2015 Southern Syria offensive

Wikipedia open wikipedia design.

2015 Southern Syria offensive
Part of the Syrian Civil War
2015 Southern Syria offensive.svg
     Syrian Government control

     Opposition control

     Contested
Date7 February – 13 March 2015
(1 month and 6 days)
Location
Result

Syrian Army/Hezbollah/IRGC victory during phase one; Stalemate during phase two

  • Government forces capture seven towns and villages and eight hills[8][9][10]
Belligerents

Syrian Revolutionary Command Council

Islamic Muthanna Movement[2]
al-Nusra Front
Jamaat Bayt al-Maqdis al-Islamiya [2][3]

Syrian Arab Republic

Hezbollah

Iranian IRGC[4]
Liwa Fatemiyoun[5]
Kata'ib Sayyid al-Shuhada[6]
Jaysh al-Wafaa[7]
Commanders and leaders
Gen. Bashar al-Zoubi
(Southern Front leader)
Maj. Abu Osama al-Jolani[11]
Col. Saber Safar
(leader of the First Army)[12]
Mukhtar Abu Omar 
(top military leader of al-Nusra Front in Southern Syria)[13][14]
Maj. Gen. Qasem Soleimani[15]
Mustafa Badr Al Din[16]
Maj. Gen. Suheil Salman Hassan
(5th Mechanized Division)
Brig. Gen. Mahmoud Mustafa [17]
Col. Abbas Abdollahi [18][19]
Alireza Tavassoli 
(Liwa Fatemiyoun leader)[20]
Units involved

Southern Front

Islamic Front

5th Mechanized Division[21]
7th Infantry Division[21]
9th Armored Division[21]
10th Armored Division[22]
Strength
2,500[23]

5,000[23]

Casualties and losses
294 killed (Syrian Army claim)[24]
300 killed and wounded (rebel claim)[25]
63 killed (Syrian Army claim)[26][27][28][29]
43 killed, 10–12 executed, 40 captured (SOHR claim)[5][30][31]
400 killed (rebel claim)[25]

The 2015 Southern Syria offensive, code-named "Operation Martyrs of Quneitra",[32] was an offensive launched in southern Syria during the Syrian Civil War by the Syrian Arab Army, Hezbollah and Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps forces.[33] Government forces also include Iranian sponsored Afghani Shi'ite volunteer militias.[29] The name "Operation Martyrs of Quneitra" refers to the January 2015 Mazraat Amal incident, in which several high level Hezbollah and IRGC members were killed in an Israeli strike.[34]

After Syrian troops and their allies captured 15 towns, villages and hills,[8][9][10] the operation slowed[35] and stalled[25] during attempts to advance on Kafr Shams and Kafr Nasij.[36] The gains by pro-government troops were described as limited,[35] while the pro-Damascus As-Safir reported the gains were a "devastating" defeat for the rebels.[37] Most viewed the offensive as unsuccessful,[38][39][40][41][42] with the rebels "weathering"[43] the "collapsed" offensive.[44]

Background[edit]

In October 2014, the rebels captured the electronic warfare station at Tal al-Harra thanks to the defection of General Mahmoud Abu Araj, who remained in his Syrian Arab Army position while passing intel to insurgent forces and sowing discord between Army forces and their Iranian allies; this led to the execution of as many as 56 Army officers in an attempt to stem the intel leaks.[45] The recapture of Tal al-Harra would be one of the main objectives of the coming offensive.[46]

The strategic aims of the offensive were the recapture of Tal al-Harra,[47] the elimination of a perceived rebel-Israeli buffer zone protected by Al-Nusra Front forces in the area between Israel and Syria, guarding the Syrian capital of Damascus against further rebel encroachment, preventing the Syrian rebels from establishing a southeastern front in Lebanon and cutting off rebel supply lines leading to Jordan.[48] An additional aim of the offensive was the creation of a Hezbollah-controlled "Golan front"[nb 1] against Israel.[49][50][51][52][53] The offensive focused on a triangle of rebel-held territory from rural areas southwest of Damascus to Daraa city to Quneitra,[54] with the initial focus being on seizing the villages of Kafr Shams, Zimreen and Deir al-Adas.[21]

A source close to senior Hezbollah figures stated that the start date of the offensive was accelerated due to the assassination carried out by Israel in the Golan heights of several high-ranking Hezbollah and Iranian military figures.[55]

Offensive[edit]

Initial government advance[edit]

On 7 February 2015, the Army's 5th Armored Division, along with reinforcements from the 7th Infantry Division, launched the offensive in the northern part of Daraa province.[21] During the first day's fighting, 10 rebels were killed in clashes around Kafr Shams.[56]

On 8 February, government forces bombarded multiple towns in Daraa province[57] and heavy fighting ensued which left 11 rebels dead. The heaviest clashes occurred at Kafr Shams.[58] The military also bombarded the towns of Om Batena and Mashara in the Quneitra province,[59] as the Army's 9th Division launched an offensive in that governorate as well. According to a military source, government forces captured several hills.[26] Meanwhile, in Rif Dimashq province government troops managed to capture Tall Marri hill, but were unable to advance towards the town of Deir Makir.[60] The capture of Tall Marri hill was significant because it cut a rebel supply line and increased the isolation of rebel-held pockets around the city of Damascus.[61]

On 9 February, fighting erupted in Deir Makir[62] and around Deir al-Adas in Daraa where four rebels were killed and two Army tanks were destroyed.[63] By the end of the day, the Army, supported by the NDF, Hezbollah and Iranian fighters, advanced in the al-Ollayqat area near Deir al-Adas.[64] Military sources reported that 65% Deir al-Adas, as well as Tal Ghasham near Kafr Shams, were captured.[65] The Army also captured the village of Tayha.[66]

According to the rebels, government troops were supported by a large number of Afghan fighters as well during the offensive in Daraa and Rif Dimashq.[67]

On the morning of 10 February, the Army ambushed a group of Al-Nusra Front rebels at the village of Mahjat, in northern Daraa, leaving between 8 and 19 fighters dead.[68][69] Meanwhile, fighting in Der al-Adas left another eight rebels dead,[70] while government troops advanced and captured Deir Makir,[71][72] al-Danaji[73][74] and Habariyah.[75] Later the military secured Deir al-Adas,[76][77][78] with over 40 rebels and 23 soldiers being killed during the battle for the town.[76]

During the day, government artillery and air strikes hit rebel positions in Mashara, directly east of Quneitra and Harrah, to cut off rebels in Daraa from the Golan.[73] A reporter for the Lebanese al-Mayadeen news channel, embedded with the Syrian Army, reported from Quneitra that the offensive had cut an important rebel supply route from Jordan to opposition-held areas west of Damascus.[72] Army artillery from Tall Ghurabah hill also struck rebel positions on Tall Antar hill, near Kafr Shams, during the day.[79]

On 11 February, the Army and Hezbollah captured the hills of al-Arus and al-Sarja,[80][81] near Deir Makir and al-Mseeh hill near Deir al Adas,[8] and advanced towards Sultaniyah,[82][83] which they bombarded.[80] Meanwhile, Harrah residents reportedly asked rebel fighters to evacuate so to avoid any potential clashes in the town.[84] At this point, the second phase of the government's Daraa offensive was started with fighting happening all along the frontline.[85] In Rif Dimashq, according to SOHR, fighting raged around Tall Fatima hill where a number of soldiers were captured, as well as around Hamrit with one tank being destroyed, and over Tall Antar and Tall Alaqiyah.[86][87]

On 12 February, rapid advances by government forces slowed because of a snowstorm in the region.[88] Still, the military captured the Ghirbal area of the town of Kafr Nasij, where fighters from Deir al-Adas had retreated to and were continuing to fight. After this, the commander of the rebel FSA 24th Division issued an urgent call for reinforcements.[89][90] Fierce fighting also occurred in Sultaniyah,[91] while the Army seized Tall Fatima hill[22] and pushed the rebels toward Tall Qrein hill.[92] Kafr Shams was also coming under attack.[93]

Offensive stalls[edit]

In the following days, the rebels managed to recapture Tayha and Habariyah.[25][94]

On 14 February, government forces continued to bombard Kafr Shams, Kafr Nasij and Tall Antar hill.[95] Two Iranian IRGC officers (one of them a colonel) were killed in Kafr Nasij that day,[18] while two reporters from the pro-government Al-Ekhbariya TV channel were wounded by rebel shelling on Deir al-Adas.[96] According to the SOHR, 10 soldiers were executed on the charge of passing information to the enemy,[30] while 5,000 more reinforcements were ordered to fight the rebels in the south.[97] An Al-Nusra Front counter-attack on Deir al-Adas was reportedly repelled with 19 rebels and 11 soldiers being killed.[98]

On 15 February, the Syrian Air Force resumed bombing rebel positions, after being forced to remain on the ground for five days due to bad weather conditions.[99] Rebels claimed to have captured a senior Iranian officer and a Russian military missile system operator on the Daraa frontline.[5] However, the Southern Front spokesman denied the claim of Iranian prisoners, but confirmed that the bodies of the two Iranian officers were in rebel possession.[100]

On 17 February, a Hezbollah attack on Mashara was repelled.[100] Still, fighting continued in the area of the village and the next day a military source reported Hezbollah had captured Syria Tel Hill.[101] At the same time, the al-Nusra Front started a counter-attack to recapture all ground lost since the start of the offensive and managed to advance near al-Danaji.[102]

On 19 February, the al-Nusra Front recaptured Tall Fatima and advanced towards Deir Maker. However, after fierce resistance from the 9th Armored Division, al-Nusra retreated to the recently captured hill after suffering 22 dead.[103] The next day, a military source reported that Hezbollah continued their fierce assault on the al-Nusra Front south of the recently captured Syria Tel Hill, where they reportedly advanced further south in the village of Mashara, while in Al-Hamidiyyeh, the 9th Armored Division reportedly progressed towards the village cemetery after fierce clashes for two straight days.[104] Later in the day, the Army recaptured Tall Fatima.[105] However, on 21 February, fighting renewed for Tall Fatima.[106]

On 25 February, after three days of inactivity due to harsh weather,[107] Hezbollah made an attempt to capture Al-Hamidiyyeh[108] and reportedly killed 16 rebels.[109]

Renewed government advance[edit]

Over 27 and 28 February,[110] government troops captured Sultaniyah, Habariyah, Hamrit and Sabsabah, as well as Tall Qrein and Tall Fatima hills.[9][111] The battle for Tall Qrein lasted two hours.[111] Heavy fighting continued in the Tal al-Allaqiya, Tal Samn, Aqrabah, Simlin[112] and around Kafr Nasij and Kafr Shams where government forces attempted to advance.[113] During the two-day clashes, at least 26 soldiers and 19–51 rebels were killed.[9][114][115]

On 1 March, the Army made new attempts to advance at Kafr Shams,[116] while they captured Tall al-Bazzaq[117] and Rajm al-Sayd hill, also known as Tal al-Sayyad.[10][118] Syrian troops and Hezbollah also managed to advance to within 10 kilometers from Tal al-Harra, capturing hills overlooking it.[10] At this point, the Army stated they had completed the first phase of their offensive, creating a buffer-zone between northwest Daraa and the West Ghouta area of Rif Dimashq. The second planned phase would be a two-pronged attack, with the 7th Division attempting to capture Kafr Shams, while Hezbollah and the 9th Division will look to capture Kafr Nasij, after which both divisions and Hezbollah would link up at ‘Aqraba. A large part of the offensive would consist from the 9th Division and Hezbollah’s advance to Nabi Sakhar and their capture of ‘Umm Batna and Mashara.[119] The Syrian Brigadier General Mahmoud Mustafa (commander of a commando unit) was reportedly killed in Hebbariye, Quneitra, that day.[17][120]

On 3 March, it was reported that seven Afghan pro-government fighters were buried, including the commander of the Afghan volunteer Fatemiyoun Brigade, Alireza Tavassoli, who was killed on 28 February in Daraa province.[20] That day, an operation room, consisting of Jabhat al-Nusra, Ahrar ash-Sham, Jamaat Bayt al-Maqdis al-Islamiya and the Islamic Muthanna Movement, was established in Daraa. The Free Syrian Army's First Army played a secondary role in this operation room. The reason for this, was the repeated failures to repel government attacks and the lack of unity among the moderate rebel groups. Most of the Southern Front affiliated groups refused to play a significant role in the battle.[2][3]

Offensive's second phase[edit]

The second phase of the offensive started 4 March, with the military and Hezbollah attacking Tal Al-Mal, Kafr Shams and Kafr Nasij at the same time. At Tal Al-Mal, they reportedly managed to break through rebel defenses, while the clashes at Kafr Shams left 17 rebels and 7 soldiers dead, according to a military source.[36]

On 11 March, the Syrian Air Force bombed the headquarters of the First Army in the southern countryside of Quneitra, killing a number of rebels including the First Army's commander.[121] Four days later, Lebanese, Hezbollah-affiliated, television station Al-Manar reported that 120 Al-Nusra fighters, including three field commanders, were killed in another air-raid in Quneitra province.[122]

On 13 March, after almost two weeks of fighting, the military reportedly advanced towards the southwestern part of Kafr Nasij.[123]

Aftermath[edit]

On 6 April, rebels launched a counter-attack in the Kafr Shams area,[1][124] advanced and captured a checkpoint.[125] The same day, an ambush in Khan Arnaba, in Quneitra province, conducted by government troops left six rebels dead and many others missing.[126] Between 6 and 8 April, at least 35 rebels were killed during the counter-attack, which resulted in the capture of several Army checkpoints and positions.[127]

On 20 April, the Syrian Army, backed by the NDF and the PLA, launched a new offensive near the town of Busra al-Harir and captured five villages,[128][129][130] cutting the rebel supply line between Jordan and rebel positions in the Lajat area.[131][132] An assault on Busra al-Harir itself was repelled.[132] The next day, the Army reportedly retreated from around Busra al-Harir and the rebels re-established their supply route and liberated the five villages.[133] 37 rebels[134][135] and 28 soldiers were killed[136] and five Army tanks were destroyed during the operation.[135] A number of pro-government troops were also captured, including some foreign fighters.[137] Over the next 24 hours, another 37 rebels and 11 soldiers were killed, according to a military source.[138]

Analysis[edit]

The offensive was seen as a strategic Axis of Resistance effort against Israel as well as an attempt to broaden the appeal of the Axis to groups such as Hamas,[34]

Following the offensive, as part of the internal disputes in regard to the Iranians, Maj. Gen. Rustum Ghazaleh was severely attacked by Lt. Gen. Rafik Shehadeh's bodyguards for disagreeing with the role of foreign forces aiding government troops, and both were reportedly fired from their positions.[139] News emerged two months later that Ghazaleh had died after complications from a severe head wound, after having been "clinically dead" for several weeks.[140]

Jordan signaled as a result of the offensive that it was no longer willing to tolerate the Syrian government's increasing reliance upon Iranian and Hezbollah support, with a Jordian official stating "We cannot allow Iran to come to our backyard. They have entertained too many ideas lately with Soleimani calling the shots". New weapons and logistical support also arrived from Saudi Arabia in reaction to the increased foreign support of the Syrian government.[141][142] This increased support by Jordan and Saudi Arabia to opposition forces led to the rebel capture of Bosra in late March[55] and the rebel takeover of the Nasib border crossing with Jordan at the beginning of April.[143]

In the opinion of Jeffrey White from the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, the offensive "produced small gains with substantial regime casualties" and the intervention of government allies, due to its declining capabilities, could not change the outcome.[144]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Resistance front" and "third front" are also used

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Syrian Rebellion Obs on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Syria dissident groups still not united - Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 17 July 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
  3. ^ a b "ISIS and Syria's Southern Front". Middle East Institute. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
  4. ^ "Backed by Iran and Hezbollah, Syrian Forces Claim Victory Near Israeli Border - The Tower". The Tower. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  5. ^ a b c "Syrian opposition claims capture of female Russian soldier". Times of Israel. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  6. ^ "Aymenn J Al-Tamimi on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  7. ^ "New militia battles Islamist rebels near Damascus". Associated Press. 8 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  8. ^ a b c "Syria opposition forces claim regime attack in Daraa futile". Al Monitor. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  9. ^ a b c d sohranas. "26 members of the regime forces and allied militiamen killed today". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Archived from the original on 15 September 2015. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  10. ^ a b c d "Elijah J. Magnier on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  11. ^ a b "Defense minister rallies troops in snowy Deraa". The Daily Star Newspaper - Lebanon. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  12. ^ "Clashes and bombardment continue in the triangle of Dar'a-Quneitra-Reef Diamshq". Retrieved 11 March 2015.
  13. ^ "archicivilians on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  14. ^ "Elijah J. Magnier on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  15. ^ "PICTURES REPORTEDLY PLACE IRANIAN GENERAL IN DARAA". Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  16. ^ sohranas. "Mustafa Bader al- Din and Qasem Solaymani lead the military operations in the south of Syria". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  17. ^ a b "شُيّع في الشاغور.. مقتل أبرز شبيحة الاسد في القنيطرة". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  18. ^ a b "Elijah J. Magnier on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  19. ^ "Thomas van Linge on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  20. ^ a b "Iran mourns 7 Afghans killed fighting for Damascus ally". The Daily Star Newspaper - Lebanon. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  21. ^ a b c d e Leith Fadel. "The Syrian Army begins an offensive in northern Dara'a". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  22. ^ a b "Map: The Military Situation in North of Daraa Province & SouthWest of RifDimashq Province - February 12, 2015". archicivilians. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  23. ^ a b "Iran Comes to the Israeli Border". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  24. ^ 42 killed (9 February),[1] [2] 59 killed (10 February),[3] [4] 12 killed (13 February),[5] 19 killed (14 February),[6] 20 killed (16 February),[7] 22 killed (19 February),[8] 120 killed (15 March),[9] total of 294 reported killed
  25. ^ a b c d The Christian Science Monitor. "Syrian rebels' march on Damascus becomes fight for their survival (+video)". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  26. ^ a b Leith Fadel. "Patience is a virtue; Syrian Army launches an offensive in Al-Quneitra". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  27. ^ Leith Fadel. "Hezbollah and Syrian Army capture village near the Golan Heights". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  28. ^ Leith Fadel. "Southern Front Offensive (Update): Syrian Air Force reenters the battle". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  29. ^ a b "Iran mourns 7 Afghans killed fighting for Syria's Assad". Middle East Eye. 5 March 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  30. ^ a b "Scores dead in heavy fighting in southern Syria". Daily Star Lebanon. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  31. ^ "الحرس الثوري الإيراني يعدم 12 عنصراً من قوات الأسد". Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  32. ^ "New Al-Quneitra offensive gets off to a fast start". Al-Masdar News. 22 July 2015.
  33. ^ Noe, Nicholas (12 February 2015). "The Battle for Southern Syria Has Been Joined and a Regional Conflict May Just Be the Main Event". Huffington Post. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  34. ^ a b Herzog, Michael (5 March 2015). "The next battle in the Israel-Hezbollah war is unfolding in southern Syria". Business Insider UK. The Washington Institute For Near East Policy. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  35. ^ a b Perry, Tom; Al-Khalidi, Suleiman (2 April 2015). "As regional war rages, Syria's Assad faces setbacks". Reuters. Retrieved 14 April 2015. But the offensive stalled after some early but limited gains
  36. ^ a b Leith Fadel. "Southern Front (Dara'a) Syrian Army and Hezbollah are Creeping Closer to Tal Al-Harra". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
  37. ^ "Jabhat al-Nusra looks for battlefield breakout". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 31 March 2015. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
  38. ^ Solomon, Erika; Kerr, Simeon (13 April 2015). "Syria's rebels heartened by healing of Sunni Arab rifts". Financial Times. Retrieved 13 April 2015. In the south, opposition forces foiled an offensive led by regime allies from Hizbollah, the Lebanese Shia militia, and military advisers from Iran's Revolutionary Guard. The opposition has now set its sights on Derra
  39. ^ Blanford, Nicholas (21 August 2011). "Can Syria's Assad withstand latest battlefield setbacks? (+video)". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 22 April 2015. Furthermore, regime offensives launched in the southern provinces of Deraa and Quneitra and Aleppo in the north have proved unsuccessful.
  40. ^ Lucas, Scott (29 April 2015). "Syria Daily, April 29: Assad Regime — "The Media Are Lying About Rebel Victories"". EA Worldview. Retrieved 30 April 2015. In the past three months, the rebels have [...] checked another regime offensive south of Damascus
  41. ^ Kozak, Christopher (29 April 2015). "These are the Assad's regime's 4 biggest military goals in the Syrian Civil War". Business Insider. Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 30 April 2015. Unsuccessful regime attempts to once again shift its campaign towards Dera’a and Quneitra Provinces starting in December 2014 indicated that overall regime offensive capabilities in southern Syria may be waning despite fresh influxes of Iranian proxies to the frontlines.
  42. ^ Chulov, Martin; Shaheen, Kareem (27 April 2015). "Syrian rebels hail fall of Jisr al-Shughour as sign of growing strength". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 April 2015. Earlier this year, loyalist offensives in Aleppo, northern Damascus and southern Syria were similarly defeated within days.
  43. ^ Perry, Tom (14 April 2015). "Southern Syria rebels set collision course with al Qaeda". Reuters. Retrieved 14 April 2015. [The Southern Front] has seized a border crossing and a government-held town in recent weeks after weathering a government offensive
  44. ^ Sly, Liz (26 April 2015). "Assad's hold on power looks shakier than ever as rebels advance in Syria". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 April 2015. [...] government forces have been proving increasingly ineffective. The collapse of two much-trumpeted offensives earlier this year, in southern Syria and in Aleppo, presaged the success of the recent rebel offensives
  45. ^ "Exclusive: The spy who fooled the Assad regime". The National. 20 March 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  46. ^ Leith Fadel. "Northern Dara'a: Syrian Army and Hezbollah Advancing Towards Tal Al-Harra". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  47. ^ "الصحافة اليوم 12-02-2014: الجيش السوري يتقدم على الجبهة الجنوبية- أرشيف موقع قناة المنار". Al-Manar.
  48. ^ Kais, Roi (11 February 2015). "Assad, Hezbollah, and Iran's onslaught towards Israel". Ynetnews. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  49. ^ Dick, Marlin (13 February 2015). "Many players in the Deraa campaign". The Daily Star. Retrieved 17 February 2015. the regime and its allies intend to 'open a second front of resistance' against Israel on the Golan Heights
  50. ^ "In Syria, a New Battlefront Opens". Stratfor. 13 February 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2015. From Hezbollah's point of view, gaining a stronger position in the Golan Heights also serves its objectives towards Israel. If the offensive is successful, they will likely sustain a presence there
  51. ^ Issacharoff, Avi (16 February 2015). "As Hezbollah fights on Golan, borders are redrawn". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 18 February 2015. on the geopolitical level, Hezbollah is trying to implement the vision only recently introduced by its leader, Hassan Nasrallah, according to whom the Syrian Golan Heights and South Lebanon are a united front
  52. ^ "Roundup: 5,000 Hezbollah, Iranian fighters spearhead battles near Israeli borders". Global Post. Xinhua News Agency. 14 February 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2015. Analysts also said that Hezbollah want to show Israel that it's capable of posing threats to its borders, not only in Lebanon, but also in the Golan Heights
  53. ^ "Iran forming 'third front' against Israel on Golan: Netanyahu". The Daily Mail. AFP. 22 February 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2015. Iran is seeking to open a "third front" against Israel using Hezbollah fighters on the Syrian Golan Heights, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said on Sunday
  54. ^ "Syrian Army Regains Ground from Rebels in the South". Al Akhbar English. Archived from the original on 11 February 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  55. ^ a b Williams, Sarah Elizabeth (25 March 2015). "Iran Comes to the Israeli Border". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 4 April 2015. On March 25, reportedly supported by an influx of arms from their international backers, a coalition of rebel groups were able to seize the Daraa town of Bosra al-Sham from the Syrian regime and its allies
  56. ^ Ahmad. "161 قضوا أمس، بينهم 57 من قوات النظام والمسلحين الموالين لها، و61 من الكتائب المقاتلة والكتائب الإسلامية وجبهة النصرة وتنظيم "الدولة الإسلامية". - المرصد السورى لحقوق الإنسان". المرصد السورى لحقوق الإنسان. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  57. ^ Master. "Islamic battalions target regime forces in Dar'a and Hama". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  58. ^ sohranas. "11 fighters killed in Daraa today". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  59. ^ sohranas. "The regime forces open fire and shell areas in the countryside of Daraa and al- Quneitera". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  60. ^ "archicivilians on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  61. ^ "الجزيرة: معارك الريف الغربي ولقاء مع قائد ميداني لألوية الفرقان". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  62. ^ Master. "Clashes continue in Dar'a and Reef Dimashq, more human losses". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  63. ^ Master. "4 rebels killed by clashes in Der al-Adas, Dar'a". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  64. ^ sohranas. "The regime forces, backed by Hezbollah and Iranian fighters, clash with the rebel and Islamic factions in Daraa". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  65. ^ Leith Fadel. "Syrian Army's offensive in northern Dara'a is in full-swing". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  66. ^ "Elijah J. Magnier on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  67. ^ "archicivilians on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  68. ^ Leith Fadel. "Daraa: Syrian Army ambush rebels". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  69. ^ Master. "8 rebels killed by an ambush by regime forces in Dar'a countryside". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  70. ^ Master. "8 fighters killed in Der al-Adas town". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  71. ^ "Elijah J. Magnier on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  72. ^ a b "Syrian government launches offensive against rebels in south". Reuters. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  73. ^ a b "Hezbollah, Iran back south Syria offensive". 10 February 2015. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  74. ^ Master. "Regime forces backed by Hezbollah and Iranian fighters advance in Reef Dimashq". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  75. ^ "archicivilians on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  76. ^ a b Leith Fadel. "Northern Dara'a Map: Syrian Army captures Deir Al-'Adass". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  77. ^ Master. "Hezbollah, Iranian fighters, and regime forces take control on Der al-Adas town". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  78. ^ "Elijah J. Magnier on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  79. ^ "Thomas van Linge on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  80. ^ a b Master. "Regime forces and Hezbollah take control on 2 hills in Damascus countryside". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  81. ^ "Syrian Troops, Hezbollah Launch Major Offensive Near Golan". ABC News. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  82. ^ "Elijah J. Magnier on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  83. ^ "Syrian Army Continues Campaign in South, Controls More Areas". AL-Manar. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  84. ^ "Elijah J. Magnier on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  85. ^ "Peto Lucem on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  86. ^ Master. "Hezbollah gain control on Der Maker, Clashes continue between Dar'a and Damascus countrysides". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  87. ^ "markito0171 on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  88. ^ "Syria rebels call for help against Assad as death toll rises". 12 February 2015. Archived from the original on 12 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  89. ^ "Elijah J. Magnier on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  90. ^ "Sam on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  91. ^ "Elijah J. Magnier on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  92. ^ "archicivilians on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  93. ^ "Elijah J. Magnier on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  94. ^ "Map: The Military Situation in North of Daraa Province & SouthWest of RifDimashq Province - February 12, 2015". archicivilians. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  95. ^ Master. "Human losses in Eastern Ghouta and Clashes in Dar'a countryside". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  96. ^ "Photographers and reporters of a TV channel were wounded in Daraa". SOHR. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  97. ^ "5 آلاف مقاتل من إيران وحزب الله في جنوب سوريا". SOHR. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  98. ^ Leith Fadel. "Al-Nusra Front launches counter-attack near Deir Al-'Adass". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  99. ^ "After 5 days, Regime air forces targets areas in Dar'a countryside". SOHR. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  100. ^ a b "Rebels begin revenge campaign in Aleppo". The Daily Star. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
  101. ^ Leith Fadel. "Breaking: Hezbollah takes control of Syria Tel Hill in Al-Quneitra". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  102. ^ sohranas. "The Nusra Front announces start of "Tawhid al- Raya" battle". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  103. ^ Leith Fadel. "Dara'a : Al-Nusra Front attempts to counter at Deir Maker". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  104. ^ Leith Fadel. "Al-Quneitra: Hezbollah inching closer to the Israeli border". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  105. ^ Leith Fadel. "Dara'a: the Al-Nusra Front suffers setbacks as Hezbollah advances south". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  106. ^ المرصد السوري. "اشتباكات في ريف دمشق الجنوبي الغربي وفي أطراف مخيم اليرموك". المرصد السورى لحقوق الإنسان. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  107. ^ Leith Fadel. "Al-Quneitra: The Syrian Army and Hezbollah Restart Operations in the Province". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  108. ^ sohranas. "Hezbollah tries to seize the town of al- Hamidiyyi". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  109. ^ Leith Fadel. "Southern Front: Fierce Clashes Flood Al-Quneitra and Dara'a". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  110. ^ "Syrian army takes villages in south". Reuters. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  111. ^ a b Leith Fadel. "Breaking: Syrian Army and Hezbollah Capture 3 Towns in Northern Dara'a". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  112. ^ "Elijah J. Magnier on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  113. ^ Master. "Hezbollah advances and take control on 3 towns and villages". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  114. ^ sohranas. "19 fighters of the rebel and Islamic factions killed in clashes in the north of Daraa". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  115. ^ "Battle Map of Dara'a: Syrian Army and Hezbollah Sweeping Through the Northern Countryside". Al-Masdar. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  116. ^ Master. "Clashes in Dar'a and Hasakah countrysides". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  117. ^ "Conflict Reporter on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  118. ^ h.said. "Army wrests control of key towns in several provinces". Retrieved 11 March 2015.
  119. ^ Leith Fadel. "Syrian Army and Hezbollah Begin Phase II of Southern Front Offensive". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  120. ^ "قناديل وطن (5)..يزيد جرجوس". Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  121. ^ Master. "Clashes and bombardment continue in the triangle of Dar'a-Quneitra-Reef Diamshq". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
  122. ^ "Syrian Air Force Strike Kills 120 Nusra Front Militants in Golan Heights". Sputnik News. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  123. ^ Leith Fadel. "Dara'a: Syrian Army and Hezbollah Advance at Kafr Nissaj". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  124. ^ Master. "20 killed in Dar'a and Reef Dimashq". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  125. ^ sohranas. "24 people killed in Daraa yesterday, while the helicopter drop barrel bombs on al- Yarmouk Camp for the third day respectively". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  126. ^ Master. "11 rebels killed by clashes and ambushed in Dar'a and Quneitra". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  127. ^ sohranas. "More people killed in Daraa, and the government forces shell areas in Rif Dimashq and Damascus". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  128. ^ "Breaking: Syrian Army Captures 5 Villages in NE Daraa". Al Masdar. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  129. ^ "Syrian Rebellion Obs on Twitter".
  130. ^ "Syrian Army has gained full control over five towns in Dara". Documents.Sy. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  131. ^ "36 air strikes on Dar'a since this morning". SOHR. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  132. ^ a b Editorial, Reuters. "Syrian army says seizes villages in Deraa, cuts rebel supply line".
  133. ^ "مدير المرصد في حديثه عن المعارك في ريف درعا الشمال الشرقي". SOHR. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  134. ^ "Dozens killed in fighting in southern Syria, activists say - PostBull…". 22 April 2015. Archived from the original on 22 April 2015.
  135. ^ a b 37 fighters from rebel and Islamic battalions killed during clashes in Dar’a Archived 23 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  136. ^ "Syrian Armed Forces Attempt to Disrupt Rebel Supply Route in NE Dara'a". 21 April 2015.
  137. ^ The government troops retreat from the vicinity of Bosra al- Harir town after they lose 22 members at least Archived 24 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  138. ^ "Syrian Army Enters Busra Al-Hareer in Northeast Dara'a". 22 April 2015.
  139. ^ "Assad sacks head of Military Security". The Daily Star. 19 March 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  140. ^ "Ex-Syria spy chief in Lebanon Rustom Ghazaleh has died". The Daily Star. 24 August 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2015. He did not say when Ghazaleh passed away, but that medical sources told him the ex-spy chief had been clinically dead for weeks, following a severe head injury suffered about two months ago.
  141. ^ "As regional war rages, Syria's Assad faces setbacks". Reuters. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  142. ^ Perry, Tom (23 March 2015). "South Syrian rebels say Assad foes are supplying more arms". Reuters. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  143. ^ Perry, Tom; Al-Khalidi, Suleiman (2 April 2015). "Bruising week for Syria's Assad as troops beaten on multiple fronts by more assertive rebels". U.S. News & World Report. Associated Press. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  144. ^ White, Jeffrey (28 May 2015). "The Crisis of the Assad Regime". The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved 29 May 2015. Only where Hezbollah troops are directly committed to combat does the regime enjoy offensive success, and as the early spring 2015 fighting southwest of Damascus showed, not even that guarantees success.


This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by contributors (read/edit).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.

Destek