Afrin offensive (January–March 2018)

Wikipedia open wikipedia design.

Afrin offensive (January–March 2018)
Part of Operation Olive Branch (Turkish involvement in the Syrian Civil War)
Afrin frontlines 2018.gif
     Turkish-backed opposition control     SDF control     Syrian Army control     Joint Syrian Army and SDF controlFor a more detailed, up-to-date, interactive map, see here.
Date20 January[a] – 24 March 2018[8]
(2 months and 4 days)
Location
Result

Turkish and TFSA victory

Belligerents
 Republic of Turkey
Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army (TFSA)[1]
Other rebel factions[2]
Democratic Federation of Northern Syria
Syrian Arab Republic (20 Feb. – 21 March)[3][4]
Sinjar Alliance[5]
International Freedom Battalion (IFB)[6]
Supported by:
Iran Iran[7] (alleged)
Commanders and leaders

Turkey Gen. Hulusi Akar
(Minister of Defence, former Army Chief)
Turkey Gen. İsmail Metin Temel[19]
(Operations chief commander, until December 2018)
Lt. Col. Muhammad Hamadin[20]
(Third Legion and Levant Front commander)

Syrian opposition Col. Ahmed Othman[21]
(Sultan Murad Division top commander)
Syrian opposition Fehim Isa[22]
(Second Corps and Sultan Murad Division commander)
Syrian opposition Ebubekir Seyf[23]
(Hamza Division top commander)
Abu Muslim[24]
(Levant Front commander)
Maj. Yasser Abdul Rahim[24]
(Sham Legion commander, until 7 February[25])
Lt. Wael al-Mousa [26]
(First Legion commander)
Ahmad Fayyadh al-Khalaf [27]
(Samarkand Brigade field commander)

Bahjt Abedo[28]
(Afrin Region defense minister)[29]
Mehmud Berxwedan[30]
(YPG and SDF Afrin commander)

Qehreman Cudî [31]
(YPG and SDF Afrin commander)
Tokshin Botan [32]
(YPJ commander)
Zilan Judy [32]
(YPJ commander)
Haji Ahmed[33]
(Army of Revolutionaries commander)
Abu Omar al-Idlibi[34]
(Northern Democratic Brigade commander)
Viyan İsyan[35]
(MLKP commander)
Ibrahim Maktabi
(NDF commander)[36]
Mohamed al Faraj
(NDF commander)[37]
Muthanna Nasser [38]
(NDF commander)
Units involved
See order of battle See order of battle
Strength

Turkey 6,400[39]

10,000–25,000[49][50]
8,000–10,000 (late January)[51]
20,000 (late February)[52]
800+[53]
Casualties and losses

Per SOHR:[54]
447 killed
Turkey 78 killed


Per SDF:
Turkey 1,648+ killed[55]


Per Turkey:
302 killed[56]

Turkey 51 killed,[57] 228 wounded[58]

Per SOHR:[54]
1,500 killed
91 killed


Per SDF:
820 killed[59]
62 killed[60]


Per Turkey:

3,755 killed, wounded or captured[61]
289–500 civilians killed in Syria
(per SOHR & SDF)[b][54][59]
7–9 civilians killed in Turkey[62][63] (2 Syrians)[64]

a The TAF announced the start of Operation Olive Branch on 20 January,[65] while the Turkish Defence Minister stated it "de facto started with cross-border shelling" the day before[66] when one additional SDF fighter was killed.[67]

b Denied by Turkey,[68] but confirmed by Turkey's pro-Kurdish HDP.[69]

The Afrin offensive (January–March 2018) was a series of military operations launched by Turkish Armed Forces and Turkish-backed Syrian opposition forces against the Syrian Democratic Forces, supported by pro-Syrian government forces such as the National Defence Forces, in Afrin District in northwestern Syria as the initial phase of the Operation Olive Branch.

Offensive[edit]

Initial TFSA-Turkish advances[edit]

The Turkish government announced the start of the offensive on 19 January 2018, with Turkish Defence Minister Nurettin Canikli stating, "The operation has actually de facto started with cross-border shelling." He added no troops had crossed into Afrin.[66] Turkey intensified its shelling later, while People's Protection Units (YPG) stated that 70 shells had been fired overnight.[70] After days of shelling, Turkish fighter jets on 20 January 2018 carried out air strikes on the border district targeting positions held by the PYD and YPG groups.[51]

Turkish media reported that 20 buses carrying Turkish-backed Syrian opposition rebels had crossed into Syria through the Öncüpınar border crossing. An AFP photographer stated that 30 buses carrying Syrian fighters had also crossed through the Cilvegözü border crossing.[71]

On 20 January, the pro-PYD Hawar News Agency reported that fighters of the Army of Revolutionaries in the Shahba Canton inflicted damage to the ranks of the Turkish-backed Syrian National Army as they killed 4 SNA fighters, and wounded 5 others, in a response to the recent mortar and artillery bombardments of civilian areas.[72] YPG forces fired rockets on Turkish border towns Kilis and Reyhanli, where at least one civilian was reported killed among a number of wounded.[73] Turkey announced that its airstrikes had hit 150 targets in Afrin.[74][75]

The Turkish General Staff made the announcement in a statement published on its website, saying the objective of the mission is to "establish security and stability on our borders and region, to eliminate terrorists of PKK/KCK/PYD-YPG and ISIL."[76] On 21 January 2018, Turkish state media reported that Turkish ground forces had begun to move into Afrin.[77] and had advanced up to 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) into the territory.[73] SOHR reported that Turkish troops had clashed with Kurdish militias on the northern and western borders of Afrin and entered the towns of Shankil and Adah Manli to the west.[78]

By 22 January 2018, Turkish forces announced the capture of seven villages, although the YPG recaptured two.[79] The same day, the first Turkish soldier was reported killed in the fighting.[80][81] By 23 January, territorial gains of the pro-Turkish forces were still "limited". Both sides said to have inflicted numerous casualties on each other,[82] including a high-ranking TFSA commander,[27] amid the back-and-forth fighting for several strategic points at the border. Meanwhile, about 5,000 civilians had fled the Turkish advance in the contested areas, relocating into the central areas of Afrin Region.[82]

On 27 January, in the first case of a Kurdish suicide attack against Turkish forces, female Kurdish YPJ fighter Zuluh Hemo (a.k.a. "Avesta Habur") reportedly threw a grenade down the turret of a Turkish tank, destroying the tank and killing two Turkish soldiers and herself. The reported attack took place during fighting in the village of al-Hammam.[83] The Turkish military denied that any Turkish soldiers had been killed or injured in the incident, and also said that Hemo blew herself up with a grenade in her mouth.[84]

On 28 January, pro-Turkish forces achieved their first major victory by capturing the strategic Barsaya mountain[85][86] after several previous attacks on the mountain since 22 January failed[87] due to Kurdish resistance.[88] According to Kurdish reports, Kurdish fighters once again pushed back the Turkish-led forces from the mountain the following day,[89] although Turkey disputed this,[90] with Turkish commander Lt. Gen. İsmail Metin Temel, who was leading the operation, reportedly visiting Barsaya.[91]

At the start of February, some rebel factions fighting on behalf of the Turkish army reportedly withdrew from Afrin in order to fight the Syrian army.[92]

On 6 February, a convoy from the eastern parts of SDF-controlled Northern Syria carrying YPG as well as Yazidi YBŞ and YJÊ fighters passed through government-held territory and arrived in the city of Afrin after an agreement for the transfer was approved by Damascus. Their number was unclear, but estimates ranged from 500 to 5,000. There had been reports that the agreement, as well as a recent halt in Turkish airstrikes on the Afrin region, was approved after the Turkish troop deployment in the Aleppo province and the downing of a Russian Su-25 by rebels in the Idlib province, located close to Turkish troops on 3 February. A commander among the pro-Syrian government forces also said that the army had deployed air defenses and anti-aircraft missiles to the front lines that are near Turkish positions and cover the airspace of the Syrian north including Afrin.[93][94][95][96][97] According to Turkish sources, Russia temporarily closed Syrian airspace to Turkey to establish an electronic defense mechanism against the shoulder-launched missiles since the night of 4 February. According to the report, Turkish armed drones can still operate in Afrin.[98]

On 9 February, the Syrian airspace was reopened for Turkish jets.[99][100] On 10 February, a Turkish T129 ATAK attack helicopter crashed with both crew members being killed. According to Turkish President Erdoğan, the SDF, and SOHR, the helicopter was shot down.[101][102][103] The Turkish Prime Minister also confirmed that a helicopter had been downed, while the Turkish military did not give a cause for the crash but stated an investigation was being conducted.[104] The SDF on 17 February claimed a cross-border attack on Turkish forces and its allies in Kırıkhan. Turkish media had reported two Turkish soldiers and five Syrian rebels being wounded when a police station was hit by mortar fire in Kırıkhan.[105]

Entry of pro-Syrian government forces[edit]

On 19 February, Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA) reported that the Syrian government had reached a deal with the YPG in Afrin.[106] Turkish FM Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu responded that they welcomed Syrian forces if they wanted to fight the YPG, stating, "If so, there is no problem. However, if they are entering [Afrin] to protect YPG/PKK, nobody can stop the Turkish army". Nuri Mahmoud, a YPG spokesman, told Al-Jazeera that they had called upon pro-Syrian government forces "to preserve a united Syria" but added they hadn't arrived yet.[107] However, a while later, Nuri denied they had reached an agreement with the Syrian government.[108]

On 20 February, Turkish President Erdoğan stated that Turkey had thwarted the possible deployment of pro-Syrian government forces into the Afrin area after talks with Russian President Vladimir Putin. Meanwhile, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said that the situation in Afrin could be resolved through direct dialogue between Damascus and Ankara.[109] On the same day, TFSA linked the Bulbul area with Azaz, after capturing the Deir al-Sawan village.[110]

Later on 20 February, pro-Syrian government militias calling themselves the "Popular Forces" entered YPG-held Afrin.[111] The Baqir Brigade, part of the Local Defence Forces (LDF) militia network, announced that it would be leading those forces.[3] A convoy of pro-Syrian government troops entered the region to support the YPG, but was hit by Turkish forces, who fired "warning shots". Anadolu Agency stated that pro-Syrian government troops withdrew 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Afrin town because of the warning shots. SANA confirmed Turkish artillery involvement but didn't mention any retreat.[112] President Erdoğan said that the militias were repelled by Turkish artillery, adding that the convoy consisted of "terrorists" who acted independently. He also stated, "Unfortunately, these kind of terror organizations take wrong steps with the decisions they take. It is not possible for us to allow this. They will pay a heavy price."[113]

Ex-PYD co-chair Salih Muslim Muhammad meanwhile denied any political agreement with the Syrian government, stating the agreement about Afrin was purely military.[114] The Syrian state media on 21 February announced the arrival of more pro-Syrian government forces. A commander of an alliance fighting for the Syrian government stated that pro-government militias in Afrin had retaliated after being attacked by Turkish-backed rebels during the preceding night.[115]

By 26 February, the YPG had been pushed back from most of the border with Turkey. During the day, Deputy Prime Minister Bekir Bozdag announced the deployment of police special forces in Afrin for a new battle.[116] The Turkish government stated on 28 February that the United Nation's recent Syrian ceasefire resolution didn't cover Afrin, and that Turkey wasn't a part of the Syrian conflict.[117] On the next day, the SOHR stated that Turkish forces and its allies had taken complete control for the border, which was also confirmed by Turkish media. Meanwhile, Turkish forces were fighting to capture the towns of Jandairis and Rajo.[118]

Encirclement of Afrin city[edit]

The TAF stated on 1 March that eight Turkish soldiers were killed, while 13 were wounded in clashes. SOHR stated that Turkish airstrikes in the village of Jamaa killed 17 pro-government fighters overnight.[119] Doğan News Agency stated that a Turkish helicopter evacuating wounded had to return when it was hit.[120] 36 militiamen belonging to the NDF were killed in Turkish airstrikes two days later on a camp in Kafr Jina, per SOHR.[121]

On 3 March, the Turkish-led forces stated that they had captured Rajo,[122] one of the major Kurdish strongholds in western Afrin. It was reported that Turkish-led forces quickly breached its defenses and captured it in an hour.[123] However, SOHR reported that the town was still contested,[124] although the TFSA had captured 70 percent of it.[122] The TFSA/TSK also stated the capturing of six villages, including two on the Jinderes district axis, as well as the Bafilyun mountain west of Azaz, making quick gains in recent days.[125] The next day, Rajo was still under heavy Turkish bombardment as the TFSA was attempting to take full control of the town.[126] The SDF confirmed pro-Turkish forces had entered the town and that clashes were continuing during the morning.[127] Later in the day, the SOHR reported large parts of Rajo were captured, while the TFSA had also entered Shaykh al-Hadid.[128] On 5 March, Rajo was confirmed by the SOHR to had been captured by the TFSA.[129] After the capture of Rajo the TFSA also captured the notorious "black prison" near Rajo, which was known to be used by the YPG to jail and torture Kurdish dissents as well as anti-Assad activists and rebels.[130]

On 6 March, the SDF announced that it had shifted 1,700 personnel from their frontlines in the Middle Euphrates river valley in Deir ez-Zor to Afrin.[131] Between 8 and 9 March, the Turkish Army, alongside the TFSA, captured Jandairis[132] and the Afrin Dam,[133][134] reaching the outskirts of Afrin on 10 March.[135] On 12 March, Turkish Forces had severed the water supply to the city of Afrin, and also cut off the city's Internet access.[136]

By 13 March, Turkish troops announced they had now surrounded the city[137][138][139][140][141] later confirmed by the UK based human rights group, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR).[142] On the next day, seven people were killed in Turkish shelling on Afrin. Between eight and ten pro-government fighters were killed in Turkish airstrikes to the south of Afrin.[143][144]

By then, SDF troops had moved into Afrin from other areas, including retreating troops from the unsuccessful defense of Jinderes, and dozens of international volunteers,[145] reinforcing the troop numbers there, and preparing defenses.[146] By Mid March, civilians started arriving in the city, organizing themselves as human shields in anticipation of the attack[147] while another 2000 civilians fled the city, in advance of the Turkish troops.[148]

Capture of Afrin city[edit]

On 15 March, Turkish artillery bombardment against the city increased, with 12 people killed and 60 injured. Food shortages were reported in the city, with long queues at bakeries. Turkey allowed people to exit the city through the one remaining road, with about 10,000 people exiting the city.[149] Turkey started dropping flyers on the city on 15 March, urging the Kurdish and allied fighters to give up, and asking civilians to stay away from "terrorist" positions.[150] Turkish artillery fire continued on the next day, killing another 16 people.[151] Meanwhile, the YPG stated that a Turkish airstrike hit the main hospital in the city - the only functioning hospital - resulting in 16 civilians dead.[152] The Hospital had already been inundated with injured people from the region, fleeing Turkish advances.[153] Turkish drone footage released the next day showed the hospital intact.[154]

On 17 March, Turkish and TFSA forces started their ground attack on the city. They met light resistance and penetrated to the center of the city. Most of the population had left, and rather than engaging the Turkish forces, most of the SDF had retreated, leaving only a small resistance behind. On 18 March, TAF forces posted pictures from the center of the city, which appeared to be largely empty. Turkish troops initially shot at, and then removed with a bulldozer, a statue of Kawa, a legendary Kurdish figure, in the center of the town, and raised Turkish flags throughout the city. The city was captured with little losses by the TAF and little losses by the SDF in their withdrawal.[155][156] SDF troops had withdrawn to government-held areas, or to SDF areas east of the Euphrates. SDF troops had been ordered to withdraw, though a few minor pockets refused orders and stayed to combat the Turkish forces.[157] The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein said of the capture: "In the city of Afrin, which was captured by Turkish forces yesterday, scores of civilians have been killed and injured due to airstrikes, ground-based strikes, and explosive hazards, and thousands have been displaced."[158]

After the capture of Afrin, which had been deserted by most of its residents, Turkish-backed fighters then began stealing vehicles and goods, looting the homes, businesses, and political and military sites.[159][160] In response to these events, the Turkish military and allied TFSA units, including the Syrian Interim Government's Military Police, set up checkpoints in front of the city, and arrested several looters. Some battalions of the TFSA's 3rd Corps were disbanded due to their participation in the thefts.[161] The Levant Front announced that they dismissed 52 of its members, due to assault on the properties of civilians.[162]

Aftermath[edit]

A PYD spokesman had announced shortly after the capture of Afrin city that the SDF would continue to fight the pro-Turkish forces using guerilla tactics.[163][164] On 4 May, the YPG also declared that they would target the family members of rebel fighters active in Afrin region, as well as refugees that were settled in Afrin.[165][166] The "Wrath of Olives" operation room was established in early summer, 2018. The YPG has denied being affiliated with this group,[167] which has been active all over Turkish-held Syria. By May 2018, a insurgency had broken out in Afrin District, as YPG holdouts[168] and allied militants, calling themselves the "Afrin Falcons",[169] were carrying out bombings, ambushes and assassinations against the Turkish army, the TFSA, and civilian sympathizers.[168][170]

After the Turkish-led forces captured Afrin District in early 2018, they began to implement a resettlement policy by moving Arab refugees from southern Syria into the empty homes that belonged to displaced locals.[171][172]

The border crossing between Afrin and Turkey reopened in November 2018.[173]

On 18 November 2018, the Turkish Army and Turkish-backed rebel factions launched an operation against a group named al-Sharqiya Martyrs of about 200 fighters who were accused of disobey and commit abuses.[174] A rebel commander named Mahmoud ‘Azazi was killed on 19 November and a mass rebel surrender took place on the same day.[175][176][177] The clashes left 25 fighters dead.[178]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Syrian regime fighters 'heading to Afrin to join Kurds in fight against Turkish forces'". The Daily Telegraph. 19 February 2018.
  2. ^ Fehim Tastekin (26 January 2018). "Erdogan's plans for Afrin might not sit well with Syria". al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 29 January 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Pro-Syrian government fighters start to enter Afrin – Hezbollah media unit". Reuters.
  4. ^ "Turkey shells Assad loyalists trying to cross into Syria's Afrin".
  5. ^ "Un convoi de 5.000 Kurdes à Afrin contre l'invasion turque" [A convoy of 5,000 Kurds in Afrin against the Turkish invasion]. Jforum (in French). 6 February 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  6. ^ Julian Röpcke (27 January 2018). "Türkische Offensive in Nordsyrien. Deutsche kämpfen gegen Erdogan" [Turkish offensive in northern Syria. Germans fight against Erdogan]. Bild. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  7. ^ "Assad, Iran support Kurdish forces against Turkey in Syria's Afrin with key weapon systems – reports". Al Masdar News. 9 February 2018.
  8. ^ a b "Turkey takes full control of Syria's Afrin region, reports say". Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  9. ^ "Turkey will not act against Russia, says deputy PM". Anadolu Agency. 26 March 2018.
  10. ^ "Turkish forces and Free Syrian Army capture Afrin city". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  11. ^ "Turkish army, FSA liberate another village in northwestern Syria". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 26 February 2018.[permanent dead link]
  12. ^ "Turkish army, FSA clear 7 more areas in NW Syria". Anadolu Agency. 4 March 2018.
  13. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jun/07/too-many-strange-faces-kurds-fear-forced-demographic-shift-in-afrin
  14. ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/syria-civil-war-assad-regime-turkey-afrin-kurds-eastern-ghouta-us-allies-militia-a8252456.html
  15. ^ https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/in-afrin-turkey-seeks-ethnic-cleansing-not-terror-eradication
  16. ^ https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/opinion/confront-turkeys-ethnic-cleansing-and-stop-indulging-it
  17. ^ https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/935662/France-Emmanuel-Macron-accused-abandoning-Kurds-fate-Turkish
  18. ^ https://www.haaretz.com/middle-east-news/syria/.premium-scared-to-death-kurds-in-syria-trapped-between-threat-from-assad-and-erdogan-1.6765949
  19. ^ sitesi, milliyet.com.tr Türkiye'nin lider haber. "Son dakika: Afrin harekatını Korgeneral İsmail Metin Temel yönetecek!". Milliyet.com.tr. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  20. ^ "Free Syrian Army prepares to participate in Afrin battle, Aleppo". SMART News Agency. 21 January 2018.
  21. ^ "Kurdish fighters join Turkey's Afrin operation". Al Monitor. 16 February 2016.
  22. ^ [1] Archived 16 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine 400 asker Afrin’e doğru yola çıktı
  23. ^ [2] Archived 16 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine Afrin'de üç köy daha terörden temizlendi
  24. ^ a b "Who Are the Pro-Turkey Rebels Advancing on Syria's Afrin". Naharnet. 22 January 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  25. ^ "The 'Sham Corps' isolates leader Yasser Abdel Rahim". Enab Baladi. 7 February 2018.
  26. ^ "The killing of a corps commander in the 'Free Army' in the battles of Afrin". Enab Baladi. 9 March 2018.
  27. ^ a b Leith Aboufadel (23 January 2018). "Kurdish forces kill high ranking FSA commander in northern Afrin". al-Masdar News. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  28. ^ "Bahjt Abedo :Our forces restrained mercenaries, resistance continues". Hawar News Agency. 26 January 2018. Archived from the original on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  29. ^ "Afrin Defense Minister: "Turkey is preparing for mass deaths"". ANF News. 6 February 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  30. ^ "SDF launches revolutionary operation in Afrin". Hawar News Agency. 21 January 2018. Archived from the original on 9 February 2018.
  31. ^ "Efrîn'de hayatını kaybeden 6 YPG'linin kimlikleri açıklandı". Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  32. ^ a b [3] Archived 17 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine YPJ .. We pledge to raise level of struggle to leaders Tokshin, Zilan
  33. ^ "Commander of "Jaysh al-Thuwar": We fight cowardice to the side, do not believe the false news". Hawar News Agency. 21 January 2018. Archived from the original on 22 January 2018.
  34. ^ "Syrian Democratic Forces to withdraw fighters from eastern Syria to 'confront Turkish aggression' in Afrin". Syria Direct. 6 March 2018.
  35. ^ "Efrîn'deki MLKP komutanı Viyan İsyan: Zafer bizim olacak" [MLKP commander Viyan İsyan in Afrin: Victory will be ours]. ETHA (Etkin Haber Ajansı) (in Turkish). 27 January 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  36. ^ "Pro Assad regime 'Popular Forces' suffering a painful blow in Afrin". 2 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  37. ^ "Faraj: 10 soldiers martyred, 8 wounded by Turkey's violation of SC's resolution – ANHA". en.hawarnews.com. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  38. ^ [4] Archived 7 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine مقتل مراسلين حربيين ورئيس عمليات لقوات الأسد في عفرين
  39. ^ "Dakika dakika Afrin'de yaşanan son dakika gelişmeler!". Habertürk. 22 January 2018.
  40. ^ [5] Archived 23 February 2018 at the Wayback Machine Suriye Dışişleri Bakan Yardımcısı BBC'ye konuştu: Türkiye'nin harekatı işgal, hava savunma sistemlerimiz hazır
  41. ^ "BASIN AÇIKLAMASI" (in Turkish). General Staff of the Republic of Turkey. 20 January 2018. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  42. ^ "Türkei rückt in Syrien gegen Kurden vor – mit deutschen Panzern". Focus (in German). 22 January 2018. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  43. ^ "M60T Sabra tipi ağır muharebe tankları Afrin'de görev almak için sınırda konuşlandı Gündem Haberi – GÜNEŞ". Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  44. ^ "T-155 Fırtına Obüsleri nedir? - Akşam". aksam.com.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  45. ^ Kanal, Ulusal. "Afrin harekatında yerli silahlar kullanılıyor haberi – Son Dakika Güncel Haberler". Ulusal (in Turkish). Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  46. ^ "Mayınlar 'Kirpi'yle güvenli şekilde aşılıyor – Son Dakika Teknoloji Haberleri – STAR".
  47. ^ "'Milli İHA'lar Afrin'de ilk kez kullanılıyor" (in Turkish). Sputnik News. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  48. ^ "TSK'dan son dakika Zeytin Dalı harekatı açıklaması".
  49. ^ Mehmet Guzel; Philip Issa (20 January 2018). "Turkish jets bombard Kurdish-run city of Afrin in Syria". The Washington Post. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  50. ^ Suleiman Al-Khalidi (21 January 2018). "FSA Commander Says 25,000 Syrian Rebels Back Turkish Force in Syria". Reuters. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  51. ^ a b "Erdogan: Operation in Syria's Afrin has begun". Al Jazeera. 21 January 2018.
  52. ^ Eric Schmitt; Rod Rordland (28 February 2018). "Amid Turkish Assault, Kurdish Forces Are Drawn Away From U.S. Fight With ISIS". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  53. ^ "Breaking: Second wave of pro-Syrian Army forces enter Afrin to bolster Kurdish defenses". 21 February 2018.
  54. ^ a b c "بعد السيطرة على كامل منطقة عفرين…معارك عنيفة تندلع بين قوات عملية "غصن الزيتون" والمسلحين الموالين للنظام في ريف حلب الشمالي". Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  55. ^ "The Statistics Of The Military Operations Since The Start Of The Turkish Aggression On Afrin On 20-Jan-2018". Retrieved 7 March 2018.
    YPG claims deadly attack on pro-Turkish militias in Afrin
  56. ^ "Erdogan says 3,747 terrorists 'neutralized' in Afrin op". Anadolu Agency. 25 March 2018.
  57. ^ "The Latest: Monitor, Medics Say Syria Airstrike Kills 28".
    Turkey says kills 11 Kurdish militants, two Turkish soldiers killed
  58. ^ "Turkish, FSA forces close in on Tel Rifaat town in northern Syria". Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  59. ^ a b "Afrin administration: The war has moved to another stage". Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  60. ^ "At least 48 Syrian pro-gov't fighters killed during Afrin battle: report". 5 March 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  61. ^ "Turkey will not act against Russia, says deputy PM". Anadolu Agency. 26 March 2018.
  62. ^ One Turkish soldier killed in Syria's Afrin
  63. ^ "Soylu: 31 asker, 9 sivil, 39 ÖSO mensubu şehit oldu".
  64. ^ "7 civilians killed in Turkey in YPG/PKK terrorist attacks". Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  65. ^ "Operation Olive Branch launched in Syria's Afrin to clear PKK, Daesh, Turkish military says".
  66. ^ a b "Turkey shells Syria's Afrin region, minister says operation has begun". Reuters. 19 January 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  67. ^ "Hundreds of the factions' fighters head to the borders of Turkey and Iskenderun with Afrin in a preparation for the attack which will be carried out through 10 fronts at least". Syriahr.com. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  68. ^ "Syria war: Turkey-backed forces oust Kurds from heart of Afrin". BBC. 18 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  69. ^ "Pro-Kurdish party says Turkey lying about 'no civilian deaths' in Afrin". Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  70. ^ "Turkey steps up Syria shelling as invasion of Afrin looms". BBC. 19 January 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  71. ^ "Turkish troops shell Afrin to oust US-backed Kurdish militia". Channel NewsAsia. Associated Press. 19 January 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  72. ^ "Afrin: sneaking attempt thwarted, YPG, YPJ inflicted mercenaries vast damage – ANHA". en.hawarnews.com. Archived from the original on 20 January 2018. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  73. ^ a b "Turkish ground troops enter Syria enclave". BBC. 21 January 2018.
  74. ^ Shaheen, Kareem (21 January 2018). "Turkey starts ground incursion into Kurdish-controlled Afrin in Syria". The Guardian.
  75. ^ "Airstrikes pound Syria's Afrin as Turkey launches 'Operation Olive Branch'". Reuters.
  76. ^ "Turkey launches border security mission in Syria's Afrin". Turkey launches border security mission in Syria's Afrin. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  77. ^ "Turkish state media reports that Turkish ground forces have crossed into Syrian Kurdish enclave". The Seattle Times. 21 January 2018. Archived from the original on 21 January 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  78. ^ "Turkish troops attack Kurdish enclave in northern Syria". CBS News. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  79. ^ "Syria offensive: Turkish troops 'capture villages' in Afrin". BBC News. 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  80. ^ "Turkish soldier killed in clashes near Syria's Afrin region". Reuters. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  81. ^ "First Turkish soldier killed during northern Aleppo operation". 23 January 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  82. ^ a b "Syria war: Thousands flee Turkish assault on Afrin enclave". BBC News. 23 January 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  83. ^ Nordland, Rod (30 January 2018). "Female Kurdish Fighter Kills Turkish Troops in Likely Suicide Bombing in Syria". The New York Times.
  84. ^ Haber7. "Ağzında el bombasıyla Türk askerine saldırdı!". Haber7.
  85. ^ "Turkish Forces Target Strategic Hill Near Syria's Afrin". Retrieved 28 January 2018.
    Turkish Forces Target Hill in Syria Archived 31 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  86. ^ "Turkish forces score first major victory in Afrin". 28 January 2018.
  87. ^ "With the continuation of clashes in Afrin area, the Turkish warplanes re-bombard the village in which they carried out a massacre today, killing 8 civilians of one family including 5 children".
  88. ^ "Turkey-backed forces capture Syrian hill". 29 January 2018.
  89. ^ kjenson (29 January 2018). "Battle for strategic Syrian peak continues". Archived from the original on 29 January 2018.
  90. ^ "Turkish soldiers, FSA stay on alert at Mt. Bursaya". Anadolu Agency.
  91. ^ "Turkish commander visits peak captured from terrorists". Anadolu Agency.
  92. ^ "Breaking: Turkey-led rebel factions begin withdrawing from Afrin towards east Idlib to fight Syrian Army – reports". 1 February 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  93. ^ "Убивающие турецких солдат курды получили подкрепление". Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  94. ^ "YPG sends terrorists to Syria's Afrin under civilian guise". Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  95. ^ "Russia may have set up no-fly zone in Syria – claims – Ahval". Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  96. ^ "Supporters from across Rojava rally in Afrin". Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  97. ^ "Syrian Army allows massive YPG convoy to travel to Afrin from their lines". 6 February 2018. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  98. ^ "Afrin havasında Rusya molası". Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  99. ^ "مجلس الأمن يرفض إدانة هجوم التحالف على النظام السوري". 8 February 2018.
  100. ^ "Hava sahası açıldı: Türk Jetleri havalandı". Hürriyet Daily News.
  101. ^ "Turkish helicopter shot down by Kurdish militia in Syria's Afrin: Erdo". Reuters. 11 February 2018.
  102. ^ "Kurdish forces shoot down Turkish helicopter over Afrin: SDF". Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  103. ^ "Ambiguity surrounds the crew of a Turkish helicopter targeted by the Kurdish units in the skies of Raju area in the western section of Afrin countryside".
  104. ^ "11 Turkish troops killed in deadliest day of Kurdish offensive".
  105. ^ "Syria Kurds claim striking positions in Turkey". Agence-France Presse. 18 February 2018.
  106. ^ "Turkey warns Syrian army against helping Kurdish YPG in Afrin". Reuters. 19 February 2018.
  107. ^ "Cavusoglu: Nobody can stop Turkish forces in Afrin". Al Jazeera. 19 February 2018.
  108. ^ "Syrian Kurdish YPG denies deal for army to enter Afrin". Reuters. 19 February 2018.
  109. ^ "Russia's Lavrov calls for Syria-Turkey talks to resolve Afrin..." Reuters. 20 February 2018.
  110. ^ ""Olive Branch" connects A'zaz city to the areas of "Sharan" and "Bulbul" in Afrin (map)". 20 February 2018.
  111. ^ "Turkey Begins Shelling Pro-Government Forces in Syria". 20 February 2018.
  112. ^ "Pro-government fighters move into Syria's Afrin". Al Jazeera. 20 February 2018.
  113. ^ "Erdogan says pro-Damascus, Shi'ite forces repelled by Turkish artillery". Reuters.
  114. ^ "No political agreement held with the Syrian regime, Saleh Musallam says". 21 February 2018.
  115. ^ "Stakes rise in Turkey's Afrin assault as pro-Assad militia arrive". Reuters.
  116. ^ "Turkey sends special forces for next stage of Afrin offensive". Reuters.
  117. ^ "Turkey: UN resolution is not about Afrin". Al Jazeera.
  118. ^ "Turkey takes full control of Afrin borders: monitor". Rudaw.
  119. ^ "Eight Turkish soldiers killed, 13 wounded in clashes in Syria's Afrin". Agence-France Presse. 2 March 2018.
  120. ^ "Turkey suffers deadly day in Afrin offensive". Agence-France Presse.
  121. ^ "Afrin offensive: 36 pro-Syrian government soldiers 'killed in Turkish air strike'". BBC.
  122. ^ a b Editorial, Reuters. "Syrian government makes Ghouta gains; Turkey steps up Afrin attack". Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  123. ^ "Breaking: Turkey-led forces seize major Kurdish stronghold in west Afrin, prepare to storm another". Al-Masdar News. 3 March 2018.
  124. ^ "The Latest: Turkey tightens grip on Syrian Kurdish enclave". 3 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  125. ^ "Suriye İnsan Hakları Gözlemevi: Türk uçakları Suriye yönetimi yanlısı güçleri vurdu" (in Turkish). BBC Türkçe. 3 March 2018.
  126. ^ "Afrin's battles rage and the Turkish forces fight desperately to take the control of two towns in the western section of the area with the help of intensive aerial and ground shelling". SOHR. 4 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  127. ^ Kurdistan24. "Turkish military intensifies bombardment on Afrin from four sides, rising civilian casualties". Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  128. ^ "Fears of besieging more than one million people in Afrin area by the Turkish forces after they become 12 km away from Afrin city". SOHR. 4 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  129. ^ "More than 120 casualties and injuries in the violent aerial and ground shelling on Afrin area". SOHR. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  130. ^ al-Khuder, Khalifa. "The Black Prison of Afrin". Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  131. ^ "US Coalition Asks for Pause in Hostilities in Northwest Syria". Voice of America. 6 March 2018.
  132. ^ "Turkish military seize control of Jinderes town in Syria's Afrin region". 8 March 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  133. ^ "Turkey May Be Violating International Law in its Afrin Offensive". Al Bawaba. 19 March 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  134. ^ "Afrin'de çok kritik gelişme! 17 Nisan Barajı da ele geçirildi". Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  135. ^ "Turkish forces reach outskirts of Afrin town: monitor". Reuters. 11 March 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  136. ^ "Civilians-organise-human-shield-protect-kurdish-afrin" Al Jazeera 12 March 2018 https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/03/civilians-organise-human-shield-protect-kurdish-afrin-180311163553611.html Archived 4 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  137. ^ Turkish Forces Surround Key Syrian Kurdish City Retrieved 13 June 2019
  138. ^ "Afrin: Turkish forces 'encircle' Syrian Kurdish city". BBC News. 13 March 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  139. ^ "Turkey says troops encircle Kurdish-held city in Syria". CNN. 13 March 2018. Archived from the original on 20 July 2018.
  140. ^ "Deutch Weller". Deutch Weller. 13 March 2018. Archived from the original on 14 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  141. ^ "Turkish forces say they have 'surrounded' Afrin city". middleeast eye. 13 March 2018. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  142. ^ "Turkey forces encircle Kurdish-controlled centre of Afrin". Al Jazeera. 14 March 2018. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  143. ^ "7 Killed as Turkish Shelling of Kurdish Afrin Intensifies". Voice of America. 14 March 2018.
  144. ^ "Turkish raids kill 10 Syria regime loyalists near Afrin: monitor". Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  145. ^ Ensor, Josie "Battle for Afrin Turkish forces advance raises fears of New Ghouta"" The Sydney Morning Herald 13 March https://www.smh.com.au/world/middle-east/battle-for-afrin-turkish-forces-advance-raises-fears-of-new-ghouta-20180313-p4z41v.html Archived 20 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  146. ^ "Will YPG Retreat Afrin" Al Monitor https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2018/03/will-ypg-retreat-afrin.html Archived 11 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  147. ^ "Civilians Organise Human Shield to Protect Kurdish Afrin" Al Jazeera 12 March 2018 https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/03/civilians-organise-human-shield-protect-kurdish-afrin-180311163553611.html Archived 4 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  148. ^ "Syria Afrin City Hundreds Civilians Flee Turkish Forces" http://www.france24.com/en/20180312-syria-afrin-city-hundreds-civilians-flee-turkish-forces Archived 18 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  149. ^ "Turkish-led assault on Syria's Afrin displaced 10,000 in a day" 16/3/18 aljazeera.com https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/03/turkish-led-assault-syria-afrin-displaced-10000-day-180315181847193.html Archived 27 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  150. ^ "The Latest: Turkey urges Syrian Kurds in Afrin to surrender" Longview News Journal, 15 March 2018 https://www.news-journal.com/ap/international/the-latest-turkey-urges-syrian-kurds-in-afrin-to-surrender/article_0c014c02-604e-5a34-85d7-9c08912a42ff.html
  151. ^ "Turkish Artillery Fire on Syria's Afrin Kills 18 Civilians: Monitor" 16 March 2018 Times Now News http://www.timesnownews.com/international/article/turkeu-syria-afrin-18-civilians/208310 Archived 12 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  152. ^ "Turkish air strike hits hospital in Syria's Afrin Nine dead monitor" SBS News 17/3/18 https://www.sbs.com.au/news/turkish-air-strike-hits-hospital-in-syria-s-afrin-nine-dead-monitor Archived 11 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  153. ^ "Syria: Children, families killed by airstrikes, shelling in Afrin – UN" UN News – 16 March https://news.un.org/en/story/2018/03/1005172 Archived 27 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  154. ^ "Turkish forces and Free Syrian Army group 'capture' Afrin city" Al Jazeera https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/03/free-syrian-army-group-captures-afrin-city-180318081430817.html Archived 18 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  155. ^ "Syria war: Turkey-backed forces oust Kurds from heart of Afrin". BBC. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  156. ^ "free-syrian-army-group-captures-afrin-city" al jazeera 18/3/18 https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/03/free-syrian-army-group-captures-afrin-city-180318081430817.html Archived 18 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  157. ^ "turkish-forces-and-syrian-allies-drive-kurds-from-afrin" Reuters 18 March 2018 https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-afrin/turkish-forces-and-syrian-allies-drive-kurds-from-afrin-idUSKCN1GU07P Archived 11 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  158. ^ "Displacement surges as twin military offensives drive thousands from Afrin and east Ghouta – UN". UN News. 21 March 2018.
  159. ^ "Turkish-backed forces loot Syrian town of Afrin". CNN. 19 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  160. ^ "Pro-Turkish forces pillage Afrin after taking Syrian city". Agence France-Presse. 18 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  161. ^ Khaled al-Khateb (29 March 2018). "Syrian opposition seeks to clamp down on looting in Afrin". al-Monitor. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  162. ^ [6] Archived 20 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine Shami Front taking action against looters in shape of battalion involved in attacking civilian funds in Afrin
  163. ^ "Turkish Led Forces Seize Centre Syria's Afrin" Middle East Eye 18 March 2018 http://www.middleeasteye.net/news/turkish-led-forces-seize-centre-syrias-afrin-653387275 Archived 20 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  164. ^ "Saleh-moslem-guerrilla-warfare-begins-in-afrin" anfenglish 18 March 2018 https://anfenglish.com/features/saleh-moslem-guerrilla-warfare-begins-in-afrin-25573 Archived 11 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  165. ^ "Syrian Kurdish forces threaten families of Turkey's allies in Afrin – Ahval". Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  166. ^ Wilgenburg, Wladimir van. "YPG will target any group working with Turkish army in Afrin". Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  167. ^ http://www.kurdistan24.net/en/news/c598314c-abb4-4468-a0a0-66e336661b32
  168. ^ a b Borzou Daragahi (13 July 2018). "Turkey Has Made a Quagmire for Itself in Syria". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
  169. ^ Sirwan Kajjo (30 June 2018). "Twin explosions mark new tensions in Afrin". Ahval. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
  170. ^ Wladimir van Wilgenburg (17 July 2018). "YPG continues attacks on Turkish army and rebels in Afrin". Kurdistan 24. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
  171. ^ Patrick Cockburn (18 April 2018). "Yazidis who suffered under Isis face forced conversion to Islam amid fresh persecution in Afrin". The Independent. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  172. ^ "Syria's war of ethnic cleansing: Kurds threatened with beheading by Turkey's allies if they don't convert to extremism". The Independent. 12 March 2018.
  173. ^ "Turkey opens gate with neighboring Syria's Afrin: trade minister". Reuters. 2018-11-09. Retrieved 2018-11-19.
  174. ^ https://smartnews-agency.com/en/breakingNews/345510/clashes-erupt-between-national-army-and-alsharqiya-martyrs-brigade-in#
  175. ^ https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/rebel-commander-killed-by-turkish-military-in-northern-syria/
  176. ^ https://en.muraselon.com/2018/11/turkish-military-rebels-surrender-afrin/
  177. ^ https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/scores-of-rebels-surrender-to-turkish-army-after-fierce-clashes-in-aleppo/
  178. ^ https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/clashes-between-pro-turkish-rebel-factions-kill-25-syrias-afrin-1986480852

Coordinates: 36°22′21″N 37°31′04″E / 36.3725°N 37.5178°E / 36.3725; 37.5178



This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by contributors (read/edit).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.

Destek