AuthorityWikipedia open wikipedia design.
Authority derives from the Latin word auctoritas and is a concept used to indicate the right to exercise power, which can be formalized by a state and exercised by way of judges, the police officer or other appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a higher spiritual power (God or other deities). The term authority can also be used to indicate an academic knowledge of an area (as in an authority on a subject), or to refer to an original or natural obligation (as in the authority of a father).
When the word authority is used in the name of an organization, this name usually refers to the governing body upon which such authority is vested; for example, the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority or the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. The word authority can also mean the right to complete an action or execute an order.
Authority in context
In government, the term authority is often used interchangeably with power. However, their meanings differ: while power can be defined as the ability to order or accomplish a goal or to influence others, authority refers to a claim of legitimacy, the justification and right to exercise that power. For example, while a mob may have the power to punish a criminal by beating or lynching, the rule of law indicates that only a court of law has the authority to determine and refer a criminal for punishment. In this sense, authority is a matter of not only the ability or power to make decisions, but the right to make these decisions and execute them with commensurate power. Appropriate authority is the basis of good government in the Republican conception of government, which finds much of its theoretical origins in ancient Rome.
Authority in history
Ancient understandings of authority trace back to Rome and draw later from Catholic (Thomistic) thought and other traditional understandings. In more modern terms, forms of authority include transitional authority exhibited in for example Cambodia, public authority in the form of popular power, and, in more administrative terms, bureaucratic or managerial techniques. In terms of bureaucratic governance, one limitation of the governmental agents of the executive branch, as outlined by George A. Krause, is that they are not as close to the popular will as elected representatives are. The claims of authority can extend to national or individual sovereignty, which is broadly or provisionally understood as a claim to political authority that is legitimated.
Historical applications of authority in political terms include the formation of the city-state of Geneva, and experimental treatises involving the topic of authority in relation to education include Emile by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. As David Laitin defines, authority is a key concept to be defined in determining the range and role of political theory, science and inquiry. The relevance of a grounded understanding of authority includes the basic foundation and formation of political, civil and/or ecclesiastical institutions or representatives. In recent years, however, authority in political contexts has been challenged or questioned.
Authority in political philosophy
There have been several contributions to the debate of political authority. Among others, Hannah Arendt, Carl Joachim Friedrich, Thomas Hobbes, Alexandre Kojève and Carl Schmitt have provided some of the most remarkable texts.
In political philosophy, the jurisdiction of political authority, the location of sovereignty, the balancing of freedom and authority, and the requirements of political obligations have been core questions from the time of Plato and Aristotle to the present. Most democratic societies are engaged in an ongoing discussion regarding the legitimate extent of the exercise of governmental authority. In the United States, for instance, there is a prevailing belief that the political system as instituted by the Founding Fathers should accord the populace as much freedom as reasonable, and that government should limit its authority accordingly, known as limited government.
In the discussion regarding the legitimacy of political authority, there are two beliefs at the respective ends of the spectrum. The first is the belief in the absolute freedom of the individual, otherwise known as political anarchism. The second is the belief that there must be a central authority in the form of a sovereign that claims ownership and control over the masses. This belief is known as statism. Sovereignty, in modern terms, can refer either to the adherence to a form of sovereign rule or the individual sovereignty, or autonomy, of a nation-state. The argument for political anarchy and anti-statism is made by Michael Huemer in his book The Problem of Political Authority. On the other side, one of the main arguments for the legitimacy of the state is some form of the “social contract theory” developed by Thomas Hobbes in his 1668 book, Leviathan, or by Jean-Jacques Rousseau in his political writings on the social contract.
Authority in sociology
Since the emergence of the social sciences, authority has become a subject of research in a variety of empirical settings: the family (parental authority), small groups (informal authority of leadership), intermediate organizations such as schools, churches, armies, industries and bureaucracies (organizational and bureaucratic authorities), and society-wide or inclusive organizations, ranging from the most primitive tribal society to the modern nation-state and intermediate organization (political authority).
The definition of authority in contemporary social science remains a matter of debate. Max Weber in his essay "Politics as a Vocation" (1919) divided legitimate authority into three types. Others, like Howard Bloom, suggest a parallel between authority and respect/reverence for ancestors.
Authority in the United States
The understanding of political authority and the exercise of political powers in the American context traces back to the writings of the Founding Fathers, including the arguments put forward in The Federalist Papers by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and the First Chief Justice of the United States John Jay, and later speeches by the 16th President of the United States Abraham Lincoln. "Our government rests in public opinion," President Abraham Lincoln said in 1856. In his 1854 Speech at Peoria, Illinois, Lincoln espoused "the proposition that each man should do precisely as he pleases with all which is exclusively his own," a principle existing "at the foundation of the sense of justice." This sense of personal ownership and stewardship was integral to the practice of self-government as Abraham Lincoln saw it by a Republican nation and its people. This was because, as Abraham Lincoln also declared, "No man is good enough to govern another man, without that other's consent."
- Widyono, Benny (Oct 2014). "United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)".
- Krause, George A. (2010). Durant, Robert F., ed. "Legislative Delegation of Authority to Bureaucratic Agencies". The Oxford Handbook of American Bureaucracy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 524.
- Glanville, Luke (2016). Bellamy, Alex J., ed. "Sovereignty". The Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 153.
- Laitin, David (1998). "Toward a Political Science Discipline: Authority Patterns Revisited". Comparative Political Studies. 31 (4): 423–443.
- Cristi, Renato (2005). Hegel on Freedom and Authority. Cardiff, Wales: University of Wales Press.
- Bloom, Howard (2010). The Genius of the Beast: a radical re-vision of capitalism. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. p. 186. ISBN 978-1-59102-754-6.
To validate an argument, we refer back to our ancestors - or to someone who, while still alive, has already garnered the sort of authority only ancestors normally have.
- Guelzo, Allen C. (2012). Lincoln Speeches. New York, NY: Penguin Books. pp. xxi.
- Guelzo, Allen C. (2012). Lincoln Speeches. New York, NY: Penguin Books. p. 47.
- Guelzo, Allen C. (2012). Lincoln Speeches. New York, NY: Penguin Books. p. 48.
- Giorgio Agamben, State of Exception (2005)
- Hannah Arendt, "Authority in the Twentieth Century." Review of Politics (1956)
- Hannah Arendt, On Violence (1970)
- Józef Maria Bocheński, Was ist Autorität? (1974)
- Renato Cristi, Hegel on Freedom and Authority (2005)
- Carl Joachim Friedrich, Authority. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (1958)
- Carl Joachim Friedrich, An Introduction to Political Theory: Twelve Lectures at Harvard. New York: Harper & Row (1967)
- Carl Joachim Friedrich, Tradition and Authority. London: Macmillan (1972)
- Robert E. Goodin (ed), The Oxford Handbook of Political Science (2011)
- Patrick Hayden, Hannah Arendt: Key Concepts (2014), esp. Chapter 8
- Alexandre Kojève, "The Notion of Authority" (2014)
- Rafael Domingo Osle, Auctoritas (1999)
- Gail Radford, The Rise of the Public Authority: Statebuilding and Economic Development in Twentieth-Century America (2013)
- Carl Schmitt, Der Begriff des Politischen [The Concept of the Political] (1932)
- Max Weber, Economy and Society (1922)
- Max Weber, Politics as a Vocation (1919)
- "Political Obligation". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- Appeal to Authority Breakdown
- Christiano, Tom. "Authority". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- Four essays published in the International Journal of Philosophical Studies from the Robert Papazian Essay Prize Competition on Authority