

Statutes of 1592 and the Baronetcy Warrants of King Charles I show the non-peerage Table of Precedence as: Baronets, Knights, Barons, Lairds, Esquire and Gentlemen.

A General Register of Sasines was set up by Statute in 1617, with entry in the Register giving the prescriptive right (right by normal or correct usage), after so many years, to the caput or essence of the barony. The individual who owned the said piece of land containing the caput was hence the baron or baroness. Uncertainty over armorial right was removed by the Lyon Register being set up by Statute in 1672, such that no arms were to be borne in Scotland unless validly entered in Lyon Register.

Up until 1874, each new baron was confirmed in his barony by the Crown by Charter of Confirmation. Up until 28 November 2004, a barony was an estate of land held directly of the Crown, or the Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. It was an essential element of a barony title that there existed a Crown Charter erecting the land into a barony, recorded in the Register of the Great Seal of Scotland. Often the original Charter was later lost, however an Official Extract has the same legal status as the original Charter.

From the Treaty of Union of 1707 – until 1999 – a unified Parliament of Great Britain (since January, 1801, known as the Parliament of the United Kingdom), at Westminster, was responsible for passing legislation affecting private law both north and south of the Scottish border. In 1999, the devolved Scottish Parliament was established, and private law measures can now be passed at Holyrood, the seat of the Scottish Parliament in Edinburgh.

Using a "prescriptive feudal grant" allowed developers to impose perpetual conditions affecting the land. The courts became willing to accept the validity of such obligations, which became known as "real burdens". In practical and commercial terms, these real burdens were like English leasehold tenure.

Abolition of feudal tenure[edit]

The first Scottish Executive was committed to abolishing the feudal system. On 28 November 2004, the Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. (Scotland) Act 2000 came into full force and effect, putting an end to Scotland's feudal system. Under Scots law, a Scottish Prescriptive Barony by Tenure is now "incorporeal feudal heritage", not attached to the land and remains the only genuine, prescriptive, degree of title of UK nobility capable of being transferred or conveyed – since under Section 63(1) of the Act, the dignity of baron is preserved after the abolition of the feudal system.[3][4] However, the Abolition Act did end the ability to get feudal land privileges by inheriting or acquiring the caput (land or castle) in Scotland. In common law jurisdictions, land may still be owned and inherited through a barony if the land is titled in "the Baron of X" as baron rather than in the individual's name. In America, it passes with the barony as a fee simple appurtenance to an otherwise incorporeal hereditament, the barony being treated like a landowning corporation.[5] In Scotland, the practice has not been tested in a Court of Session case since the Act.

One of the oldest baronies in Scotland, the Barony of the Bachuil, has not depended on land ownership for centuries; the barony passes along with the possession of a certain ancient stick, "The Bachuil Mór", which was once the bishop's staff of Saint Moluag in the year 562. Unlike all other barons in Scotland, the lawful possessor of the stick is the Baron of the Bachuil, regardless of landholdings.[6]

On 28 November 2004 the Abolition of Feudal Tenure Act came into force in Scotland. Prior to the Act, Scottish baronies (including lordships and earldoms) remained the only noble titles in the UK that were transferable following the sale of land containing a caput (i.e. superiority). With the implementation of the Act, all Scottish titles of nobility became incorporeal heritable property meaning they existed but without any physical attributes (eg land ownership which is corporeal property).[7][8]

Most baronies were created (erected) prior to 1745, but one was erected as late as 1824. Since the Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. (Scotland) Act 2000 came into effect, the Lord Lyon, who is the Chief Herald of Scotland, has restored a more traditional form to the coat of arms of a baron. Barons are now identified by the helm befitting their degree. A new policy statement has been made by the Lord Lyon to this effect.

The holder of the dignity of a barony may petition the Lord Lyon for a grant of arms, as he falls under the jurisdiction of the Lyon's Court. A policy statement has been made to this effect by the Lord Lyon.[1] The Lyon Court has no jurisdiction in relation to the assignation, or legal transfer of, baronial titles.


An English barony is a peerage (yet the Tenures Abolition Act 1660 allows for some remaining non-peer baronies not converted by writ to remain as feudal baronies of free socage "incorporeal hereditament" (article 10 of that act), but whether Scottish barons rightfully rank as peers is disputable.[9] They are known as minor barons currently treated as noble titles of less than peerage rank. The Scottish equivalent of an English baron is "Lord of Parliament".

The baronial title tends to be used when a landed family is not in possession of any United Kingdom peerage title of higher rank, subsequently granted, or has been created a knight of the realm. The name recorded by the Lord Lyon as part of any grant of arms or matriculation becomes the holder's name for all official purposes.

The holder of a Scottish barony (e.g., "Inverglen") may add the title to their existing name (e.g., "John Smith, Baron of Inverglen" or "Jane Smith, Baroness of Inverglen") or add the territorial designation to their surname if still in possession of the caput ("John Smith of Inverglen, Baron of Inverglen" or "Jane Smith of Inverglen, Baroness of Inverglen"); some of the oldest Scottish families prefer to be styled by the territorial designation alone ("Smith of Inverglen").[10][11][12] Formal and in writing, they are styled as The Much Honoured Baron/Baroness of Inverglen. A baron/baroness may be addressed socially as "Inverglen" or "Baron/Baroness" and introduced in the third person as "John Smith of Inverglen, Baron of Inverglen" or "The Baron of Inverglen" or "Jane Smith, Baroness of Inverglen" or "The Baroness of Inverglen". When referred to informally in the third person it is incorrect to refer to them as "Baron/Baroness Inverglen" or "Lord/Lady Inverglen", as these would imply a peerage title (i.e. Lord of Parliament)[13]

In a heterosexual married couple, if the husband is the holder of the Barony, the wife receives a courtesy title. Therefore, they may be styled "The Baron and Baroness of Inverglen", "Inverglen and Madam Smith of Inverglen", "Inverglen and Lady of Inverglen", or "The Baron of Inverglen and Lady of Inverglen."[10] The oldest son of a baron/baroness may be known by the territorial designation with the addition of "yr" (abbreviation for "younger"), e.g. "John Smith of Inverglen, yr". The eldest daughter may be known as "Maid of Inverglen" at the end of her name, e.g. "Sandra Smith, Maid of Inverglen".

The husband of a Baroness is not afforded a courtesy title.

The United Kingdom policy of using titles on passports requires that the applicant provides evidence that the Lord Lyon has recognised a feudal barony, or the title is included in Burke's Peerage. If accepted (and if the applicant wishes to include the title), the correct form is for the applicant to include the territorial designation as part of their surname (Surname of territorial designation e.g. Smith of Inverglen). The Observation[14] would then show the holder's full name, followed by their feudal title e.g. The holder is John Smith, Baron of Inverglen.[15]

The Much Honoured[edit]

Sometimes in the most formal of occasions (for example on the envelope of a letter or place name) the prefix honorific style The Much Hon. (The Much Honoured) is put before the name, the prefix honorific "Much Honoured" is used to distinguish Scot Barons from honourifics attaching to peers.

E.g. The Much Hon. The Baron of Inverglen / Much Hon. Baron of Inverglen / Much Hon. John Smith, Baron of Inverglen / Much Hon. John, Baron of Invergle

Scottish heraldry[edit]

A Scottish baron's helmet

The former Lord Lyon declined to award the following baronial additaments to the arms of those barons registering arms now that the Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. (Scotland) Act 2000 is in force. However, the current Lord Lyon has confirmed in a recent policy statement that he will officially recognise barons or those possessing the dignity of baron who meet certain conditions and will grant them arms with a helmet befitting their degree. Scottish Barons rank below Lords of Parliament; while noble, they are not conventionally considered peerage titles.

In showing that Scottish barons are titles of nobility, reference may be made, amongst others, to Lyon Court in the Petition of Maclean of Ardgour for a Birthbrieve by Interlocutor dated 26 February 1943 which "Finds and Declares that the Minor Barons of Scotland are, and have both in this Nobiliary Court, and in the Court of Session, been recognised as 'titled' nobility, and that the estait of the Baronage (The Barones Minores) is of the ancient Feudal Nobility of Scotland".

Sir Thomas Innes of Learney in his 'Scots Heraldry' (2nd Ed., p. 88, note 1) states that 'The Act 1672, cap 47, specially qualifies the degrees thus: Nobles (i.e. peers, the term being here used in a restricted seventeenth-century English sense), Barons (i.e. Lairds of baronial fiefs and their "heirs", who, even if fiefless, are equivalent to heads of Continental baronial houses) and Gentlemen (apparently all other armigers).' Baronets and knights are evidently classed as 'Gentlemen' here and are of a lower degree than Barons. The Scottish Head of Baronial Houses, includes all the various styles and titles which designate the territorial nobility i.e. baron of X.

Barons may also wear two eagle feathers when in traditional dress.[16][17] If the baron is a member of a clan, it is advisable to consult the clan chief on clan customs and traditions. The Lord Lyon only gives guidance and not governance on the wearing of feathers and recommends consulting with a clan chief.


An azure chapeau

Previously, between the 1930s and 2004, when new arms were granted or a matriculation of existing arms took note of a barony, the owner was given a chapeau or cap of maintenance as part of his armorial achievement on petitioning for the same. This chapeau is described as "gules doubled ermine" for barons in possession of the caput of the barony. An azure chapeau is appropriate for the heirs of ancient baronial families who are no longer owners of the estates. This chapeau was a relatively recent armorial invention of the late Lord Lyon Thomas Innes of Learney. Accordingly, a number of ancient arms of barons do not display the chapeau, and now it is no longer granted.

At the Treaty of Perth in 1266, Norway relinquished its claim to the Hebrides and Man, and they became part of Scotland. In 1292, Argyll was created a shire and "The Barons of all Argyll and the Foreigners' Isles", which had preceded the kingdom of Scotland, became eligible to attend the "Scots" Parliament – appearing in the record of the parliament at St. Andrews in 1309. Historically they have a chapeau, "gules doubled ermines", ermines being white tails on black.

There is a unique exception: the Barony of the Bachuil is not of feudal origin like other baronies but is allodial in that it predates (562 A.D.) Scotland itself and the feudal system, dating from the Gaelic Kingdom of Dál Riata. In recognition as allodial Barons par la grâce de Dieu not barons by a feudal crown grant, the Baron of the Bachuil has the only chapeau allowed to have a vair (squirrel fur) lining.[6]

A chapeau, if part of an armorial achievement, is placed into the space directly above the shield and below the helmet. It may otherwise be used on a visiting card, the flap of an envelope, or to ensign the circlet of a crest badge as used on a bonnet.

Feudo-baronial mantle[edit]

The historical Scottish baron's mantle and chapeau from the 1930s to 2004, which are no longer granted

Particularly Scottish in character is the feudo-baronial mantle or robe of estate – described as gules doubled silk argent, fur-edged of miniver and collared in ermine, fastened on the right shoulder by five spherical buttons Or. This may be displayed in a pavilioned form, draped behind the complete achievement of arms – or the armorial shield alone – tied open with cords and tassels, and surmounted by the chapeau. Again, Lord Lyon is no longer granting these heraldic mantles.


The helmet is now the chief mode of recognition of a Scottish baron. The Lord Lyon has adopted a steel helm with grille of three grilles, garnished in gold, as the current baronial additament. Alternatively, a steel tilting helm garnished in gold, that may be shown affronté, may appear, or a helmet of some other degree if the baron holds a higher rank, such as a lordship of parliament.


Supporters, are now usually reserved for the holders of the older baronies (chartered before 1587) and those that have been in continuous family ownership. In England, supporters are reserved for the peerage, and a Scottish baron who approaches the English College of Arms is not allowed supporters. A compartment has occasionally been granted to barons, representing their territories, even in cases where there are no supporters.


A badge – distinct from the crest – as a separate armorial device, is not necessarily a feature of the arms. The badge may be used by the "tail" or following of a landowner baron. The grant is linked to the baron's standard, a heraldic flag, in the livery colours that carries a large representation of the badge. The standard is blazoned in the grant or matriculation. The livery colours are usually the two most prominent colours of the arms themselves.


A Standard – an elongated shape, tapering from 1.2 m down to 60 cm, with the fly edge split and rounded (lanceolate). The length is according to rank, from 7.5 m for the Sovereign down to 3.5 m for a Knight, Baron or Chief. It bears the Arms as on the shield or the saltire in the hoist, with the tail parted per fess with the Crest, Badge and/or Supporter, plus the motto on one or more Ribands. The Standard is set before the Baron/Chief's tent (as it's a "Headquarters" flag and does not indicate that the Armiger is in residence) rather than carried like the banner. A Standard requires a separate grant by the Lord Lyon and is only made under certain conditions.

A Guidon – one-third shorter than a Standard and tapering to a round, unsplit end at the fly. These are assigned by Lord Lyon to individuals who have Supporters to their Arms, and to others who have a following – those in a position of leadership or some official position.

A Pennon – a smaller, elongated flag 120 cm long with a pointed, rounded or swallow-tailed end, designed to be displayed on a lance, assigned by Lord Lyon to an Armiger who applies for one. It is charged with the motto of the armiger as well as the arms as on the shield.

A Banner – a square or rectangular upright representation of the Arms designed for carrying in warfare or tournaments, but now flown as a "house flag" when the Armiger is in residence and is NOT the flag of the Clan or Family. Originally, conspicuous gallantry in battle was marked by cutting off the tail of the Standard or Pennon, turning it into a Banner. Strictly speaking, the sizes and shapes are:

Square banner – Sovereign, 1.5 m square; Dukes; 1.25 m sq; Earls, 1.1 m sq; Viscounts and Lords of Parliament, 1 m sq; Baronets and barons, 0.9 m sq; other Armigers, 70 cm wide x 85 cm high

Rectangular banner – typically in the ratio 3:2, or 5:4 when flown as the "house flag" of an Armiger.

Carrying flag – this should be sized as follows (width x height): Peers, 1.2 m x 1.5 m; Barons, 90 cm x 115 cm; Chiefs, 85 cm x 110 cm; Chieftains, 80 cm x 90 cm.

A Ensign may be occasionally granted and blazoned. This is a square flag, smaller than the flying banner, and carrying the full embroidered achievement (arms, crest, motto), again fringed in livery colours.

A Pipe banner – rather similar to a Banner, but of a size to fit on the longest drone of the pipes (usually 45 cm) and richly decorated with gold fringing, tassles and the like. The pipe banner for a Chief who is also a Peer or a Baron should have a rounded end extending beyond the length, and any other Chief a split rounded end. A baron is authorised two pipers.

List of titled nobles in the Baronage of Scotland[edit]

List of Earldoms in the Baronage of Scotland[edit]

Earl is the third degree of baronage nobility, nobler than Baron (first) and Lord (second).

Click here for a list of Earldoms in the Baronage of Scotland

List of Lordships in the Baronage of Scotland[edit]

The second degree of baronage nobility. If a Barony has been raised to a Lordship then it will not be listed with baronies on this page, see Lordship list:

Click here for a list of Lordships in the Baronage of Scotland

List of Baronies in the Baronage of Scotland[edit]

Below is an incomplete list of Baronies created in the baronage, you can help by adding details below.

Titles in italics are subsidiary baronial titles held by the same baron. Titles linked and with The before the name is the holder's primary title.

Title Origin Infeft Arms Incumbent Heir Notes
The Baron of Abbotshall   Harold Peerenboom, Baron of Abbotshall
The Baron of Abergeldie 1428   John Gordon, Baron of Abergeldie
The Baron of Aden 1333 2015   Alexander Russell of Aden, Baron of Aden
The Baron of Aiket extinct
The Baron of Alford   Kerry Alfred Hamer, Baron of Alford
The Baron of Alforshire   Charles A. Cogdill, Baron of Alforshire
The Baron of Anstruther and Balcaskie   Sir Ralph Anstruther, Baron of Anstruther and Balcaskie
The Baron of Arbroath 1994   Alan Bartlett of Arbroath, Baron of Arboath
The Baron of Ardblair and Gask 1979   Laurence Oliphant, Baron of Ardblair and Gask
The Baron of Ardgour 1988   Giancarlo Bonifazi, Baron of Ardgour
The Baron of Ardgowan   Professor Stephen Kerr, Baron of Ardgowan
The Baron of Ardgrain 2013   Pepijn Oscar Hendriks, Baron of Ardgrain
The Baron of Ardoch 1987   Professor Thomas Mackay, Baron of Ardoch
The Baron of Arndilly   David Menzies of Arndilly, Baron of Arndilly
The Baron of Arnisdale   William Paterson of Arnisdale, Baron of Arnisdale
The Baron of Arnot 1507 2016   Willem Blanken, Baron of Arnot
The Baron of Auchendarroch   Keir Campbell, Baron of Auchendarroch
The Baron of Auchindoir   Alisdair Barlas of Auchindoir, Baron of Auchindoir
The Baron of Auchinleck   Valentine Bennett of Auchinleck, Baron of Auchinleck
Baron of Auchterutherstruther   HRH Abigail Busch Reisinger, Countess of Crawfurd-Lindsay, Baroness of Auchterutherstruther [1] father is HM Ronald Busch Reisinger, Baron of Inneryne
The Earl of Crawfurd-Lindsay
The Baron of Auchmacoy   David Buchan of Auchmacoy, Baron of Auchmacoy
The Baron of Auchtermunzie 1437 2002   Fernando Gutierrez-Eddy of Auchtermunzie, Baron of Auchtermunzie
The Baron of Auchinreoch 2022   Andrew Bell, Baron of Auchinreoch
The Baron of Ayton 2011   Richard Syred, Baron of Ayton[18]
The Baron of Badenscoth 1823 2019   Kevin Peng Xu, Baron of Badenscoth
The Baron of Balcaskie   Major Timothy Strange, Baron of Balcaskie
The Baron of Balfluig   Mark Tennant of Balfluig, Baron of Balfluig
The Baron of Ballencrieff (East Lothian) 2011   Moray James Nairn, Baron of Ballencrieff
The Baron of Ballencrieff (West Lothian)   Junaid Abbas Bhatti, Baron of Ballencrieff
The Baron of Ballindalloch   Clare Russell, Lady of Ballindalloch
The Baron of Ballumbie 1997   Robert Williamson of Ballumbie
The Baron of Balmachreuchie 14th c 2011   Dr Timothy Spaulding, Baron of Balmachreuchie
Baron of Balmain 1475 2005   James Malcolm David Leslie, 22nd Earl of Rothes Lord Rothes's only brother, Alexander John Leslie
The Baron of Balmore 1478 2015   Leo Adriano Silighini, Baron of Balmore
The Baron of Balquhain 1995   Nelson Lee Len Ying, Baron of Balquhain
Baron of Balquidder 2021   Susan Livingston, Countess of Arran, Lady of Balquidder
The Earl of Arran 1978
The Baron of Balvenie 2009   Jeremy Nicholson of Balvenie, Baron of Balvenie
The Baron of Banchory   Kenneth Lumsden of Banchory, Baron of Banchory
The Baron of Bannockburn 14th c 2016   Hope Vere Anderson of Bannockburn, Baroness of Banchory
The Baron of Barnbarroch   James Vans of Barnbarroch, Baron of Barnbarroch
The Baron of Barnis Forbes   Daphne Romy, Lady of Barnis Forbes
The Baron of Barnton 2016   Professor Markus Frank, Baron of Barnton
The Baron of Barra 2010   Roderick MacNeil of Barra, Baron of Barra
The Baron of Bathgate 2023   Paul Clarke, Baron of Bathgate
The Baron of Bearcrofts 1697 2011   Charles Cree, Baron of Bearcrofts
The Baron of Beauly
The Baron of Belton c1468 2002   Ian Graham Rennie, Baron of Belton
The Baron of Bedrule 2015   Wallace Turnbull of Bedrule, Baron of of Bedrule
The Baron of Biggar   Charles Ross of Biggar, Baron of Biggar
The Baron of Benholm   Roderick Strachan of Benholm, Baron of Benholm
The Baron of Blackburn   Professor Ranjit Chandra, Baron of Blackburn
The Baron of Blackford 1999   Richard Welkowitz, Baron of Blackford
The Baron of Blackhall 2002   Robert Gillespie, Baron of Blackhall OBE
The Baron of Blair 1997   Alfred Glenn of Blair, Baron of Blair
The Baron of Bognie, Mountblairy and Frendraught   Alexander Morison of Bognie, Baron of Bognie, Mountblairy and Frendraught
The Baron of Bombie   Professor Barrie Pettman
The Baron of Buittle 1315 2020   James de Balliol-Cavendish of Buittle
The Baron of Brechin
The Baron of Brigton 1761 1938   Marion Douglas, Lady of Brigton
Baron of Buchan Forest   HRH Timothy Busch Reisinger, Lord of Garlies, Baron of Buchan Forrest, Baron of Blaurbuis, Baron of Corseall, Baron of Glencammon [2] father is HM Ronald Busch Reisinger, Baron of Inneryne
The Lord of Garlies 1263
Baron of Corsewall
Baron of Glencammon
Baron of Blairbuis
The Baron of Buquhollie and Freswick   Ivor John Spencer-Thomas of Buquhollie and Freswick, Baron of Buquhollie and Freswick
The Baron of Busbye 16th c
The Baron of Byres 1366 2003   Paul Kayley of Byres, Baron of Byres
The Baron of Cambusnethan 1315 1988   Terence Alvis of Lee, Baron of Cambusnethan
The Baron of Carmichael   Richard Carmichael, Baron of Carmichael
The Baron of Carnoustie   James Langan of Carnoustie, Baron of Carnoustie
The Baron of Carstairs   HRH Christopher Busch Reisinger, Baron of Carstairs, Baron of Baldoon [3] HRH Prince Daniel of Biffeche, Younger of Carstairs also Crown Prince Christopher of Biffeche. Father = Baron of Inneryne
Baron of Baldoon
The Baron of Cartsburn 1669 2010   Dr. Pier Felice degli Uberti, Baron of Cartsburn
Baron of Castlehill 1411 2018   Simon Frasier, 16th Lord Lovat Jack Hugh Fraser, Master of Lovat
The Baron of Castle Stewart 1638 2020   Charles Edward Stewart of Calcruchie, Baron of Castle Stewart
The Baron of Cavers 16th c 2004   Prof. Andre Douglas Nathaniel-Rock, Baron of Cavers
The Baron of Chirnside
The Baron of Clackmannan 1334
The Baron of Cleghorn   Andrew Macmillan of Cleghorn, Baron of Cleghorn
The Baron of Clerkington 1369[19]   George Everly, Baron of Clerkington
The Baron of Closeburn   Luis Kirkpatrick, Baron of Closeburn
The Baron of Clugstoun Clugistoun 1471
The Baron of Cluny 2010   Cosmo Linzee Gordon of Cluny, Baron of Cluny Young baron, owns ancestral home Cluny Castle
The Baron of Cluny 1997   Stuart Crane of Cluny, Baron of Cluny
The Baron of Cockenzie   Robert Garrison of Cockenzie, Baron of Cockenzie
The Baron of Coigach[20] 1511 2011   Christopher Devonshire-Ellis, Baron of Coigach
The Baron of Coldingham[21] 2012   Dr Peter Leando, Baron of Coldingham
The Baron of Coldingknows 1634   Mark Harden of Coldingknows, Baron of Coldingknows aka Cowdenknowes
The Baron of Coll-Earn and Elphinstone 1988   Bailey McCune, Baron of Coll-Earn and Elphinstone
The Baron of Colstoun   Ludovic Broun-Lindsay, Baron of Colstoun
The Baron of Corrachree   Alexander Barlas of Corrachree, Baron of Corrachree
The Baron of Coupar 1618   Edward Kirby Rutledge, Baron of Coupar
The Baron of Cowdenknowes[22] 1634 2002   Mark Harden of Cowdenknowes, Baron of Cowdenknowes
The Baron of Cowie (Aberdeen)
The Baron of Cowie (stirling) 12th c 2020   Professor Alan Dennis, Baron of Cowie
The Baron of Coxton 1618
The Baron of Craighall   Roger Alexander Lindsay, Baron of Craighall
The Baron of Craigie 1666 2011   Rabbi Robert Thomas, Baron of Craigie Oliver Leigh Thomas, Younger of Craigie
The Baron of Craigievar   Sir John Alexander Forbes, Baron of Craigievar
The Baron of Craigmillar 1511   Captain Brian Lawrence Williamson, Baron of Craigmillar
The Baron of Cranshaws 2016   Paul Anderson, Baron of Cranshaws
The Baron of Craufurdland 12th c   Simon Houison Craufurd, 29th Baron of Craufurdland
The Baron of Crawford
The Baron of Crichton   Henry Burn-Callander, Baron of Crichton
The Baron of Crimond   Raymond Carnegie of Crimond, Baron of Crimond
The Baron of Cromar extinct
The Baron of Cromarty   John Nightingale of Cromarty, Baron of Cromarty
The Baron of Crommey 1978   Michael Innes, Baron of Crommey
The Baron of Cruggleton c1325 aka Crigitoun
The Baron of Culbin   HRH William Busch Reisinger, Baron of Culbin, Younger of Inneryne [4] Father = Baron of Inneryne
The Baron of Culcreuch c1472 2023   Hercules William Michael Bullough, Baron of Culcreuch
The Baron of Cumbernauld 1314 extinct
The Baron of Cushnie 2004   Alan Robertson of Cushnie, Baron of Cushnie Previous baron was knight of malta: David Gordon Allen d'Aldecamb Lumsden, Baron of Cushnie
The Baron of Dairsie   Christopher Ruffle of Dairsie, Baron of Dairsie
The Baron of Dalziel
The Baron of Danira and Comrie
The Baron of Delvine 15th c 2008   Dr Lars Lindberg, Baron of Delvine
The Baron of Denboig 1657   Kenneth MacLean of Denboig, Baron of Denboig
The Baron of Denny 16th c 2011   Alessandro Pompili, Baron of Denny
The Baron of Dinnet   J. M. Marcus Humphrey, Baron of Dinnet known as Mr Marcus Humphrey of Dinnet does not use baronial title
Baron of Dirleton 1220 2000   Camilo Agasim-Pereira of Fulwood and Dirleton, Baron of Fulwood and Dirleton, Lord of Fulwood
The Lord of Fulwood
The Baron of Dolphinstoun c1700 2000   Dr Julian Wills, Baron of Dolphinstoun runs a Barons court with brother Baron of Prestoungrange and father Baron of Lochnaw
The Baron of Drum 1323 2019   Alexander Irvine of Drum, Baron of Drum[23][24]
The Baron of Drylaw 2022   The Rt Hon Sir Douglas Middleton, Baron of Drylaw KBE
The Baron of Duart and Morvern 1631 1990   Sir Lachlan MacLean, Baron of Duart and Morvern
The Baron of Dudhope 1542
The Baron of Dun 1382 dormant barony held by National Trust for Scotland
The Baron of Dunconnel 1400   Sir Charles MacLean, Baron of Dunconnel
The Baron of Duncrub   Douglas Smith of Duncrub, Baron of Duncrub
The Baron of Dunure 1997   Brendan Clouston of Dunure, Baron of Dunure Canadian billionaire
The Baron of Earlshall  
The Baron of Echlin 2002   Rainer Kensy, Baron of Echlin German banker
The Baron of Edingight   John Innes of Edingight, Baron of Edingight
The Baron of Elie and St Monans 2019   Mans Nicklas Lidgren, Baron of Elie and St Monans
The Baron of Entwistle 1212 2021   Andrew Sharples, Baron of Entwistle
The Baron of Esslemont 1976   Charles Wolrige-Gordon, Baron of Esslemont
The Baron of Eyemouth 1682   John Churchill of Eyemouth, Baron of Eyemouth
The Baron of Fairholm and Kirkton   James Stevenson-Hamilton, Baron of Fairholm and Kirkton
The Baron of Fetternear 2001   Martin Thacker of Fetternear, Baron of Fetternear
The Baron of Fingalton 1663 2017   James Hawley of Fingalton, Baron of Fingalton
The Baron of Finlaystone Maxwell   Nicholas Frederic Papanicolaou, Baron of Finlaystone Maxwell
The Baron of Finzean   Donald Farquharson of Finzean, Baron of Finzean
The Baron of Fithie
The Baron of Fordell 1511
The Baron of Freuch 1559
The Baron of Gala   John Scott of Gala, Baron of Gala
The Baron of Garrallan   John Boswell of Garrallan, Baron of Garrallan
The Baron of Garthland c1637
The Baron of Gartly   David James of Gartley, Baron of Gartly
The Baron of Gartmore 1996   William Graham of Gartmore, Baron of Gartmore
The Baron of Giffen 1371 1987   Ryan Montgomery
The Baron of Glasserton 1542
The Baron of Glencoe
The Baron of Glendowachy
The Baron of Glenfaier 2022   Neil Ian Youngs, Baron of Glenfaier
The Baron of Glengarnock   Robert MacGregor of Glengarnock, Baron of Glengarnock
The Baron of Glenluce c1628
The Baron of Gogar   Godfrey Devlin of Gogar, Baron of Gogar son is Lord of Cowal
The Baron of Gourdie   George Cox of Gourdie, Baron of Gourdie
The Baron of Gourock 2011   Claire Darroch-Thompson, Lady of Gourock
The Baron of Gordon Easter 1150   Morange Michel, Baron of Gordon Easter aka Gordoun
The Baron of Grandhome   David Paton of Grandholme, Baron of Grandhome
The Baron of Grantully Henry Fothringham, Baron of Grantully
The Baron of Greenlaw 1451 2005   Andrew Walter Hepburne-Scott, 11th Lord Polwarth Hon. William Henry Hepburne-Scott, Master of Polwarth
The Baron of Greenan   HRH Hope Reisinger Cobera, Baroness of Greenan, Baroness of Clary also The Princess Royal (foreign title) Father = Baron of Inneryne
Baron of Clary
The Baron of Greenock   Harry Sandberg of Greenock[25]
The Baron of Greenock and Blackhall   Sir Ludovic Houston Shaw Stewart,12th Baronet, Baron of Greenock and Blackhall
The Baron of Grougar 1321   David McLean of Grougar, Baron of Grougar
The Baron of Haliburton and Lambden
Baron of Hallrule   Herr Olivier Fuchs, Baron of Cockburn, Hallrule, Over Liberton, and Buncle and Preston[26] Herr means Lord in German which Lord Lyon recognised his name with, see ref[27]
The Lord of Cockburn 14th c 2008
Lord of Buncle and Preston 14th c 2009
Baron of Over Liberton
The Baron of Hallyards
The Baron of Hartsyde 1345   Jea-Guy Philip Boisserolles de Saint-Julien, Baron of Hartsyde
The Baron of Herbertshire 1523 2018   John Moffat, Baron of Herbertshire
The Baron of Holmains 1542
The Baron of Horsbrugh 1995   Michael Chenery of Horsbrugh, Baron of Horsbrugh
The Baron of Houston c1296 2016   Johnny Sei Hoe Hon, Baron of Houston
The Baron of Inchdrewer 2014   Olga Roh, Baroness of Inchdrewer
The Baron of Inche c1528
The Baron of Invermessan c1566
The Baron of Innerwick c1600   Brooke Owen Thomas of Innerwick, Baron of Innerwick
The Baron of Inneryne 1998   HM Ronald Busch Reisinger, Baron of Inneryne HRH William Busch Reisinger, Baron of Culbin, Younger of Inneryne also King of Axim (Ghana), Duke of Orlamande [5]
The Baron of Innes 2004   James Mitchell of Innes, Baron of Innes
The Baron of Jedburgh Forest 1602 2010   Richard Miller of Jedburgh Forest, Baron of Jedburgh Forest
The Baron of Kellie 1619 1993   James Thorne Erskine, 14th Earl of Mar and 16th Earl of Kellie Hon. Alexander David Erskine
The Baron of Kelly 2004   Bruce Kneller, Baron of Kelly
The Baron of Kemnay 1978   Susan Burnett, Lady of Kemnay
The Baron of Kersland
The Baron of Kilbernie
The Baron of Kilbride
The Baron of Kilcoy 16th c 2012   Mark David Menking, Baron of Kilcoy Son is Lord of the Garioch
The Baron of Kilmarnock 1316   David Ayre, Baron of Kilmarnock
The Baron of Kilmichael 1541   Brooke Owen-Thomas of Kilmichael
The Baron of Kilmun Brooke Owen-Thomas of Kilmun
The Baron of Kilmaurs
The Baron of Kilpunt   Morag Pauline Cadzow, Baron of Kilpunt
The Baron of Kilravock 1293   David Rose, 26th Baron of Kilravock, Chief of Clan Rose
The Baron of Kinblathmond
The Baron of Kincaid   Heather Kincaid, Lady of Kincaid
The Baron of Kincraig   James Gourlay of Kincraig, Baron of Kincraig
The Baron of Kinedar
The Baron of Kinnaber
The Baron of Kinnairdy 1990   Colin Innes of Kinnairdy, Baron of Kinnairdy
The Baron of Kinnear   Michael Pilette of Kinnear, Baron of Kinnear
The Baron of Kinnell
The Baron of Kippenross   Susan Stirling-Aird, Lady of Kippenross
The Baron of Kirkbuddo 1463 2011   Jean-Yves de Sainte-Croix de La Sabliere, Baron of Kirkbuddo
The Baron of Kirkdale   Ramsey Hannay of Kirkdale, Baron of Kirkdale
The Baron of Kirkgunzeon
The Baron of Kirkintilloch 1184 extinct
The Baron of Kirkliston 1618 2002   Andor László Oleg Vilmos v. Jaross, Baron of Kirkliston
The Baron of Kirriemuir 1390 2014   Gerhard Anderson, Baron of Kirriemuir
The Baron of Kirknewton 1992   Diana Hargreaves, Lady of Kirknewton
The Baron of Krawfort 1576
The Baron of Lag 1685 2004   Margaret Hamilton, Lady of Lag
The Baron of Lambden 2016   Col (Rt'd) Lance Miller, Baron of Lambden aka Hassington
The Baron of Lamberton c1236[28]
The Baron of Largo 2011   Timothy Wood of Largo, Baron of Largo
The Baron of Lathallan 1995   Jean Spens of Lathallan, Baron of Lathallan
The Baron of Lee 1272 2004   Addison McElroy Fischer, Baron of Lee
The Baron of Lenzie 1170 extinct
The Baron of Lescure   Ross McPherson-Smith, Baron of Lescure
The Baron of Leslie 2019   John Andrea, Baron of Leslie
The Baron of Lesmahagow
The Baron of Lethendy   Charles Gairdner of Lethendy, Baron of Lethendy
The Baron of Lethington c1166   Robert Douglas, Baron of Lethington
The Baron of Leys   James Burnett of Leys, Baron of Leys
The Baron of Little Pert
The Baron of Lochfergus   Albert Gazeley of Lochfergus, Baron of Lochfergus
The Superiority of the Lands of Lochlands
The Baron of Loch Mullion c1700 2000   William Anderson of Loch Mullion, Baron of Loch Mullion
The Baron of Lochnaw c1426 2004   Dr Gordon Prestoungrange, Baron of Lochnaw runs a barons court with sons

Baron of Dolphinstoun Baron of Prestoungrange

The Baron of Lochrounell c1630
The Baron of Logany c1576 2000   Hunter Prater, Baron of Logany
The Baron of Logie   aka Lexyn
The Baron of Logiealmond 2019   Sheila May Flavell, Baron of Logiealmond CBE
The Baron of Loncastell c1551
The Baron of Loudoun 2017   Ronald Glen Schneller, Baron of Loudoun
The Baron of Lour 1654 2010   Bartholomew Smith, Baron of Lour
The Baron of Lundie 1489 2017   Craig Ward, Baron of Lundie
The Baron of Marchmont 1996   Roland Eugen Staehli, Baron of Marchmont
The Baron of MacDonald   Godfrey Bosville-Macdonald, Baron of MacDonald
The Baron of MacDougall 1660 2006   George Dougall of MacDougall, Baron of MacDougall
The Baron of MacDuff 1039 2021   Eric Cotton Dexter of MacDuff, Baron of MacDuff
The Baron of McAuslane of Caldenocht c1395
The Baron of Martyn-Kennedy alias Frethrid c1541
The Baron of Mearns 12th c 2002   David Thorpe of Mearns, Baron of Mearns
The Baron of Melfort 1360   Hugh Campbell-Gibson, Baron of Melfort
The Baron of Melgund
The Baron of Menie 1317 1995   Michael Woodley of Menie, Baron of Menie
The Baron of Mertoun 1504
The Baron of Midmar   Richard Wharton of Midmar, Baron of Midmar
The Baron of Miltonhaven 1695 2017   Dorothy Newlands of Lauriston, Baron of Miltonhaven (formerly Lauriston)
The Baron of Mochrum c1472
The Baron of Montgomeriestoun c1636 1987
The Baron of Mordington 1124 1998   Graham Senior-Milne, Baron of Mordington
The Baron of Mouswald 1452
The Baron of Moy   Lorne MacLaine of Moy, Baron of Moy
The Baron of Mugdock 1458 2022   Prince Luciano Francesco Silighini Garagnani Lambertini, Baron of Mugodock Italian prince
The Baron of Muirton 1532 2019   Dr Richard Culbert, Baron of Muirton
The Baron of Mullion 1446 2019   Faith Seale, Baron of Mullion QC
The Baron of Mureth c1514
The Baron of Myrton c1470 2004   Professor Mark Watson-Gandy of Myrton, Baron of Myrton OBE prefers to be known as Professor Watson-Gandy of Myrton
The Baron of Newton 1685 2011   Philip Pickering of Newton, Baron of Newton
The Baron of Ochtercoull
The Baron of Old Montrose
The Baron of Ormiston 1637 2003   Brian Parsons of Ormiston, Baron of Ormiston
The Baron of Panbride
The Baron of Panmure
The Baron of Park 1563
The Baron of Peaston 2003   Robert Jackson of Paistoun, Baron of Peaston (or Paistoun)
The Baron of Penicuik   Sir John Dutton Clerk, Baron of Penicuik
The Baron of Pentland 1316 2018   Lt Cmdr Christopher Saint Victor de Pinho, Baron of Pentland
The Baron of Phantelane 1436 2010   Capt. David McCorquodale, Baron of Phantelane
The Baron of Pitcaple   Christopher Burges-Lumsden, Baron of Pitcaple
The Baron of Pitcruivie 1996   Douglas Wagland of Pitcruivie, Baron of Pitcruivie
The Baron of Pitmilly 1987   Peter Gybbon-Monypenny, Baron of Pitmilly
The Baron of Plean 1985   George Way, Baron of Plean
The Baron of Plenderleith 1306 2007   Clifford Dewey Michael Paul Harmon, 31st Baron of Plenderleith Clifford Taylor Harmon IV, Younger of Plenderlrith
The Baron of Pluscarden
The Baron of Porterfield
The Baron of Portlethen   Maurice Taylor of Portlethen, Baron of Portlethen
The Baron of Portrie c1636
The Baron of Preston and Prestonpans 1460   Robert McLean of Preston & Prestonpans, Baron of of Preston & Prestonpans
The Baron of Prestoungrange 1189 2004   Mathew Wills of Prestoungrange, Baron of Prestoungrange runs barons court with brother Baron of Dolphinstoun & father Baron of Lochnaw
The Baron of Primside and House Site
The Baron of Quhithorne c1569 aka Whithorn
The Baron of Rachane   Michael Aquino, Baron of Rachane This baron is a satanist [6]
The Baron of Ramshead 1371 1987   Ryan Montgomery, Baron of Ramshead
The Baron of Rattray   Philip Cumyn of Rattray, Baron of Rattray
The Baron of Ravenstone 1983   Frank Renwick of Ravenstone, Baron of Ravenstone
The Baron of Remistoun c1540
The Baron of Renfrew 1398 2022   HRH The Duke of Rothesay HRH Prince George of Wales
The Baron of Rescobie
The Baron of Restalrig
The Baron of Robertland 1539 2005   Brian Parsons of Robertland, Baron of Robertland
The Baron of Roberton
The Baron of Rossie   John Elephant of Rossie, Baron of Rossie
The Baron of Ruchlaw   Ronald Macduff Urquhart, Baron of Ruchlaw
The Baron of Rusco   Robert Carson of Rusco, Baron of Rusco
The Baron of Saint Monance 1596 2014   Dr Robert Parviz Pirooz of Saint Monance, Baron of Saint Monance KC FRMS JD aka Monans
The Baron of Sauchie 1320 2015[29]   Niklas Wallenberg, Baron of Sauchie
The Baron of Saulset c1629 aka Saulsait
The Baron of Seabegs 15th c 2014   Dr. George M. Burden, Baron of Seabegs aka Seybeggis
The Baron of Seggieden   Consul a.h. Dr. Trond U. Hegle, Baron of Seggieden
The Baron of Smeaton Hepburn   George Gray of Smeaton Hepburn, Baron of Smeaton Hepburn
The Baron of Stane 1371 1987   Ryan Montgomery, Baron of Stane
The Baron of Stobo 1577   William Jolly, Baron of Stobo
The Baron of Stonehaven   Fraser Angus Oliver Mearns of Stonehaven, Baron of Stonehaven
The Baron of Stonehouse
The Baron of Stoneywood 2000   Charles Mack of Stoneywood, Baron of Stoneywood
The Baron of Strathdee 1563
The Baron of Strathlachlan   Euan MacLachlan of Strathlachlan, Baron of Strathlachlan
The Baron of Strichen 1515 2000   Massimo Fraser of Strichen, Baron of Strichen
The Baron of Struan 1983   Alexander Robertson, Baron of Struan
The Baron of Swinton 1098 James Swinton, Baron of Swinton
The Baron of Symington 1329 2010   Edward Lockhart Bennett of Symington, Baron of Symington
The Baron of Teallach   Dennistoun Teall of Teallach, Baron of Teallach
The Baron of Thainstone 1488 2017   David Valentine, Baron of Thainstone
The Baron of Thankerton
The Baron of Torboll 1360 extinct
The Baron of Tranent   Hugh, 19th Earl of Eglinton Rhuridh Seton Archibald Montgomerie, Lord Montgomerie
The Baron of Traquair 1491   Catherine Maxwell-Stuart, 21st Lady of Traquair
The Baron of Trearne 1371 1987   Ryan Montgomery, Baron of Trearne
The Baron of Trent 2002   Charles Cogdill, Baron of Trent
The Baron of Troup
Baron of Tulloch 1542   Dr. David Willien, Earl of Erroll, Baron of Tulloch
The Earl of Erroll
The Baron of Turin
The Baron of Twynehame 1992   Delyse Sharpe of Twynehame, Baron of Twynehame
The Baron of Urquhart 1230 2022   Robert Douglas, Baron of Urquhart
The Baron of Urquhart 1587 2004   Robert A. Cromartie, Baron of Urquhart
The Baron of Wells 2009   Bryce Lee West, Baron of Wells
The Baron of Westside   Gordon Kerr, Baron of Westside
The Baron of Winchburgh 15th c 2022[30][31]   Michael Chou-Leng Looi Lyons, Baron of Winchburgh
The Baron of Wiston
The Baron of Wormiston 1970   Michael Spens, Baron of Wormiston
The Baron of Yair 1806 2019   Li Li, Baron of Yair
The Baron of Yeochrie   Richard Stuart of Yeochrie, Baron of Yeochrie

a: The creation date is the earliest known date for the barony and subject to revision.

b: C before the date is circa around this date of before. C after the date = century.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ Reid, Professor Kenneth (2003). The Abolition of Feudal Tenure in Scotland. Edinburgh: Tottel.
  3. ^ "Section 63". Abolition of Feudal Tenure, etc (Scotland) Act 2000.
  4. ^ "Appendix A12: See Explanatory Notes on Clause 57 Subsection (2)". Report on Abolition of Feudal System. Archived from the original on 19 November 2004.
  5. ^ Re Notarial Instrument of the Earl of Galloway; Disposition; Warrant for Letters Patent, No.s 103, 104, 105, Palmyra Island Land Recordation, United States District Court for the District of Hawaii (D.C. Hawaii-Palmyra I. 2017).
  6. ^ a b Livingston of the Bachuil, yr., Niall (2006). The MacLeas or Livingstones and their Allodial Barony of the Bachuil (PDF). Baronage Press. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
  7. ^ "Age-old Scots property rights end". BBC News. 28 November 2004.
  8. ^ "Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. (Scotland) Act 2000". Archived from the original on 21 July 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2009.
  9. ^ Graham Senior-Milne, 41st Baron of Mordington (27 June 2005). "Scottish feudal baronies (feudal barons, feudal baron) including the oath of a knight". Archived from the original on 7 December 2016. Retrieved 2 January 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ a b "Titles and Usages". Archived from the original on 25 February 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  11. ^ "Scottish Feudal Baronies, Scottish and Irish Titles, Titles, Forms Of Address | Debrett's". Archived from the original on 25 July 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  12. ^ "Scottish feudal baronies (feudal barons, feudal baron) including the oath of a knight". Archived from the original on 7 December 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  13. ^ "Male Barons". Archived from the original on 25 February 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  14. ^ An Observation is a printed notation in a passport to convey important information about the passport holder to officials. "Guidance – Observations in Passports".
  15. ^ "Titles included in passports" (PDF). UK government website. p. 3.
  16. ^ "How to wear the kilt | Scottish Tartans Authority". Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  17. ^ "Hereditary offices". Archived from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  18. ^ "Outer House allows proof before answer in Berwickshire castle sale dispute". July 2020.
  19. ^ RSG.I.App.2.#1768
  20. ^ "The Barony of Coigach". The Barony of Coigach. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  21. ^ "The Lordship and Barony of Coldingham". 14 March 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  22. ^ "Barony of Cowdenknowes, Scotland". Retrieved 10 June 2024.
  23. ^ "David Irvine of Drum". The Times. 21 March 2019. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  24. ^ "Obituary: David Irvine of Drum, chief who helped end a centuries-old clan feud". 23 April 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  25. ^ Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition.
  26. ^ "The Lord Lyon has granted arms to Herr Olivier Fuchs, Baron of Cockburn, Hallrule, Over Liberton, and Buncle and Preston". X. 10 June 2024. Retrieved 10 June 2024.
  27. ^ "The Lord Lyon has granted arms to Herr Olivier Fuchs, Baron of Cockburn, Hallrule, Over Liberton, and Buncle and Preston". X. 10 June 2024. Retrieved 10 June 2024.
  28. ^ People of Medieval Scotland, Document 3/350/24
  29. ^ "Ett nytt skottskt-svenskt vapen" (PDF). Societas Heraldica Scandinavia. Retrieved 1 September 2021.
  30. ^ "Scottish Barony Register". 19 October 2022.
  31. ^ "Baronage – Registry of Scots Nobility". Retrieved 19 October 2022.
  32. ^ Hamilton, Brian (May 2006). "A petition for Arms with Baronial Additaments" (PDF). The Amorial Register Newsletter. 1 (Special ed.). Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  33. ^ "Report on Abolition of the Feudal System :Contents". Archived from the original on 12 January 2005.

Further reading[edit]