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Virus classification e
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Kingdom: Orthornavirae
Phylum: Pisuviricota
Class: Duplopiviricetes
Order: Durnavirales
Family: Amalgaviridae

Amalgaviridae is a family of double-stranded RNA viruses that has two genera: Amalgavirus and Zybavirus. Members of both the family and of the genus Amalgavirus are referred to as amalgaviruses. There are currently ten recognized species of the family.[1] The family is called amalga, from amalgam, due to the viruses possessing characteristics of both partitiviruses and totiviruses, indicating a likely genetic relation to those two families.[2][3] Members of this family infect plants and are transmitted vertically via seeds.[2] Their genomes are monopartite, about 3.5 kilobases in length,[3][4] and contain two partially overlapping open reading frames, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a putative capsid protein.[3][5]



Genus: Amalgavirus; species:
Allium cepa amalgavirus 1
Allium cepa amalgavirus 2
Blueberry latent virus[2]
Rhododendron virus A[4]
Southern tomato virus,[3] the type species
Spinach amalgavirus 1
Vicia cryptic virus M[5]
Zoostera marina amalgavirus 1
Zoostera marina amalgavirus 2
Genus: Zybavirus; species:
Zygosaccharomyces bailii virus Z, the type species


It has been suggested that amalgaviruses have evolved via recombination between viruses with double-stranded and negative-strand RNA genomes.[6] Specifically, phylogenetic analyses have shown that the amalgavirus RdRps form a sister clade to the corresponding proteins of partitiviruses (Partitiviridae) which have segmented (bipartite) dsRNA genomes and infect plants, fungi and protists.[2][3][4][6] By contrast, the putative capsid protein of amalgaviruses is homologous to the nucleocapsid proteins of negative-strand RNA viruses of the genera Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) and Tenuivirus.[6]


  1. ^ a b "Taxonomy". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d Martin, R. R.; Zhou, J; Tzanetakis, I. E. (2011). "Blueberry latent virus: An amalgam of the Partitiviridae and Totiviridae". Virus Research. 155 (1): 175–80. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2010.09.020. PMID 20888379.
  3. ^ a b c d e Sabanadzovic, S; Valverde, R. A.; Brown, J. K.; Martin, R. R.; Tzanetakis, I. E. (2009). "Southern tomato virus: The link between the families Totiviridae and Partitiviridae". Virus Research. 140 (1–2): 130–7. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2008.11.018. PMID 19118586.
  4. ^ a b c Sabanadzovic, S; Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic, N; Valverde, R. A. (2010). "A novel monopartite dsRNA virus from rhododendron". Archives of Virology. 155 (11): 1859–63. doi:10.1007/s00705-010-0770-5. PMID 20721591.
  5. ^ a b Liu, W; Chen, J (2009). "A double-stranded RNA as the genome of a potential virus infecting Vicia faba". Virus Genes. 39 (1): 126–31. doi:10.1007/s11262-009-0362-1. PMID 19472044.
  6. ^ a b c Krupovic M, Dolja VV, Koonin EV (2015). "Plant viruses of the Amalgaviridae family evolved via recombination between viruses with double-stranded and negative-strand RNA genomes". Biol Direct. 10 (1): 12. doi:10.1186/s13062-015-0047-8. PMC 4377212. PMID 25886840.

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