Aleppo Governorate

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Aleppo Governorate

مُحافظة حلب
Map of Syria with Aleppo highlighted
Map of Syria with Aleppo highlighted
Coordinates (Aleppo): 36°12′N 37°36′E / 36.2°N 37.6°E / 36.2; 37.6Coordinates: 36°12′N 37°36′E / 36.2°N 37.6°E / 36.2; 37.6
CountrySyria Syria
CapitalAleppo
Manatiq (Districts)10
Government
 • GovernorHussein Diab[citation needed]
Area
 • Total18,482 km2 (7,136 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)(Pre-Civil War)
 • Total4,867,000
 • Density260/km2 (680/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
ISO 3166 codeSY-HL
Main language(s)Arabic
Syriac
Kurdish
Turkish
Armenian
WebsiteAleppo Governorate

Aleppo Governorate (Arabic: محافظة حلب‎ / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥalab / [muˈħæːfazˤat ˈħælæb]) is one of the fourteen governorates of Syria. It is the most populous governorate in Syria with a population of more than 4,867,000 (2011 Est.), almost 23% of the total population of Syria. The governorate is the fifth in area with an area of 18,482 km2 (7,136 sq mi),[1] or 18,498 sq. km,[2] about 10% of the total area of Syria. The capital is the city of Aleppo.

History[edit]

Ancient[edit]

In Classical Antiquity, the region was made up of three regions: Chalybonitis (with its centre at Chalybon or Aleppo), Chalcidice (with its center at Qinnasrīn العيس), and Cyrrhestica (with its center at Cyrrhus النبي حوري).[citation needed] This was the most fertile and populated region in Syria. Under the Romans the region was made in 193 CE[citation needed] part of the province of Coele Syria or Magna Syria, which was ruled from Antioch. The province of Euphratensis was established in the 4th century CE in the east, its centre was Hierapolis Bambyce (Manbij).[3]

Under the Rashidun and Umayyad Muslim dynasties, the region was part of the Jund Qinnasrin.[4] In the Abbasid period the region was under the independent rule of the Hamdanids.[citation needed] The Mamluks and then later the Ottomans governed the area until 1918; under the Ottomans, the region was part of the Vilayet of Aleppo.[5]

Modern history[edit]

During the French Mandate the region was part of the short-lived State of Aleppo.[6]

Aleppo Governorate formerly included Idlib Governorate, until the latter was split off circa 1960.[2]

Syrian Civil War (2011-present)[edit]

The governorate has been the scene of some of the fiercest fighting in the Syrian Civil War. In June 2017, nearly six years after the war's start, the province was almost equally divided between Syrian Government forces, Syrian Opposition forces, Turkish Army /TFSA and the Rojava/Syrian Democratic Forces.[citation needed] After fierce fighting, the Syrian Arab Army with Russian air support managed to take control of the capital of the Governorate, Aleppo, in December 2016 from Fatah Halab coalition.[citation needed]

In August 2016, the Turkish Army, backed by the Free Syrian Army launched the Operation Euphrates Shield in order to drive ISIL from the border towns of Jarablus, A'zaz and Al-Bab. The operation resulted in success and starting in May 2017, the region is now under Turkish occupation.[7][8] The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant was largely removed from the area after the Syrian Arab Army launched the East Aleppo Offensive, the Maskanah Plains offensive, and the Southern Raqqa Offensive.[citation needed]

In January 2018, the Turkish army backed by the Free Syrian Army launched the Turkish military operation in Afrin against the YPG, which resulted in the capture of the city of Afrin and the entire Afrin District.[9]

Geography[edit]

The governorate has a 221-kilometre (137 mi) long[citation needed] northern boundary with the Kilis, Gaziantep, and Şanlıurfa provinces of Turkey. To the east lies Raqqa Governorate, to the south Ḥamā Governorate, and to the west Idlib Governorate and Turkey's Hatay Province.

The governorate lies on a plateau known as the Aleppo plateau. The eastern and northern boundaries of the governorate correspond roughly to the eastern and northern boundaries of the plateau, although the northeastern portion of the governorate crosses the Euphrates valley into the Jazīrah plateau. The southeastern end of the governorate is continuous with the arid steppe of the northern Syrian Desert. To the south lie the eastern plains of Hama, and to the southwest lie the northern plains of Idlib.[citation needed]

The average elevation of the terrain is 379 metres (1,243 ft). The surface gradually slopes down in north–south and west–east directions, undulating gently with an amplitude of 10–30 m for each wave. The lowlands are covered with combined Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments that average 4–5 km in thickness over the whole surface.[10]

Geographic features of northern Syria

Starting from the valley of the Euphrates, the terrain rises forming the Manbij plain and then sinks again at the Dhahab river valley in the east of Aleppo Governorate. The Dhahab drains the highlands north of Bāb and runs in a north–south direction for about 50 km (31 mi) until it drains into Lake Jabboul. West of the Dhahab valley the terrain rises again forming Mount ʻAqīl (Mount Taymar) west of Bāb and Mount Ḥaṣṣ west of Lake Jabboul.[11] The terrain sinks again forming the valley of River Quwēq. The endpoint of Quwēq, the Maṭkh swamp (249 metres (817 ft)), is the lowest point in Aleppo Governorate. West of the Quwēq is Mount Simeon. South of Mount Simeon are the plains of Idlib. The River ʻAfrīn runs west of Mount Simeon. To the west of River ʻAfrīn the land rises again forming Mount Kurd. The highest point in the governorate, Mount Bulbul (1,269 metres (4,163 ft)), is located in the northern part of Mount Kurd. River ʻIfrīn runs from north to south between Mount Simeon and Mount Kurd and then turns west to the Orontes valley, thus separating Mount Kurd from Mount Ḥārim to the south.[citation needed]

The governorate is generally deforested except for a dispersed forest of about 50 square kilometres (19 sq mi) on the eastern slope of Mount Kurd where it faces the plain of Aʻzāz. The main trees are Aleppo Pine and oak.[citation needed]

Arable land makes up 66% of the total area in the governorate. The main crops are olives, figs, plums, pomegranates, vegetables, grains, rice, and pistachios. Pistachio is called in Syria fustuq Ḥalabī (Aleppo pistachio). Agriculture was traditionally supported by rivers; the main rivers in Aleppo are the Quwēq, ʻIfrīn, Sājūr, Dhahab, Aswad, and Euphrates. However, all of these rivers arise in Turkey, and due to irrigation projects on the Turkish side of the border the flow of these rivers dropped so much that most of them could no longer support agriculture. The Quwēq, for example, dried up completely in the 1950s. The vanishing of the rivers forced farmers to depend largely on rainfall and on water diverted from the Euphrates. A pumping station at Maskanah (95 km east of Aleppo) provides drinking water for Aleppo from the Euphrates. Recently Euphrates water has been diverted to revive the dead Qwēq river, and thus revive agriculture in the plains south of Aleppo. Urban areas, highlands, swamps, forests, and grazing land make up 34% of the total area of the governorate. The remaining 14% is a desert area in the southeast that is continuous with the Syrian Desert and known as the Aleppo Desert (Arabic: بادية حلب).[citation needed]

The largest lake in the governorate is Lake Jabboul, a Ramsar salt lake located 40 kilometres (25 mi) southeast of Aleppo. Lake Assad (the largest lake in Syria) separates Aleppo Governorate from Raqqa Governorate. Other artificial lakes include the Lake of 17 April on the River ʻIfrīn and the revived Shabāʼ Lake on River Quwēq.

Archaeological sites are abundant in the governorate, especially at Mount Simeon in the west and the plains that extend beyond towards Antioch and Idlib. This region, known as the Limestone Massif, has the largest concentration of Late Antiquity churches in the world, with a unique Syrian architectural style.[12] It also has the famous Dead Cities of Syria.[13]

Cities[edit]

Aleppo city hall, the seat of the governorate and the city council

The following cities are the administrative centres of the districts in Aleppo Governorate (Population based on 2004 official census):

City Population
Aleppo 2,132,100[14]
Manbij 99,497[15]
As Safirah 63,708[16]
Al-Bab 63,069[17]
Ayn Al-Arab 44,821[18]
Afrin 36,562[19]
A'zaz 31,623[20]
Dayr Hafir 18,948[21]
Jarabulus 11,570[22]
Atarib 10,657[23]

Districts[edit]

The governorate is divided into ten districts (manatiq) as of 2011. The districts are further divided into 46 sub-districts (nawahi):[citation needed]

* - includes Aleppo City
** - a newly-created district since 2008, formerly belonging to Mount Simeon District
*** - a newly-created district since 2009, formerly belonging to Al-Bab District

Climate[edit]

Aleppo Governorate has a semi-arid climate. The mountain series that run along the Mediterranean coast, namely Mount Alawites and Mount Amanus, largely block the effects of the Mediterranean on climate (rain shadow effect).[citation needed] The average temperature in the governorate is 15–20 °C (59–68 °F). The average precipitation ranges from 500 mm (20 in) in the western parts of the governorate to 200 mm (8 in) in the easternmost parts and 150 mm (6 in) in the southeastern desert. 80% of precipitation occurs between October and March. Snow is usually in winter. Average humidity is 60% in the west and 55% in the east.

Climate data for Aleppo (1946-2004)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17
(63)
21
(70)
31
(88)
34
(93)
41
(106)
47
(117)
46
(115)
43
(109)
41
(106)
37
(99)
30
(86)
18
(64)
47
(117)
Average high °C (°F) 10.3
(50.5)
12.6
(54.7)
16.9
(62.4)
22.6
(72.7)
28.7
(83.7)
33.6
(92.5)
36.2
(97.2)
36.1
(97.0)
33.2
(91.8)
27.0
(80.6)
16.8
(62.2)
11.9
(53.4)
23.8
(74.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.6
(42.1)
7.4
(45.3)
11.0
(51.8)
15.8
(60.4)
21.1
(70.0)
25.8
(78.4)
28.3
(82.9)
28.1
(82.6)
25.2
(77.4)
19.4
(66.9)
12.3
(54.1)
7.3
(45.1)
17.3
(63.1)
Average low °C (°F) 1.7
(35.1)
2.4
(36.3)
5.0
(41.0)
8.9
(48.0)
13.5
(56.3)
18.1
(64.6)
20.9
(69.6)
20.9
(69.6)
17.3
(63.1)
12.4
(54.3)
6.4
(43.5)
3.3
(37.9)
10.9
(51.6)
Record low °C (°F) −13
(9)
−10
(14)
−7
(19)
−2
(28)
0
(32)
9
(48)
16
(61)
15
(59)
7
(45)
5
(41)
−3
(27)
−8
(18)
−13
(9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 60.3
(2.37)
52.0
(2.05)
46.1
(1.81)
33.6
(1.32)
17.9
(0.70)
2.3
(0.09)
0.1
(0.00)
0.3
(0.01)
2.2
(0.09)
19.2
(0.76)
35.2
(1.39)
59.6
(2.35)
328.8
(12.94)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 13 14 10 7 4 1 0 0 1 4 7 11 72
Mean monthly sunshine hours 120.9 140.0 198.4 243.0 319.3 366.0 387.5 365.8 303.0 244.9 186.0 127.1 3,001.9
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization,[24] Hong Kong Observatory (sun 1961–1990)[25]
Source 2: BBC Weather (record highs and lows)[26]

Demographics[edit]

As per the 2004 Syrian census the population was 4,045,200.[2] A 2011 UNOCHA estimate put the population at 4,867,900, though this has likely changed since the start of the war.[27]

The people are mostly Arabs. Kurds and Turkmen are found mostly in the northern districts. The Kurds are found mostly in Afrīn and Ayn Al-Arab.[28] The Turkmen live in about 140 villages, mostly in Akhtarin Subdistrict, Al-Rai Subdistrict, Ghandoura Subdistrict and Sawran Subdistrict.[citation needed] Armenians and Assyrian/Syriac Christians are found in the cities, along with some Yezidis.[29]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "History of Aleppo" تاريخ حلب. الموقع الرسمي لمجلس مدينة حلب (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 2013-07-23. Retrieved 2017-12-20.
  2. ^ a b c "Syria Provinces". www.statoids.com.
  3. ^ Kazhdan, Alexander (Ed.) (1991). Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. p. 748. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Ad-Dimashqi and Al-Muqaddasi quoted by Le Strange, G. (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems: A Description of Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. pp. 25–39. OCLC 1004386.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  5. ^ Bruce Masters (2013-04-29). The Arabs of the Ottoman Empire, 1516-1918: A Social and Cultural History. Cambridge University Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-1-107-03363-4. Retrieved 2013-06-08.
  6. ^ Syria: French Levant States 1920-1936
  7. ^ Stein, Aaron; Abouzahr, Hossam; Komar, Rao (20 July 2017). "How Turkey Is Governing in Northern Aleppo". Syria Deeply. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  8. ^ Sirwan Kajjo (2 March 2017). "Skirmishes Mar Fight Against IS in Northern Syria". Voice of America. Turkish occupation “is an existential threat to the Assad government's ability to reclaim the entirety of its territory, which is a key argument that regime loyalists make in their support of Bashar al-Assad's government,” Heras said.
  9. ^ "Turkey takes full control of Syria's Afrin region, reports say". Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  10. ^ Abd as-Salam, Adil (1991) General Geography of Syria (Arabic)
  11. ^ "SY006: Sabkhat al-Jabbul" BirdLife IBA Factsheet
  12. ^ "FindArticles.com - CBSi". Archived from the original on 2012-07-09.
  13. ^ Darke, Diana (2006) Syria p.132
  14. ^ "Aleppo city population". Archived from the original on 2012-05-20.
  15. ^ "Manbij city population". Archived from the original on 2012-07-29.
  16. ^ "As Safirah city population". Archived from the original on 2012-07-23.
  17. ^ "al-Bab city population". Archived from the original on 2012-12-03.
  18. ^ "Ayn Al-Arab city population". Archived from the original on 2012-12-03.
  19. ^ "Afrin city population". Archived from the original on 2012-07-30.
  20. ^ "A'zaz city population". Archived from the original on 2012-07-29.
  21. ^ "Dayr-Hafir city population". Archived from the original on 2012-07-29.
  22. ^ "Jarabulus city population". Archived from the original on 2012-12-03.
  23. ^ "Atarib city population". Archived from the original on 2012-07-23.
  24. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Aleppo". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
  25. ^ "Climatological Information for Aleppo, Syria". Hong Kong Observatory. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
  26. ^ "Average Conditions Aleppo, Syria". BBC Weather. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
  27. ^ Syrian Arab Republic - Governorates profile (PDF), UNOCHA, June 2014, retrieved 20 March 2020
  28. ^ http://sahipkiran.org/2014/08/05/kurdish-population-in-syria/
  29. ^ https://minorityrights.org/minorities/christians-armenians-and-assyrians/